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Kim L Johnson
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– Molten-sal. SCIENCE –                                            
    (For a brief, non-technical  explanation of the Utmost Importance of Ms. to Mankind,  see how We may "Reverse the Rise" of acidic CO2 with this Powerful but Simple Science:

¶ Endowed with the very best chemical and materials sciences for true Economic Enablement of Thorium and REE (Rare Earth Elements), "Ms. Science" also possesses the Best Basis for a number of industrial processes.  
Ms. Sci (rhyming with "Sci Fi" but already  proven) needn't limit herself to only unlocking Thorium's Full Potential via the very flexible Molten-sal. Reactor.  
A.K.A. MSR, when one accounts for All Aspects of Energy ( E ), such as E Costs, Safety, Sustainability and especially Clean Chemistry,  the Ms. Reactor simply Cannot Be Beat:
 •  Principal Ms. Fuel – readily-bred U-233, formed in-situ  from cheap Th-232 – just happens to be the Least Feasible of Fissile, Nuke-Weapon-Wise.
 •  Compared to all other Economic E Sources, Ms.' minimal wastes, effluents & esp. CAPEX  leave the Very Lightest Footprints of All.
 •  Most important, Ms.' Main E Feedstock – Thorium, on which even 1st-generation MSR can run to tune of 60% + – shall remain ~Forever Abundant~,  Even after the Sun should bloat and become far too Large for Life on Earth !
                 ( Two Excellent introductory docs on the MSR are referenced in Note 1 )

¶ Thus in addition to the super-cheap Process Heat and thus very Affordable Power that Ms. Sci's simple "On-the-Fly" (thus low-cost) Ms. Processing  can provide Mankind with, Ms. Science shall also give rise to a Broad Range of very Affordable Processes – ones which are super-capable of accomplishing All of the Following:      (especially iff  the West will collaborate)

1.  Make Mining & Processing in the West  Sustainable and  Profitable, especially for metals more "electro+" than Manganese (i.e. Cr/Mo, V/Nb/U, Ti/Zr/Th, and especially REE & Actinides):
Through clever but simple chemistry, fluid but ~anhydrous (water-free) reagents – activated by Ms. Sci at a mere ~200ºC and sans corrosión – very efficiently and effectively will:
. . . • Digest a wide range of REE & Related Ores – Oxides, Phosphates, Silicates, Sulfides and the like.
. . . • Separate the desired metals with superior non-aqueous / non-combustible chemistry.
. . . • Accomplish All the above environmentally, without having to:
. . . . . . . • Use equipment-corrosive aqueous acids
. . . . . . . • Generate significant quantities of ~toxic~ waste water and tailings.

2.  Transform Heavy "HCs" – Hydrocarbons like Coal, Tar e/or Heavy/sour crudes – simultaneously into HC Liquids, like: 
. . • Clean Diesel
. . • Affordable Jet Fuel
. . • Organic Solvents/Chemicals
Synthesizing such Liquids, which will command far more value than Coal & Tar, will be quite economic, thanks to Ms. Hydrocracking's ∑ Avoidance of:
. . . • Combustion of Carbon and CO2 Emissions
. . . • Release of Sulfur, Mercury and/or Lead into our Environment
. . . • High-temperature and endothermic chemistry, especially super-penalizing CO (which is what makes SynGas and any Fischer-Tropsch therefrom so CAPEX- e E- Wasteful!).

3.  Permanent Liqüefaction of Natural Gas, Ethane & other volatile Hydrocarbons  via low-cost "Ms. processing".  The novel "Ms. Lîqua" ProcessML for short – along with Low E. & surprisingly-Low CAPEX can convert NG & otr. Lights to:
. . . •  *High-value Liquid* Hydrocarbons – namely Naphtha
. . . •  *Hydrogen* Gas as an "on-demand" 11% ML by-product:  Perfect for compact & highly E. efficient "Ms. Hydrocracking".
Thanks to the Highly-branched  (="high octane") structures of the
"HN" (Highly-branched Naphtha) formed by Homogeneous ML Catalysts (∑-ly Fluid & Poison-proof ),
the "Beneficiated Market Values" (MV) for:     
(1) All such HN;  
(2) the various Valuable Monomers made Easily d'HN via Very low-cost Ms. Waste heat;  and
(3) the even more prized engineered Polymers  should fetch cêrca:
       (1) 10,   (2) 20-50,  and (3) 30-300 TIMES the "as-is" MV of
           whatever ~inconvenient~ low-density Gas !

In summary, the surprisingly low-cost Process Heat and Power (ca. and 2.4¢ per kW-hr), the Sustainable Mining, plus the Freedom ~Forever~ from Foreign Oil – all of which Ms. Science shall make not merely Possible but highly Affordable to boot – shall rejuvenate the West Far Faster than all other feasible technologies, "artificial" non-market policies and/or gov't subsidies!
-------------  -------------  -------------  -------------  -------------  -------------  
Note 1:
Two great intro's to "LFTR" {Lîfter"}, the Liquid-Fluoride Thorium Reactor:
• Weinberg Foundation’s 6/2013 Summary on Ms. Reactors: 

For more on multiple and oft-complex aspects of Molten-salt Science, check out:

 • our Strategy for getting Industry On-Board And Aligned with Ms. Science, which you will Find in the First Link (after the first few paragraphs) of this "About" page: 

• the below G+ thread on "Learning about the best Thorium Chemistry..." 
Be sure to please read about the global threat of CHINA coming to Control the MSR,  to which Real Threat the U.S. "government" is either ObLîvious  or InDifferent.   (whatever the case, should China come to Win such control, the US Gov't will quickly become ∑ IRRÉLEVANT on the World Stage...)

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Upon reading about "the Will of the Swiss Pópulace" (& recallg What die EnergieVende has Wrott), I became even-More concerned for the Future (Eco-&-económic) Viabílity of ALL of Europe...

Is the Below actually & wirklich Wahr / Verdáde (truly True), +Urs Bolt​ ??
um Abraço,

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'tis True that Costco has some Awesome Policies for Sure,
Both for its Customers (see article below), asWell as inthe form of Bénefits for its Employees !!
+Claudia Johnson
+Brett Johnson
+Bryce Johnson
+Rebecca Johnson​

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Check out this excellent Wiki-Writeup of the new Beauty and the Beast below ! Its Live-Action version, which we just saw Saturday (3/18), was the Very BÉST cinematographic event that I have experienced in like TÉN Years 😀 - - - 😂 ...and I kid you Nót !! 

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This looks Interesting, if this new Star-Trek séries Be for Real !! 

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This New Netflix Sci-Fi series ('macht auf Deutschland but mit/in Englisch) look Rather /Siemlich interessant... 

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Last night I – with Interest – followed the following "Science Segment"
on our local PBS (Pub. Broadcast Service) affiliate here in Minnesota ! (!):

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Of especial interest to Minnesotans living near My town of Cottage Grove,
this Ace-HW store shall offer a Much >% d'Items "MadeInUSA“ than what the Low-paying ~100%-Sino-importer Menards has to offer !!

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Friends & Colleagues:
Here is Kim's Take on whether "China intends to own All the World's" (What-Ever, INDUSTRIALLY):
11Dec2016 Lara,
I particularly liked your Last line:
. . “China’s new strategy appears not to limit rare earth exports, but rather to extend its reach beyond its own borders such that even the non-Chinese production, is actually Chinese production.”

China has the Strategy to ultimately “Own ALL REEs” in addition to gaining Virtual CONTRÔL over Most of industrially “Essential Chemicals & Metals” – Globally and already, los Sinos make & control like Over 90%+ of HF & FluoroChemicals, 90%+ of Aluminum metal & alloys, etc...!

⇾ ⇾ this Sino Strategy is at ∑(tôtal) Ódds with the últimate “Industrial Sovereignty” (i.e., economic Survival) of the West and of “ROW” – Rest of World [those Outside of China].

However and Fôrtunately, there are some Solutions, which Fixes for our Sórry industrial state lie a couple-of-URL levels after the Following (which shows how Smart Sino leaders Really are):
–Kim / “Chem” E.
CC: +jim kennedy, +John Kutsch, +Lee Anderson(reàlment. Móttern), +Andres Onu, +Willie Zenk, +Cody Christianson, (e Many more...)

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an Éxcellent Writeup by Earth&Sky about the Pro's e Con's of the gradual-to-Rápid migration of Spruce trees & the like into the Northern Tundra of Alaska.
The article is, IMHO, Well worth Your reading!
⏳ ⌛ 😀 !! 
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