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Kim L. Johnson

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– Molten-sal. SCIENCE –                                            
    (For a brief, non-technical  explanation of the Utmost Importance of Ms. to Mankind,  see how We may "Reverse the Rise" of acidic CO2 with this Powerful but Simple Science:

¶ Endowed with the very best chemical and materials sciences for true Economic Enablement of Thorium and REE (Rare Earth Elements), "Ms. Science" also possesses the Best Basis for a number of industrial processes.  
Ms. Sci (rhyming with "Sci Fi" but already  proven) needn't limit herself to only unlocking Thorium's Full Potential via the very flexible Molten-sal. Reactor.  
A.K.A. MSR, when one accounts for All Aspects of Energy ( E ), such as E Costs, Safety, Sustainability and especially Clean Chemistry,  the Ms. Reactor simply Cannot Be Beat:
 •  Principal Ms. Fuel – readily-bred U-233, formed in-situ  from cheap Th-232 – just happens to be the Least Feasible of Fissile, Nuke-Weapon-Wise.
 •  Compared to all other Economic E Sources, Ms.' minimal wastes, effluents & esp. CAPEX  leave the Very Lightest Footprints of All.
 •  Most important, Ms.' Main E Feedstock – Thorium, on which even 1st-generation MSR can run to tune of 60% + – shall remain ~Forever Abundant~,  Even after the Sun should bloat and become far too Large for Life on Earth !
                 ( Two Excellent introductory docs on the MSR are referenced in Note 1 )

¶ Thus in addition to the super-cheap Process Heat and thus very Affordable Power that Ms. Sci's simple "On-the-Fly" (thus low-cost) Ms. Processing  can provide Mankind with, Ms. Science shall also give rise to a Broad Range of very Affordable Processes – ones which are super-capable of accomplishing All of the Following:      (especially iff  the West will collaborate)

1.  Make Mining & Processing in the West  Sustainable and  Profitable, especially for metals more "electro+" than Manganese (i.e. Cr/Mo, V/Nb/U, Ti/Zr/Th, and especially REE & Actinides):
Through clever but simple chemistry, fluid but ~anhydrous (water-free) reagents – activated by Ms. Sci at a mere ~200ºC and sans corrosión – very efficiently and effectively will:
. . . • Digest a wide range of REE & Related Ores – Oxides, Phosphates, Silicates, Sulfides and the like.
. . . • Separate the desired metals with superior non-aqueous / non-combustible chemistry.
. . . • Accomplish All the above environmentally, without having to:
. . . . . . . • Use equipment-corrosive aqueous acids
. . . . . . . • Generate significant quantities of ~toxic~ waste water and tailings.

2.  Transform Heavy "HCs" – Hydrocarbons like Coal, Tar e/or Heavy/sour crudes – simultaneously into HC Liquids, like: 
. . • Clean Diesel
. . • Affordable Jet Fuel
. . • Organic Solvents/Chemicals
Synthesizing such Liquids, which will command far more value than Coal & Tar, will be quite economic, thanks to Ms. Hydrocracking's ∑ Avoidance of:
. . . • Combustion of Carbon and CO2 Emissions
. . . • Release of Sulfur, Mercury and/or Lead into our Environment
. . . • High-temperature and endothermic chemistry, especially super-penalizing CO (which is what makes SynGas and any Fischer-Tropsch therefrom so CAPEX- e E- Wasteful!).

3.  Permanent Liqüefaction of Natural Gas, Ethane & other volatile Hydrocarbons  via low-cost "Ms. processing".  The novel "Ms. Lîqua" ProcessML for short – along with Low E. & surprisingly-Low CAPEX can convert NG & otr. Lights to:
. . . •  *High-value Liquid* Hydrocarbons – namely Naphtha
. . . •  *Hydrogen* Gas as an "on-demand" 11% ML by-product:  Perfect for compact & highly E. efficient "Ms. Hydrocracking".
Thanks to the Highly-branched  (="high octane") structures of the
"HN" (Highly-branched Naphtha) formed by Homogeneous ML Catalysts (∑-ly Fluid & Poison-proof ),
the "Beneficiated Market Values" (MV) for:     
(1) All such HN;  
(2) the various Valuable Monomers made Easily d'HN via Very low-cost Ms. Waste heat;  and
(3) the even more prized engineered Polymers  should fetch cêrca:
       (1) 10,   (2) 20-50,  and (3) 30-300 TIMES the "as-is" MV of
           whatever ~inconvenient~ low-density Gas !

In summary, the surprisingly low-cost Process Heat and Power (ca. and 2.4¢ per kW-hr), the Sustainable Mining, plus the Freedom ~Forever~ from Foreign Oil – all of which Ms. Science shall make not merely Possible but highly Affordable to boot – shall rejuvenate the West Far Faster than all other feasible technologies, "artificial" non-market policies and/or gov't subsidies!
-------------  -------------  -------------  -------------  -------------  -------------  
Note 1:
Two great intro's to "LFTR" {Lîfter"}, the Liquid-Fluoride Thorium Reactor:
• Weinberg Foundation’s 6/2013 Summary on Ms. Reactors: 

For more on multiple and oft-complex aspects of Molten-salt Science, check out:

 • our Strategy for getting Industry On-Board And Aligned with Ms. Science, which you will Find in the First Link (after the first few paragraphs) of this "About" page: 

• the below G+ thread on "Learning about the best Thorium Chemistry..." 
Be sure to please read about the global threat of CHINA coming to Control the MSR,  to which Real Threat the U.S. "government" is either ObLîvious  or InDifferent.   (whatever the case, should China come to Win such control, the US Gov't will quickly become ∑ IRRÉLEVANT on the World Stage...)
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at Least for me, an "Energy-Sávi" Chemical engineer, (‡)
"o Acto" da China Enshrining Xi as su (poténcially) "Life-long Leader Supreme" bodes Badly for the "West" ...
...because a "Pêrmanent Sino Président" as embodied by the Highly technically-Cléver Xi-Jinping "should" be and/or Would-be espéshly Worrisome to the United States, were "she Not so Damn Dumbed-Down" :
  ➾ our Country has become industrially retarded (=éconómicly Léss compétitiv), due to her L o n g decline in practically-ALL industrial tecnólogies, espesh in "E" Técs que be Clean and AFÔRDABLE (i.e., o MSR): !

Chem E

(‡) if You may be wondering why this-here Chem E happens to be so Worried about o Xi vérsus o-Leadership d'un Rápid-declining U.S., the "leadership" ofthe Latter is basically Sole-ly comprised of "Políticos cõm Backgrounds q. be Based in neither Industry nor Manufacturing"...!

But way ~Back 'nos Séventies o Xi –como Fréshly-minted Sino chem E began helping form a "Factory Future" for China q. foi Far-brighter than what os-Sinos had éver Seen befôr !

And thus o Xi rose quite Rápid-ly Up thru the ranks of China's New-industrial Management. Having First secured his Leadership-roots Firmly inthe Sino System como líder Proven to "Lead competently while getting Great things-Técnicos Done," o Tec-Clèveríssimo Xi continues to fund** Númerous Sino Prôgrams of Industrial Capture–globál". . . . .

**(to the Tune of Billions if nót Trillions of Dólars per Âno... ): (!) !
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This is (Said with a British Flair) "a deLightful In-troe to the (Cléver) Cháractas" that I've come to appreciate during the recent Second season of "Victoria" MasterPiece, PBS !!
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Many of us who Care about Better Human living standards have been pushing for Energy that Mankind can sustain and afford for the LONG Term.
But furthermore, we have known for a long time about the Fact that the Federal Government of our (definitely Declining) Country has done nearly Nothing to encourage Any-thing even remotely a-Kin to the above, Energy-wise !

Thus, this August-2017 Exposé –researched by various U.S. Universities– Certainly serves to reinforce this Fact (!):
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This about the Netflix series "the Crown" is well worth the Read - - mi spôsa & I shall miss Claire Foy as Queen Elizabeth after the series' Second season ends afters 2018 !!
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Dear Prof. Matt Strassler,
Thanks a Million for explaining what takes place when two Giant Balls of Neutrons merge!

I have Always wondered just How the s- & r-processes respectively in Stars & Supernovas for adding more Neutrons to Nuclei heavier than Férro could've "endowed" our Solar System's "rocky" members with So much "rad" Potassium, Uranium & esp. Thorium that the Earth, Venus (&, earlier, Mars) have been able to keep their Férro-cores mostly-Molten...

Thanks to "Big n-Ball“ Mergers, and to Earth's speedy rotation in the Bést direction (vs. Venus's Retro-grade cêrca 200-X SLOWER), Our planet has a Moving Mantle, plus some Strong "Mag protection" from the Otherwise errôsive Sôlar Wind.

Contrast our "Living" Planet to present Mars, whose Fe Core has Long-ago Frozen and whose Lack of magnetic field has allowed Most of its Former liquid Water & Atmosphere to be irretrievably Lóst...

--Kim / Chem. Engineer

regarding Earth's Vast supplies of Easy-Access Thorium (whose conc. is ~4 times that of Uranium-238 and ~560 TIMES that of U-235! ),
here is How we Humans may Best avail-ourSelves of its Super abundant Th-232: !!
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Hey pessoál (people-Out-There), regarding the "Good" Place, I can vouch for its being an ábsolute Riot !!
–Kim J. / o-Engenheiro Quím
Cc: +Claudia Johnson +Shawn Wachter +Andres Onu +Shawn Wachter
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Looks like at least to Me, that spot-on Rod Adams, when doing his now-deFunct Co., had tried to push (& Still continues to)
Power-Turbomachinery that's More aKin to the Beautiful Brayton cycle than to (Old-fash'd) Steam turbines... ¡ !
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I recall the superb performance of Brian Stokes Mitchell in South Pacific, which aired on PBS back in 2006!! !
¿ Anyone know of another musical or more starring Mitchell that's on Netflix or the like ??
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an Excellent piece on the former Soviet Union's Tzar Bomba !!
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