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Bernd Einfeldt
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Bernd Einfeldt

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"Turkey plans to complete a Syrian border wall by early 2017, an official has said. Turkey has been under pressure to better seal its porous frontier with Syria."

"The daily Milliyet reported the estimated cost of the wall and road at nearly 600 million euros ($673 million)."

See also: "Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, speaking to reporters late Sunday, acknowledged that the agreement, under which Europe will provide 3 billion euros, about $3.2 billion, and other inducements in return for Turkish help on migrants, would not immediately halt the flow of asylum seekers from the Middle East and elsewhere. But Ms. Merkel said it would help “keep people in the region” and out of Europe"

Turkey plans to complete a Syrian border wall by early 2017, an official has said. Turkey has been under pressure to better seal its porous frontier with Syria.
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"The trip wasn’t quite what I had expected,” one of Crystal Serenity’s 1,000 passengers told The Bangor Daily News about the 32-day cruise. “Because of global warming this year, the ice has melted so much that actually we had to look for ice rather than try to avoid it.”

"The stories of these two voyages capture the profound changes underway as the Arctic feels the heat-trapping effects of accumulating greenhouse gas emissions more than any place on the planet. This is partly because, as the sea ice melts, the ocean absorbs more of the sun’s energy, causing the water to heat up further."

"NASA scientists say 2016 is on track to be the warmest year in modern history, with 2015 and 2014 ranking as the second- and third-warmest. For the Arctic Ocean, the current year will tie with 2007 as having the second-smallest ice expanse measured since satellite monitoring began in 1979, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. The smallest was in 2012."

Two voyages to the Northwest Passage, separated by nearly two centuries, underscore the big changes underway in the Arctic as the planet warms.
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Hey sup
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"The Earth acts as a giant engine that uses solar power to move air in the atmosphere and water in the oceans. This engine drives the water cycle, the movement of water from the oceans to the atmosphere by evaporation, from the atmosphere to the land by precipitation, and from the land back to the oceans by rivers and streams. The water cycle, the subject of a multi-part series of stories beginning today, provides nearly all the fresh water consumed by plants and animals. The cycle begins when the top one meter of the ocean absorbs sunlight. Heat from the sunlight is then dispersed within the top 100 meters of the ocean by waves. These 100 meters of ocean can absorb a lot of heat without much change in temperature. In fact, the ocean cools off very little at night. The land, however, is heated to less than one meter deep. Land temperature changes rapidly, even from night to day. The animations below show multiple views of the solar heating of the oceans, a dynamic picture of this vital first stage of water's cyclical journey from sea to air to land, and back again."

With other words. The oceans are an element which keeps the earth climate (in a certain sense) stable, rather than the atmosphere. Changes in the oceans, will result in climate changes.

See more at
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Love it - thanks for sharing the straight up reason we need clean waters on grandmother earth!
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A German newspaper says former EU competition chief Neelie Kroes failed to disclose her interest in an offshore firm; source DW
Tax havens are on earth not in haven. The Bahamas tax haven will also be seriously effected by rising sea levels; see also and and
But I think global money will simply be moved somewhere else - until there is no place remaining on earth, which is not effected by the climate shift, while millions of people left behind, becoming desperate refugees.

From the DW article: "The venture was funded by a private equity investor in the United Arab Emirates."

By the way: A member of the European parliament's on Budgets and a member of the Delegation for relations with the Maghreb countries and the Arab Maghreb Union (including Libya) was accused years ago of plagiarism in her doctoral thesis.
On the other hand, some scientist whose work is still quoted after decades could not even make a living from scientific work. From a personal perspective does it not pay off to understand the changing real world, understanding tax havens and human laws makes more sense.

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Global environmental climate warming is a problem which need to be addressed by peoples all over our world; we shared the same environmental problems which need immediate solutions, please help us, Oh G0D.
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"How do the ocean and the atmosphere relate to each other with regard to climate?"

"Susan Avery: In our planetary system we have two major fluids, the ocean and the atmosphere. Think of them as two dance partners. In order to get a choreographic dance, they have to talk to each other through the “ocean-atmosphere interface” - which is wave motion, spray and all the other things that help them communicate. The two create different dances: an El Nino dance, a hurricane dance. In reality what they do together is transport heat, carbon and water, which are the major global cycles in our planetary system."

From a mathematical point of view these fluids, the oceans and the atmosphere, are governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The interfaces between these two fluids is an "unstable" material interface, in the sense that small disturbances can grow into an violent storm. These interfaces are not modeled adequately by the Navier-Stokes and still subject of current research. The difference between the HLLE scheme, which I proposed as a young doctorate, and classical methods based on Riemann solver is just the modeling of the interface. I took decades before it was at least partially accepted, that the mathematical description of material interfaces in the Navier-Stokes equations is incomplete.


"So our seas are able to absorb a massive amount of heat?

Yes. The atmosphere is a gas, the ocean is a mass of liquid, which covers two thirds of our planet. It has a huge capacity to store heat, but that heat doesn't just stay at the surface. When you only talk about heat and temperatures at the surface, you're ignoring what's happening below the surface in the ocean, and once the ocean gets heated it's not going to stay there, because there is this fluid motion, and so we're getting to see greater and greater temperature increases at greater and greater depths. And once that heat gets into the ocean, it can stay there for centuries. Whereas in the upper ocean it might stay 40 or 50 years, when you get into the deeper parts, because of the density and capacity, it stays there for a long time".

.. the oceans are a stabilizing factor in our climate and ecosystem. I think most people invest today more money in the maintenance of air-conditioner in there cars and homes, than in the conservation of the oceans. For a stable climate however, the oceans are more important.

"People who don't live on the coast think the ocean is not affecting them, when really it does. It affects them in many ways. I think we have to articulate what the ocean does, in terms of providing services to you as a human being. Every second breath you take comes from the ocean, so you should thank the ocean just for your ability to breathe. Thank the ocean for helping regulate our climate and rain patterns, thank the ocean for the fish and food supply it provides – and perhaps not over-fish it so much, so you can sustain that wonderful resource. Thank the ocean for filtering a lot of pollution. A little oyster can filter so many toxins out of our water systems."


"What's in the Arctic is not staying in the Arctic. What's in the Antarctic is not staying in the Antarctic. I would say the polar regions are regions where we don't have a lot of time before we see major, massive changes, where we really need to get our observations and science and models working together."

....get our observations and science and models working together. A decades old question and it will remain a question, if the mathematical challenges are further hided in computer programs.
The World Conservation Congress - the largest environment decision-making forum - is taking place in Hawaii. Ocean and climate change are high on the agenda. UN advisor Susan Avery tells DW why the two go together.
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Very useful
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"In the now published study, Lelieveld and his colleagues first compared climate data from 1986 to 2005 with predictions from 26 climate models over the same time period. It was shown that the measurement data and model predictions corresponded extremely well, which is why the scientists used these models to project climate conditions for the period from 2046 to 2065 and the period from 2081 to 2100."

Are these computer models based on mathematical equations? What is the difference between these climate models? If the governing mathematical equations are known, why was it necessary to look at many different climate models?

As I wrote in the last post a typical sign for unstable (non-smooth) changes in an non-linear periodic system are increased amplitudes for periodic events. This is what the report describes in a quite dramatic way:

From the report: "The number of climate refugees could increase dramatically in future. Researchers of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry and the Cyprus Institute in Nicosia have calculated that the Middle East and North Africa could become so hot that human habitability is compromised. The goal of limiting global warming to less than two degrees Celsius, agreed at the recent UN climate summit in Paris, will not be sufficient to prevent this scenario. The temperature during summer in the already very hot Middle East and North Africa will increase more than two times faster compared to the average global warming. This means that during hot days temperatures south of the Mediterranean will reach around 46 degrees Celsius (approximately 114 degrees Fahrenheit) by mid-century. Such extremely hot days will occur five times more often than was the case at the turn of the millennium. In combination with increasing air pollution by windblown desert dust, the environmental conditions could become intolerable and may force people to migrate."

If these results are correct, then these countries require new technologies for a life in an even hotter climate and not high performance fossil fuel cars for the upper class. However it seems that available resources in these countries are used to buy into the stock market, organize world wide sport events and develop non-climate resistance city and agriculture infrastructures.

For a discussion of free climate migration read also

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"Typhoon Megi is the most recent in a string of storms that have battered Taiwan this year. The category 4 storm left more than 2.9 million Taiwanese without power to their homes and businesses, the Associated Press reported. In Taiwan, several deaths and more than 250 injuries have been reported so far. The Focus Taiwan News Channel posted a photo of a steeply leaning utility pole and windblown wreckage against a dark sky."
The storm is the most recent is the fourth to have battered Taiwan in recent weeks.
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There has been an increase in hurricanes with global warming. It's just that they're happening in the Pacific instead of the Atlantic. This gives english speaking climate change deniers a half assed excuse to pretend there isn't a problem. Asians, are just trying to live with the damages.
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"On average, an asteroid with a diameter of 500 m (1,600 ft; 0.31 mi) can be expected to impact Earth about every 130,000 years or so. A 2010 dynamical study by Andrea Milani and collaborators predicted a series of eight potential Earth impacts by Bennu between 2169 and 2199. The cumulative probability of impact is dependent on physical properties of Bennu that were poorly known at the time, but was not found to exceed 0.071% for all eight encounters. The authors recognized that an accurate assessment of 101955 Bennu's probability of Earth impact would require a detailed shape model and additional observations (either from the ground or from spacecraft visiting the object) to determine the magnitude and direction of the Yarkovsky effect.
After the publication of the shape model and astrometry based on radar observations obtained in 1999, 2005, and 2011, it was possible to estimate the Yarkovsky acceleration and to revise the impact assessment. The current (as of 2014) best estimate of the impact probability is a cumulative probability of 0.037% in the interval 2175 to 2196. This corresponds to a score on the Palermo scale of −1.70. If an impact were to occur, the expected kinetic energy associated with the collision would be 1200* megatons. However, the most likely target for a future impact is with Venus rather than Earth." ( Source )

*The most destructive H-bombs have a explosive power of 25 megatons ( )

"NASA's first asteroid sampling mission launched into space on September 8, 2016, beginning a journey that could revolutionize our understanding of the early solar system. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is designed to rendezvous with, study, and return a sample of the asteroid Bennu to Earth. Asteroids like Bennu are remnants from the formation of our solar system more than 4.5 billion years ago. Scientists suspect that asteroids may have been a source of the water and organic molecules for the early Earth and other planetary bodies—and an uncontaminated asteroid sample from a known source would enable precise analyses. In 2018, OSIRIS-REx will approach Bennu and begin an intricate dance with the asteroid, mapping and studying Bennu in preparation for sample collection. In 2020, the spacecraft will perform a daring maneuver in which its 11-foot arm will reach out and perform a five-second "high-five" to stir up surface material. At least 2 ounces of small rocks and dust will be collected and placed in a sample return container that will be returned to Earth for study in 2023. Watch the video to learn more."

Read also
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Fortunately, it was no gamma-ray burst!

The HLLE solver, I proposed decades ago as a young doctorate, is today an part of some astrophysical simulation frame works; see for example "Black hole-neutron star merger for 10M black holes" (*) - so far I only glanced through the paper.
However, further work remained unpublished, after I gave up scientific work for a normal life. Among others, work on the integration of quantum mechanical principles in the HLLE solver, which I think requires a revision of the underlying equations.

*The reference is made erroneously to the article "On Upstream Differencing and Godunov-Type Schemes for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws". This
review article contains a one-dimensional theory of Godunov-type schemes, which I referenced in my HLLE paper - for the HLL scheme this is simply the application of the integral form of the conservation laws. This Godunov-type theory includes also unstable schemes with carbuncle instabilities. No stability considerations are included in this article and no algorithm for the signal speeds in the HLL scheme is given. The definition of the signal speeds given in my article "On Godunov-Type Methods for Gas Dynamics" results in the HLLE scheme.
You can't find a good job as a young doctorate, if people ignore your work or erroneously reference other articles. The Godunov-type theory was never successfully extended to multi-dimensions.

Read also: "On the disruption of weather pattern and an old experiment in an laboratory" ( ‪‬ ).
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Numerical simulation are the basis for modern weather forecasts and very valuable for our society. Because the earth weather is in an unstable phenomenon, the prediction are limited to a short period of time (days, sometimes weeks), as mentioned in the video from 2010. Even if limited to days, this is an amazing achievement.
However, climate simulations require long term predictions, thus I think they cannot be based on the same underlying mathematical equations.

From the video: "The climate models that are run at the NCCS are numerical expression of the various processes that make up the climate."

Are different numerical climate models compared on the basis of the underlying mathematical equations?

Are these models at all always based on mathematical equations or do they contain subroutines, which only the team which implemented it understands?

Are the underlying numerical methods stable?

Bringing data from observations together is important, but it creates an database and not necessary an physical simulation.

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good will hunting? he owns mathematical equations!
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"I cannot understand why the office, which should carefully analyze each and every passport, is unable to distinguish these fake passports," he said. "We cannot accept this given the current situation and security in our country."
A state attorney general has said he wants to seize records from the Federal Migration Office over the possible use of fake passports by refugees entering Germany. The issue has stirred tensions in Merkel's coalition.
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Have you ever played Papers, Please?
That's how they must feel…
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Related to the mathematical comment in the last post:

"The destructive power of the typhoons that wreak havoc across China, Japan, Korea and the Philippines has intensified by 50% in the past 40 years due to warming seas, a new study has found."

"The researchers warn that global warming will lead the giant storms to become even stronger in the future, threatening the large and growing coastal populations of those nations."

"It is a very, very substantial increase,” said Prof Wei Mei, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, who led the new work. “We believe the results are very important for east Asian countries because of the huge populations in these areas. People should be aware of the increase in typhoon intensity because when they make landfall these can cause much more damage.”

"Scientists are not yet able to determine whether manmade climate change or natural cycles are to blame for the warming seas in the region because 40 years is a relatively short time span for such phenomena. But Wei is clear that the future global warming, as projected by the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, would heat the oceans in the region and lead to even more intense typhoons."

... see also

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Bernd's Collections
  • RWTH Aachen
    Doctorate in Mathematics, 1985 - 1988
  • University of Hamburg
    Mathematics, 1985
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The Digital World is Merely an Approximation to Reality.
I am from a lower middle class family in Hamburg, Germany. Grown up in a quite suburb, with some green spaces, where kids could meet to play soccer, build a treehouse or test there self-made toy kites and bows. Studied mathematics in Hamburg, Germany and received a doctorate in natural science from the  RWTH Aachen, Germany with summa cum laude. Published a few papers which are still quoted after twenty years in scholarly journals. Spend an postdoctoral year in England. Left the scientific field and worked for almost two decades as a big-storage consultant. However, I am probably more an intellectual than a sales person and stopped working as an IT consultant, when this was financially possible.

Watch out for spelling errors in my posts. If you care more about perfect orthography than content, then this is probably not the right blog for you. 

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Bernd Einfeldt's +1's are the things they like, agree with, or want to recommend.
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