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Thomas Bolden
I am a serious computer builder and love electronics, physics and mathematics. I have great compassion for Philosophy, Logic and Religion
I am a serious computer builder and love electronics, physics and mathematics. I have great compassion for Philosophy, Logic and Religion

Thomas's posts

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Gizmodo: Researchers Just Answered One of the Big Questions About How Black Holes Form.

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Lincoln's Second Inauguration Address should hold cause to reflect upon our current Presidential race.


AT this second appearing to take the oath of the Presidential office there is less occasion for an extended address than there was at the first. Then a statement somewhat in detail of a course to be pursued seemed fitting and proper. Now, at the expiration of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly called forth on every point and phase of the great contest which still absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of the nation, little that is new could be presented. The progress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as well known to the public as to myself, and it is, I trust, reasonably satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no prediction in regard to it is ventured.
On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it, all sought to avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war—seeking to dissolve the Union and divide effects by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came.
One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was somehow the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union even by war, while the Government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it. Neither party expected for the war the magnitude or the duration which it has already attained. Neither anticipated that the cause of the conflict might cease with or even before the conflict itself should cease. Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes His aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God's assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men's faces, but let us judge not, that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered. That of neither has been answered fully. The Almighty has His own purposes. "Woe unto the world because of offenses; for it must needs be that offenses come, but woe to that man by whom the offense cometh." If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him? Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago, so still it must be said "the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether."
With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.


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Layers of the Atmosphere

The five basic layers of the atmosphere. The envelope of gas surrounding the Earth changes from the ground up. Five distinct layers have been identified using...

1. thermal characteristics (temperature changes),
2. chemical composition,
3. movement, and
4. density.

Each of the layers are bounded by "pauses" where the maximum changes in thermal characteristics, chemical composition, movement, and density occur.

The troposphere begins at the Earth's surface and extends up to 4-12 miles (6-20 km) high. This is where we live. As the density of the gases in this layer decrease with height, the air becomes thinner. Therefore, the temperature in the troposphere also decreases with height. As you climb higher, the temperature drops from about 62°F (17°C) to -60°F (-51°C). Almost all weather occurs in this region.

The height of the troposphere varies from the equator to the poles. At the equator it is around 11-12 miles (18-20 km) high, at 50°N and 50°S, 5½ miles and at the poles just under four miles high. The transition boundary between the troposphere and the layer above is called the tropopause. Together the tropopause and the troposphere are known as the lower atmosphere.

The Stratosphere extends from the tropopause up to 31 miles above the Earth's surface. This layer holds 19 percent of the atmosphere's gases but very little water vapor.

Temperature increases with height as radiation is increasingly absorbed by oxygen molecules leading to the formation of Ozone. The temperature rises from an average -76°F (-60°C) at tropopause to a maximum of about 5°F (-15°C) at the stratopause due to this absorption of ultraviolet radiation. This increase is temperature with height means no "convection" occurs since there is no vertical movement of the gases.

The transition boundary which separates the stratosphere from the mesosphere is called the stratopause. The regions of the stratosphere and the mesosphere, along with the stratopause and mesopause, are called the middle atmosphere by scientists.

The mesosphere extends from the stratopause to about 53 miles (85 km) above the earth. The gases, including the oxygen molecules, continue to become thinner and thinner with height. As such, the effect of the warming by ultraviolet radiation also becomes less and less leading to a decrease in temperature with height. On average, temperature decreases from about 5°F (-15°C) to as low as -184°F (-120°C) at the mesopause. Average temperature profile for the lower layers of the atmosphere - click to enlarge However, the gases in the mesosphere are still thick enough to slow down meteorites hurtling into the atmosphere, where they burn up, leaving fiery trails in the night sky.

The Thermosphere extends from the mesopause to 430 miles (690 km) above the earth. This layer is known as the upper atmosphere.
The gases of the thermosphere are increasingly thinner than in the mesosphere. As such, incoming high energy ultraviolet and x-ray radiation from the sun, absorbed by the molecules in this layer, causes a large temperature increase.

Because of this absorption, the temperature increases with height and can reach as high as 3,600°F (2,000°C) near the top of this layer; however, despite the high temperature, this layer of the atmosphere would still feel very cold to our skin because of the extremely thin air. The total amount of energy from the very few molecules in this layer is not enough to heat our skin.

The Exosphere is the outermost layer of the atmosphere. It extends from the thermopause - the transition boundary which separates the exosphere from the thermosphere below - to 6,200 miles (10,000 km) above the earth. In this layer, atoms and molecules escape into space and satellites orbit the earth.


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The seven states of matter explained
Were you taught that there are three states of matter? Maybe four? Get ready to dispute those teachings because there are no less than seven. 
Solid, liquid and gas – these are the physical states most people know. The lesser-known state plasma consists of highly charged particles with extremely high kinetic energy.
But then there's ...
Bose-Einstein condensate: a state of matter that occurs very close to absolute zero. At this extremely low temperature, molecular motion almost stops and atoms begin to clump together.
Quark-gluon plasma: the state of matter with the highest energy level. It is basically the building blocks of matter existing in a soup resembling conditions just after the Universe was created.
Degenerate matter: the highly compressed state of matter which often exists in the cores of massive stars. The core's gas is super compressed and the primary source of pressure is no longer thermal, but quantum.
For more on these mind-boggling states of matter check out the video below. 

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Ghost in th Shell is back. Transhumanism is a discussion point for the future of mankind. 

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The top 10 military blunders in history
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