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Bernier Cast Metals, Inc
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Industry leading Sand Casting
Industry leading Sand Casting

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EXPECTATIONS FOR GROWTH

As the American Foundry Society rolled out its annual economic forecast in January, the numbers were more encouraging than in recent years. AFS is projecting sales growth of 4.7% in 2018, followed by another 1.8% growth in 2019, for the overall market. Coming on the heels of an estimated 2.7 percent growth in 2017, the industry is looking at its strongest three-year period of rising sales in quite some time.

Auto sales are generally projected to back off slightly from recent high-water marks, which has implications for metalcasters whose business is primarily auto-related. But many other end-markets for complex castings are in upward trends. The AFS-backed tax reform law should drive more business investment. If Congress increases infrastructure investment, that too could be a welcome shot in the arm.

Concurrent with sales growth, it’s a good time to grow the skills base on your foundry floor. Recent AFS surveys show the skills shortage remains a major challenge. Vacancies can be difficult to fill. Some applicants fail drug tests, or quickly lose interest in the job. Therefore, each employee who shows up on time and demonstrates an ability to do the vital work of the foundry is increasingly valuable.

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Metals

Introduction: The discovery of metals was the stepping stone towards civilization. The metal are known to man form the pre biblical times and different civilizations used the metal to make products for religious, hunting, weapon, house hold and ornamental purpose. Now, man is dependent on metal for cooking to traveling. A separate department called the metallurgy studies the entire process of working the metals for various applications.

Pure metal are chememical element, that cannot be further broken down into other substance. There are hundreds of such substances, of which some are found in the free stare and other are found in combination with silicon or other elements. Metals are generally shiny, strong, hard, brittle and good conductors of electricity. But, they have varying amount of each properties. Some metal like mercury are found in the liquid state on the other hand metals like lithum are very heavy.

Each element has its own characteristics according to which they can be used for different purposes. Some are malleable which means they can be streched and pulled while other are ductile which means that they can be hammered and squeezed.

Metallurgy: Metallurgy is the science of metals which deals with the extraction, purification, alloying, heat treatment and working of ore. Since metals plays an important part in all type of activities, metallurgical is an important division of science studies. The metallurgy department has been divided mainly into three branches- extraction metallurgy which deals with the extraction of metals, physical metallurgy which deals with the structure and properties and production metallurgy which deals with designing and finishing the the metal into useful products. The entire process of extracting the metal from the ore to shaping them into products is known as metal working.

Metalworking Process: The main process involved in extracting the ore is to melt the ore by heating. Some ores are found relatively pure in nature and others are to be extracted from the complex ores. Different method are used to remove the impurities like pounding the metal to chip of Metals the impurities or by reshaping the raw ores. However, the predominantly used method is of melting the ores andseperating the metal from the other elements. The removal of impurities can be done two times. First, when the ingot is made near the mines and the second time when the intro is melted for reworking at the craft production sits away from the source of the ore. When the metal is melted at a high temperature the molten metal gets deposited in the bottom and the impurities better know as slag floats on the top.The process of removing the metal from the impurities is known as smelting. After which the extracted metal is shaped into blocks or bars that is known as ingots so that it is easy for storage, transportation and further processes. Eg. of smelting is when copper or is reduced to copper through mixing carbon with the ore and heating the combination. Casting and forging are the most widely used method for shaping the metals into different products.

Forging: Also known as hammering method, forging are of two types hot hammering and cold hammering methods. Softer metals like copper and bronze can be shaped into weapon or other items by just hammering. But metal like irons are to be heated so they are soft enough to be shaped into the required form. When the metal is heated the crystalling structure in weakened, therefore the finished product eg. sword in plunged into water so that the crystal structure is restored and the product becomes hard.

Casting: The most widely used metalworking method, casting can be done only if the metal is completely melt. Therefore, iron came later into use, because iron cannot be melted at ordinary temperature and other sophisitcated methods are required to melt it. From the prebiblical time lost wax techniques was prevalently used and even today in some part of India this technique is used to cast broze product like idols and stautes.

Alloys: Metals in its pure state generally does not satisfy the properties required for casting. Hence, in most cases metal have to comb lined with other element so that they acquire favorable qualities for the product like strength, ductility, malleability, etc. In an alloy, two or metal combine to form a new metal that has all the properties required for a particular application. Aluminum for instance is light in weight but soft and ductile. When aluminum is combined with other metals, the alloy formed is still light weight, but stronger, harder and resistant to corrosion. The realization of the wide application of alloys was the main reason for the industrial revolution.

The alloying process: The process of alloying helps in bettering the physical properties of the main metal that is used like iron and steel. During the alloying process the main changes happens in the engineering properties like ductility and malleability and to some extent in physcial properties like density, reactivity, etc. The scientific reason behind the change is properties in because the smaller atoms are tightly compressed by the foces of the larger atoms. Since the alloy is a mixture of two or more metals it does not have an single melting point. There is a melting range, which is known as the liquidus point in the metal melts.

Metals used for alloying: Alloys can be made of one or more metals. The main metal used are aluminum, copper, iron etc. and the alloying metals used with them are tin, zinc, molybdenum, etc. In many cased the alloy is better known by the main material metal that it constitutes of. For eg. an iron rod is made from an alloy but it is known by the name of its main component iron. The metals and alloys used for metal casting are broadly divided into ferrous metals and alloy that contain iron, and non ferrous metals and alloys that does not contain iron.

Ferrous: The word ferrous is used generally to indicate the presence of iron in the metal sor in alloys. Iron in its pure state is soft but with the addition of carbon it becomes stron. Pig iron and steel have some percentage of carbon present. Other metals are also added to form alloys. All ferrous metals are magnetic and give little resistance to corrosion. Ferrous metal and alloys are used in a wide range of applications. carbon steel, allloy steel, tool steel etc.

Non-Ferrous: These are metal or alloys that does not cotain iron, or has iron is an neligible quantity. They are non magnetic and more resistant to corrosion than ferrous metals. Non-ferrous metals pplay an important role in the overall sustainable development of society. Therefore, many countries give prime importance to the study of the minining, production and recycling of non -ferrous metals. Examples are aluminium, copper, lead. zinc and tin.

Structure of metals: The structure of a metal and its metallic porperties are determined by the bonding that is formed betweem the the atoms. This is known as metallic bonding. Properties like ductility, malleability and surface finish are determined by the metallic bonding and the presence of free electrons in the crystal lattice.
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Aluminum Casting Processes

Aluminum is one of the few metals that can be cast by all of the processes used in casting metals. These processes, in decreasing order of amount of aluminum casting, are: die casting, permanent mold casting, sand casting (green sand and dry sand), plaster casting, investment casting, and continuous casting. Other processes such as lost foam, squeeze casting, and hot isostatic pressing are also mentioned.

Aluminum is one of the few metals that can be cast by all of the processes used in casting metals. These processes, in decreasing order of amount of aluminum casting, are: die casting, permanent mold casting, sand casting (green sand and dry sand), plaster casting, investment casting, and continuous casting. Other processes such as lost foam, squeeze casting, and hot isostatic pressing are also mentioned.

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A Quick Guide to Ferrous Metals

This article gives an overview of ferrous metals, what they are and how they're made

There are several common types of ferrous metals such as mild steel, stainless steel and cast iron.

Ferrous metals are highly versatile. Read this article to learn about their applications and advantages and disadvantages of ferrous metals

Have you noticed how some materials rust over time, due to prolonged exposure to the environment? Those materials invariably contain iron and are called ferrous metals. Ferrous metals are those that contain considerable amounts of iron. (The Latin name of iron is Ferrum, and hence, metals containing iron are ‘ferrous’).

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Foundries

Introduction: A foundry is where the elaborate metal casting process takes place. A metal foundry may specialize in making one particular item or a variety of products using different alloys. Based on the production requirement, there are small foundries that employ few people and large Foundariesindustrial foundries that employ thousands of workers.

History: Foundry operations of the present day is an outcome of thousands of years of experimenting with different metals and casting methods. Very little documented evidence of casting and foundry operations are available of the ancient time. The proof of castings are in the form of jeweleries, household items and religious times that were unearthed during excavations or preserved as historic relics.

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Metal Casting Definition, Types and Processes

Casting is a method where a solid material is dissolved, heated to suitable temperature (generally treated to change its chemical structure), and is then added into a mold or cavity, which keeps it in a proper form during solidification. As a result, in just one step, complex or simple designs can be created from any material that can be dissolved. The end product can have nearly any setting the designer needs.

For any casting procedure, choice of right alloy, sizing, shape, thickness, tolerance, structure, and weight, is really important.
Special needs such as, magnetism, deterioration, stress distribution also have an impact on the selection of metal casting process.
Opinions of the tooling manufacturer; foundry / machine house requirements, customer's exact product needs, and secondary procedures like paint work, must be addressed before choosing the right metal casting process.

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Components for Pumps & Valves

A variety of casting methods are used for making the components for pumps and valves. They can be done using either ferrous or non-ferrous casting methods.

Using Ferrous Casting
Pump and Valve components can be cast using the following processes malleable iron casting, gray iron casting and ductile iron casting.

Advantages of each of the casting methods are enumerated below that makes them suitable for pump and valve components.

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Automobile Casting Equipment

The automobile industry offers a huge market for the cast products using ferrous, non-ferrous metals and its alloys. Various casting methods are used to produce automobile accessories that are light in weight, easy to maneuver, and cheap.

Zinc Die Casting and Aluminum Die Casting are two most popularly used processes to produce automobile casting equipment.

Zinc Die Casting :
By using a method of Zinc Die Casting a host of automobile equipment can be manufactured as seen from the following figure:

Aluminum Die Casting :
Automobile equipment are generally made of aluminum die castings. They offer the following benefits:

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http://www.themetalcasting.com/automobile-casting-equipment.html
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Continuous casting, also referred to as strand casting, is a process used in manufacturing industry to cast a continuous length of metal. Molten metal is cast through a mold, the casting takes the two dimensional profile of the mold but its length is indeterminate. The casting will keep traveling downward, its length increasing with time. New molten metal is constantly supplied to the mold, at exactly the correct rate, to keep up with the solidifying casting. Industrial manufacture of continuous castings is a very precisely calculated operation. Continuous casting can produce long strands from aluminum and copper, also the process has been developed for the production of steel.

The Process
Molten metal, from some nearby source, is poured into a tundish. A tundish is a container that is located above the mold, it holds the liquid metal for the casting. This particular casting operation uses the force of gravity to fill the mold and to help move along the continuous metal casting. The tundish is where the operation begins and is thus located high above ground level, as much as eighty or ninety feet. As can be seen, the continuous casting operation may require a lot of space.

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Continuous Casting
Continuous Casting
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The Metal Casting Operation
Pouring, Fluidity, Risers, Shrinkage And Other Defects

In the previous section the fundamentals of the metal casting process, as the basic starting point for metal fabrication and part manufacture, were covered. Setup and design of a system to perform a casting operation was explained. Main topics were molds, patterns, cores, and the elements of a gating system. In this section we will explain the operation itself. We will begin by assuming that there is a mold with a proper gating system in place and prepared for the metal casting operation.

Pouring of the Metal:

When manufacturing by metal casting, pouring refers to the process by which the molten metal is delivered into the mold. It involves its flow through the gating system and into the main cavity (casting itself).
Goal: Metal must flow into all regions of the mold, particularly the casting's main cavity, before solidifying.

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The Metal Casting Operation
The Metal Casting Operation
thelibraryofmanufacturing.com
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