We do have evidence of Gauls (described by J. Caesar as wearing huge f-ing animals on their heads), ancient Germans and many knights wearing headgear with adornments on them. They are usually worn as psychological warfare instruments, or as ways of connecting with one's gods or spiritual beliefs. Still, most scholars these days think the Vikings wearing horns is largely a myth from what I have read.
I also read the whole church vs Galileo controversy is a misconception. Trying to remember exact details, but it was more of a power struggle and personality conflict. Copernicus had already posited a heliocentric solar system and had been embraced by Jesuits. The struggle with Galileo is similar to the "religious" war between religious and atheistic zealots today. That Galileo calling it fact (when in fact a heliocentric solar system could not be proven given the technology at the time) and using it to "disprove" the factual basis of the Bible. Factions of religious people took issue with this. In fact, Galileo was wrong in the fact that he believed his calculations proved a heliocentric "universe." Which we know is wrong. His imprisonment was not over his theory, but over being and jerk. And by imprisoned, we mean forced to live in the lap of luxury and not go out be an jerk whenever you want.