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Sandy B
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If a man loses pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, howev
If a man loses pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, howev

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This is such a fantastic clip of a rattail fish.
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Thank you, +Tiffao 티파니! Mini Me is going to love this! #SantaGift +Secret Santa
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"Taking a close look at the neural systems of mantis shrimp, top arthropod predators of the coral reef, researchers led by Nick Strausfeld at the University of Arizona and Gabriella Wolff, now at the University of Washington, discovered brain structures that -- according to textbook wisdom -- shouldn't be there.

Known as mushroom bodies, these structures, which play a key role in forming memories and learning, had only been found in insects -- until now. The findings appear to question the most commonly held scenario retracing how brain structures evolved in arthropods.

Since it has been universally accepted that insects evolved from crustaceans, and mushroom bodies are exclusive to insects (or so it seemed), most biologists agree that these unique brain structures evolved after the insect lineage split off from the crustacean lineage.

The implications of the study, which is published in the open-access journal eLIFE, point to one of two possible scenarios, both equally likely to stir up a buzz in the scientific community. According to Strausfeld, a Regents' Professor in UA's Department of Neuroscience and the senior author on the paper, one interpretation suggests that mushroom bodies are much more ancient than scientists realized and were lost in almost all crustaceans except mantis shrimp, a group known as stomatopods that are the sister group of crustaceans such as shrimp, lobster and crabs. In the other scenario, mushroom bodies evolved independently in stomatopods and are analogous to their counterparts in insects, through a process known as convergent evolution.

Comprising more than 4 million species, arthropods are the largest and most diverse group of animals, including crustaceans, insects and spiders. All arthropods are thought to descend from a common ancestor, most likely a creature that inhabited the ocean floor more than 550 million years ago. The exact branching of the arthropod family tree at that early time remains murky, a sketchy picture veiled by the layers of deep time and gaps in the fossil record.

By visualizing cells and neural connections in the brains of mantis shrimp, the authors of the study show that among crustaceans, only mantis shrimp possess true mushroom bodies. Intriguingly, though, they also found some attributes of these iconic structures in close relatives of the mantis shrimp: cleaner shrimp, pistol shrimp and land-living hermit crabs".

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Researchers are now using drones to unobtrusively watch blue whale feeding behavior.
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The artistry of a puffer fish
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