Profile

Cover photo
Gilbert Micallef
134,139 views
AboutPosts+1'sReviews

Stream

Gilbert Micallef

Shared publicly  - 
1
Add a comment...

Gilbert Micallef

Shared publicly  - 
 
 
*OK,  COME OUT, QUICK! OOPS OUCH!  NOW I AM STUCK!
#LOL   #FUNNY   #CATURDAY   #cutenessoverload   #CATINABOX  
15 comments on original post
1
Add a comment...

Gilbert Micallef

Shared publicly  - 
1
Add a comment...

Gilbert Micallef

Shared publicly  - 
 
 
♂ A Love Story That Will Make You Cry ♀
59 comments on original post
1
Add a comment...

Gilbert Micallef

Shared publicly  - 
 
True?
1
Add a comment...

Gilbert Micallef

Shared publicly  - 
 
 
awesome guy destroys violent frozen lake, after it tried to take his beloved dog.
134 comments on original post
2
Add a comment...
 
 
Lance Abernethy has created what he claims is the world's smallest working power drill using his 3D printer.
Lance Abernethy has created what he claims is the world's smallest working power drill using his 3D printer.
8 comments on original post
1
Add a comment...

Gilbert Micallef

Shared publicly  - 
 
 
Earthquake OMG!




Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, chemical and gustatory.

The communication modalities used by domestic cats have been affected by domestication.


Vocalizations

Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.

Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).

Brown et al. categorised vocal responses of cats according to the behavioural context: (1) during separation of kittens from mother cats, (2) during food deprivation, (3) during pain, (4) prior to or during threat or attack behavior, as in disputes over territory or food, (5) during a painful or acutely stressful experience, as in routine prophylactic injections and (6) during kitten deprivation. Less commonly recorded calls from mature cats included purring, conspecific greeting calls or murmurs, extended vocal dialogues between cats in separate cages, “frustration” calls during training or extinction of conditioned responses.

Miller classified vocalisations into 5 categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/snarl/hiss.


Purr

The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic cat kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.

The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partly because cats do not have a unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the vocalization. One hypothesis, supported by electromyographic studies, is that cats produce the purring noise by using the vocal folds and/or the muscles of the larynx to alternately dilate and constrict the glottis rapidly, causing air vibrations during inhalation and exhalation. Combined with the steady inhalation and exhalation as the cat breathes, a purring noise is produced with strong harmonics. Purring is sometimes accompanied by other sounds, though this varies between individuals. Some may only purr, while other cats include low level outbursts sometimes described as "lurps" or "yowps".

Domestic cats purr at varying frequencies. One study reported that domestic cats purr at average frequencies of 21.98 Hz in the egressive phase and 23.24 Hz in the ingressive phase with an overall mean of 22.6 Hz. Further research on purring in four domestic cats found that the fundamental frequency varied between 20.94 and 27.21 Hz for the egressive phase and between 23.0 and 26.09 Hz for the ingressive phase. There was considerable variation between the four cats in the relative amplitude, duration and frequency between egressive and ingressive phases, although this variation generally occurred within the normal range.

One study on a single cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) showed it purred with an average frequency of 20.87 Hz (egressive phases) and 18.32 Hz (ingressive phases). A further study on four adult cheetahs found that mean frequencies were between 19.3 Hz and 20.5 Hz in ingressive phases, and between 21.9 Hz and 23.4 Hz in egressive phases. The egressive phases were longer than ingressive phases and moreover, the amplitude was greater in the egressive phases.

It was once believed that only the cats of the genus Felis could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tigers, lions, jaguars and leopards) also produce sounds similar to purring, but only when exhaling. The subdivision of the Felidae into ‘purring cats’ on the one hand and ‘roaring cats ’ (i.e. non-purring) on the other, originally goes back to Owen (1834/1835) and was definitely introduced by Pocock (1916), based on a difference in hyoid anatomy. The ‘roaring cats’ (lion, Panthera leo; tiger, P. tigris; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus) have an incompletely ossified hyoid, which according to this theory, enables them to roar but not to purr. On the other hand, the snow leopard (Uncia uncia), as the fifth felid species with an incompletely ossified hyoid, purrs (Hemmer, 1972). All remaining species of the family Felidae (‘purring cats’) have a completely ossified hyoid which enables them to purr but not to roar. However, Weissengruber et al. (2002) argued that the ability of a cat species to purr is not affected by the anatomy of its hyoid, i.e. whether it is fully ossified or has a ligamentous epihyoid, and that, based on a technical acoustic definition of roaring, the presence of this vocalization type depends on specific characteristics of the vocal folds and an elongated vocal tract, the latter rendered possible by an incompletely ossified hyoid.





Meow

The meow is one of the most widely known vocalizations of domestic kittens. It is a call apparently used to solicit attention from the mother.

Adult cats commonly vocalise with a "meow" (or "miaow") sound, which is onomatopoeic. The meow can be assertive, plaintive, friendly, bold, welcoming, attention soliciting, demanding, or complaining. It can even be silent, where the cat opens its mouth but does not vocalize. Adult cats do not usually meow to each other and so meowing to human beings is likely to be an extension of the use by kittens.








Language differences

Different languages have correspondingly different words for the "meow" sound, including miau (Belarusian, Croatian, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, Lithuanian, Malay, German, Polish, Russian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish and Ukrainian), mnau (Czech), meong (Indonesian), niau (Ukrainian), niaou (?????, Greek), miaou (French), nya (??, Japanese), miao (?, Mandarin Chinese, Italian), miav/miao or mjav/mjau (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian), mjá (Icelandic), ya-ong (??, Korean), ????? / Miya?un_ (Urdu) and meo-meo (Vietnamese). In some languages (such as Chinese ?, mao), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.

Read more : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_communication

#gif #cats #animals #caturday #caturdayeveryday #caturday2014 #catsrule #catsallovertheworld #catholic #catlovers #animallovers #animalphotography #catphotography #catphotos #catpictures #catpics #lol #funny #funnypics #funnypictures #funnyphotos #funnystuff #ANNIMATEDGIFS   #trendingnow   #lolcats
491 comments on original post
1
Add a comment...
Story
Tagline
Always Worried :-s
Basic Information
Gender
Male
Relationship
Married
Other names
Gillu
Apps with Google+ Sign-in
Gilbert Micallef's +1's are the things they like, agree with, or want to recommend.
Pine Wood Theme
chrome.google.com

A modern theme for Google Chrome, suitable for resolutions up to 2560x1600.

XBMC - Istream Xunitytalk New Source ( Fix )
www.vdubt25.co.uk

Hi guys welcome again to another tutorial and in this tutorial i'm just going to show you how to update to the new xunitytalk source fo you

Ads & PR
plus.google.com

Internet Marketing Agency; Advertising and Public Relations

Wildlife in Nature
plus.google.com

Photos of natural wildlife

Disney Parks
plus.google.com

Where dreams come true!

MAKE
plus.google.com

MAKE unites, inspires, informs, and entertains a growing community of resourceful people who undertake amazing projects in their backyards, basements, and garages. Each summer, we're excited to offer Maker Camp right here on Google+.

Toyota Malta
plus.google.com

Having sold the very first Toyota in Europe in 1960, Michael Debono Ltd has been established for 52 years and is the first Toyota distributorship in Europe. We offer a one stop shop outlet to our customers, from passenger cars to specialised commercial vehicles and forklifts, outstanding after-sales and a state of the art car body repair center.

LEGO
plus.google.com

Inspire and develop the builders of tomorrow

Mariko
plus.google.com

Funny Womens, Woman Fails, Woman Accidents, Funny and Fail Videos, Hidden camera ...

AircraftProfilePrints.com
plus.google.com

AircraftProfilePrints.com™ is your one stop source for Museum Quality Custom Aircraft Profile Prints onto your wall, into your office & ready room.

US Military Videos & Photos
plus.google.com

Photos and Videos of the US Military, Thousands of them!

Asus Chromebook
plus.google.com

Asus Chromebook News. Chromebook life. Asus style.

Amazon Music
plus.google.com

CDs, Vinyl Records, MP3s, Live Streams, and More.

Geeks are Sexy
plus.google.com

Tech, Science, Entertainment, and Social News by Geeks, for Geeks. We Make Technology Sexy!

I recommend this for special occasions. Very good food and excellent service.
Public - 2 years ago
reviewed 2 years ago
2 reviews
Map
Map
Map