is look liked history time ).
Portrait of Napoleon in his forties, in high-ranking white and dark blue military dress uniform. In the original image He stands amid rich 18th-century furniture laden with papers, and gazes at the viewer. His hair is Brutus style, cropped close but with a short fringe in front, and his right hand is tucked in his waistcoat.
The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries, by Jacques-Louis David, 1812
Emperor of the French
1st reign 18 May 1804 – 11 April 1814
Coronation 2 December 1804
Predecessor Position created
Napoleon was previously First Consul of the French Republic (1799–1804)
Successor Position abolished
Louis XVIII (Bourbon Restoration)
2nd reign 20 March 1815 – 22 June 1815
Predecessor Position re-created
Successor Position abolished
Louis XVIII (Bourbon Restoration)
King of Italy
Reign 17 March 1805 – 11 April 1814
Coronation 26 May 1805
Predecessor Charles V (King in 1556)
Napoleon was previously President of the Italian Republic (1802–1805)
Successor Victor Emmanuel II (King in 1861)
Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine
Reign 6 August 1806 –
4 November 1813
Predecessor Francis II (Held equivalent post as Holy Roman Emperor)
Successor Francis I (Came on to hold equivalent post as President of the German Confederation)
Spouse Joséphine de Beauharnais
Marie Louise of Austria
Issue Napoleon II
House House of Bonaparte
Father Carlo Buonaparte
Mother Letizia Ramolino
Born 15 August 1769
Ajaccio, Corsica, France
Died 5 May 1821 (aged 51)
Longwood, Saint Helena
Burial Les Invalides, Paris, France
Religion Roman Catholicism – (see Religions section)
Imperial coat of arms
Napoléon Bonaparte (/nəˈpoʊliən, -ˈpoʊljən/; French: [napɔleɔ̃ bɔnapaʁt], born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and its associated wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and again in 1815. Napoleon dominated European affairs for over a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, rapidly gaining control of continental Europe before his ultimate defeat in 1815. One of the greatest commanders in history, his campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide and he remains one of the most celebrated and controversial political figures in Western history. In civil affairs, Napoleon implemented foundational liberal reforms in France and across Europe. He established a system of public education, abolished the vestiges of feudalism, emancipated Jews and other religious minorities, enacted legal protections for an emerging middle class, and centralized state power at the expense of religious authorities. His lasting legal achievement, the Napoleonic Code, has been adopted in various forms by a quarter of the world's legal systems, from Japan in Asia to Quebec in North America.
Napoleon was born in Corsica, just one year after the island had passed to France from the Genoese Republic, to a relatively modest family of noble Italian ancestry from Tuscany. Serving in the French army as an artillery officer, Napoleon supported the Revolution from the outset in 1789 and tried to spread its ideals to Corsica, but was banished from the island in 1793. Two years later, he saved the French government from collapse by firing on the Parisian mobs with cannons, an event known as the 13 Vendémiaire. The Directory then appointed him as General of the Army of Italy at age 26. After marrying Joséphine de Beauharnais in 1796, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and their Italian allies, scoring a series of decisive victories that made him famous all across Europe. In 1798 he commanded a military expedition to Egypt, conquering the Ottoman province after defeating the Mamelukes and launching modern Egyptology through the discoveries made by his army.
The Directory collapsed when Napoleon and his supporters engineered a coup in November 1799. He was installed as First Consul of the Consulate and gradually extended his political control over France. With the Concordat of 1801, Napoleon restored the religious powers of the Catholic Church but retained its landed wealth in the hands of the French state. He also signed the short-lived Treaty of Amiens with the British in 1802, ending the Revolutionary Wars. The Senate eventually declared him the Emperor of the French in 1804, setting the stage for the French Empire. Intractable differences with the British meant the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph at the Battle of Austerlitz, which led to the elimination of the Holy Roman Empire after the Peace of Pressburg. In October 1805, however, a Franco-Spanish fleet was destroyed at the Battle of Trafalgar, allowing Britain to impose a naval blockade of the French coasts. In retaliation, Napoleon established the Continental System in 1806 to cut off European trade with Britain. The Fourth Coalition took up arms against him the same year because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. After quickly knocking out Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, Napoleon turned his attention towards the Russians and annihilated them in 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. Friedland forced the Russians to accept the Treaties of Tilsit, the high water mark of the French Empire.
Hoping to extend the Continental System, Napoleon invaded Iberia and declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War, noted for its brutal guerrilla warfare, lasted six years and culminated in an Allied victory over the French. Fighting also erupted in Central Europe as the Austrians launched another attack against the French in 1809. Napoleon defeated them at the Battle of Wagram, dissolving the Fifth Coalition formed against France. After the Treaty of Schönbrunn in the fall of 1809, he divorced Josephine and married Austrian princess Marie Louise in 1810. By 1811, Napoleon ruled over 70 million people across an empire that had domination in Europe, which had not witnessed this level of political consolidation since the days of the Roman Empire. He maintained his strategic status through a series of alliances and family appointments. He created a new aristocracy in France while allowing for the return of nobles who had been forced into exile by the Revolution.
Escalating tensions over rising Polish nationalism and the economic effects of the Continental System led to renewed confrontation with Russia. To enforce his blockade, Napoleon launched an invasion of Russia in 1812 that ended in catastrophic failure for the French. In early 1813, Prussia and Russia joined forces to fight against France, with the Austrians also joining this Sixth Coalition later in the year. In October 1813, a large Allied army defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig. The next year, the Allies launched an invasion of France and captured Paris, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April 1814. He was exiled to the island of Elba. The Bourbons were restored to power and the French lost most territories they had conquered since the Revolution. However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and returned to lead the French government, only to find himself at war against another coalition. This new coalition decisively defeated him at the Battle of Waterloo in June. He surrendered to the British who imprisoned him on the remote island of Saint Helena. His death in 1821, at the age of 51, was received by shock and grief throughout Europe. In 1840, a million people witnessed his remains returning to Paris, where they still reside at Les Invalides.