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Top row - Archimedes, Aristotle, Ibn al-Haytham, Leonardo da Vinci,Galileo Galilei, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek;
Second row - Isaac Newton, James Hutton, Antoine Lavoisier, John Dalton, Charles Darwin, Gregor Mendel;
Third row - Louis Pasteur, James Clerk Maxwell, Henri Poincaré,Sigmund Freud, Nikola Tesla, Max Planck;
Fourth row - Ernest Rutherford, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr,Erwin Schrödinger, Enrico Fermi;
Bottom row - J. Robert Oppenheimer, Alan Turing, Richard Feynman, E. O. Wilson, Jane Goodall, Stephen Hawking
Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testableexplanations and predictions about the universe. In an older and closely related meaning (found, for example, in Aristotle), "science" refers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained (see History and philosophybelow). Since classical antiquity science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern era the words "science" and "philosophy" were sometimes used interchangeably in the English language. By the 17th century, natural philosophy (which is today called "natural science") was considered a separate branch ofphilosophy. However, "science" continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern terms such as library science or political science.
In modern use, "science" more often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. It is "often treated as synonymous with 'natural and physical science', and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use." This narrower sense of "science" developed as scientists such asJohannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton began formulatinglaws of nature such as Newton's laws of motion. In this period it became more common to refer to natural philosophy as "natural science". Over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with scientific method, a disciplined way to study the natural world, including physics, chemistry, geologyand biology. It is in the 19th century also that the term scientist was created by the naturalist-theologian William Whewell to distinguish those who sought knowledge on nature from those who sought knowledge on other disciplines. The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834. This sometimes left the study of human thought and society in a linguistic limbo, which was resolved by classifying these areas of academic study as social science. Similarly, several other major areas of disciplined study and knowledge exist today under the general rubric of "science", such as formal science and applied science.