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Xabier Ostale
The Earth is oblate spheroid
The Earth is oblate spheroid
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Red Summer of 1919
"African American veterans returned home from World War I eager to continue the fight for freedom at home. Many black soldiers returned from the war with a newfound determination to bring freedom to their own shores."

"Red Summer refers to a series of approximately 25 “anti-black riots” that erupted in major cities throughout the nation in 1919, including Houston, Texas; East St. Louis and Chicago, Illinois; Washington, D.C.; Omaha, Nebraska; Elaine, Arkansas; Tulsa, Oklahoma; and Charleston, South Carolina."

"Many African American soldiers returning from World War I were outspoken against racial discrimination, inequality, and violence that continued to plague black communities, and they played an active role in defending their communities during Red Summer. “By the God of Heaven,” W.E.B. Du Bois said of returning veterans, “we are cowards and jackasses if now that the war is over, we do not marshal every ounce of our brain and brawn to fight a sterner, longer, more unbending battle against the forces of hell in our own land.”


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The Battle of Largs (2 October 1263)
"Alexander III of Scotland made agressive attempts to recover the Hebridean Islands, known as Innse Gall, and Argyll from the grip of the Norwegians, launching raids against them including a raid on the Isle of Skye in 1262. The Western Isles had for centuries been disputed between the Scots and the Norse."

"In retaliation to the continued pressure from the Scots, King Haakon IV of Norway mounted a pre-emptive attack to secure Norse control of the area. He gathered a fleet of two hundred ships and in July 1263 set sail for Scotland from Bergen."


There is no sign of an impending calamity this evening.

Nighty night x

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I had to share this.
Via +Ian Neil Schmidt


These flares throw out massive bursts of radiation and high-energy protons which might damage your DNA.

Nighty night x

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Via +History website - Short facts
Communication in Medieval Times: How Messages Were Sent
"Only the wealthiest individuals and organizations could afford private courier systems, because of the need for horses, accommodation and travel expenses."

"During the Middle Ages, towns, universities, monasteries and trading companies all had their own messengers, some of whom were protected by royal decree. The Papacy had its own courier system, in order to keep in touch with its clergy and churches across Europe."



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Kingdom of Aksum (Axum) (ca. 100 BC - ca. 650 AD)
The Kingdom of Aksum was an ancient kingdom of Africa. It is sometimes called the Kingdom of Axum or Ancient Ethiopia.

"The city of Aksum likely formed around 400 BC. Legend has it that the kingdom was first established by the son of King Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba. Aksum began to rise in power and expand around 100 AD, reaching its peak around 350 AD. It continued to rule the region until around 940 AD when it was conquered by a foreign queen. After a period of unrest, the Zagwe Dynasty took control of the region."

"Aksum was perfectly located to become a major center of trade. Merchants would travel from central Africa, Persia, India, and Egypt bringing their goods to Aksum to trade. Aksum had access to several different trade routes including major waterways such as the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Nile River."

"Aksum was one of the more advanced cultures of Ancient Africa. They developed a written language and minted their own coins. They also developed terraced farming and irrigation, which allowed them to farm the slopes of the local mountains, making their hilly land more productive."






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Last night I finished watching 13 Reasons Why.
It's a teenagers series, a very sad one, where bullying is exposed after tragedy strikes, and the reason why it keeps happening, because the system protects and praise the bully, in a kind of bully-system, where the values of privilege, male prestige, and denial of reality are maintained.
It's a series where words are not enough, and the main character is proof that sometimes it's worth surviving the huge ocean of lies.
I think the series was intended for teenagers, but I found it very hard and very sad, maybe because we can relate to many of the things, not only like victims, but because we are part and parcel of the crime too. High school is a metaphor of our stupidity. Clay, instead, stands out like someone who is hurt but overcomes the pain to come to terms with loss and with the fear of finding out how horrible we all are. But the sadness remains.

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Keep your wits about you.

Nighty night x

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Greek gloom as economy stalls amid latest bout of EU wrangling
Let's remember that the mentally-ill Lagarde and the Deutsche Bank are behind the catastrophe of Greece, the rise of the far right in Europe, and its global toxic austerity influence. Austerity being the looting of people's money and the destruction of social infrastructure for the sake of banks and the privilege of corporations.
Since 2008 they, the corrupt in power, bet for a policy of money transfer from social economy to private financial entities, and by means of tax avoidance protection, destabilizing democracy, harming civil rights, damaging the economy and the potential for transformation in energy, research and education, and infrastructure. Debt is not the debt of the people, but the debt of banks and the lack of taxation on corporations of all sorts. And tax havens are still the key.
Of course, the politicians and financial crooks' rhetoric paint another very different Europe on another imaginary planet, while assuring the elites get richer, even at the cost of poisoning water, impoverishing the people, or waging senseless wars to sell arms. Trump is only an upshot of the hydra that is political corruption. In Europe we don't need gross revolting clowns to make it happen, but sophisticated liars, hypocrites to the core, and polite smiles from the crooks to get it to the same sh*t pit.
This is a never ending nightmare delivered by the kleptocrats.

"Two years short of a decade in freefall, and with little prospect of recovery, the nation has succumbed to protest fatigue. With the exception of pensioners – the great losers in Greece’s assault by austerity – anger has been replaced by malaise, the lassitude that strikes when loss becomes commonplace."
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