Shared publicly  - 
 
Sand the Suit (A red Santa suit, with white fur trim, stocking cap, and black boots; a wide buckled belt) 
1
Nomdeplume's profile photo
500 comments
 
Hattie McDaniel (June 10, 1895 – October 26, 1952)

Hattie McDaniel was born June 10, 1895, in Wichita, Kansas, to former slaves. She was the youngest of 13 children. Her father, Henry McDaniel, fought in the Civil War with the 122nd USCT and her mother, Susan Holbert, was a singer of religious music.[4] In 1900, the family moved to Colorado, living first in Fort Collins and then in Denver, where Hattie graduated from Denver East High School. Her brother, Sam McDaniel (1886–1962), played the butler in the 1948 Three Stooges’ short film Heavenly Daze. Another acting sibling of Hattie and Sam was actress Etta McDaniel. 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hattie_McDaniel
 
Kroc was born to parents of Czech origin in Oak Park, near Chicago, on October 5, 1902. His father originated from the village Břasy near Plzeň, Bohemia (now the Czech Republic). He grew up and spent most of his life in Oak Park, Illinois. During the First World War he lied about his age and became a Red Cross ambulance driver at 15.[7][8][9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ray_Kroc#Early_life_and_career
 
MS Cristal is a cruise ship owned and operated by the Cyprus-based Louis Cruise Lines. The ship was originally built as the cruiseferry MS Viking Saga in 1980 at Wärtsilä Turku New Shipyard, Turku, Finland for Rederi Ab Sally. In 1986 she was renamed MS Sally Albatross, and rebuilt into a cruise ship the following year. The ship was destroyed by a fire in 1990, and completely rebuilt at Finnyards, Rauma, Finland. She was re-delivered in 1992, still named Sally Albatross. After partially sinking 1994 she was rebuilt at Industrie Navali Maccaniche Affini, La Spezia, Italy, re-entering service as MS Leeward for Norwegian Cruise Line. Subsequently she sailed as MS SuperStar Taurus for Star Cruises, MS Silja Opera for Silja Line and spent a year laid up as MS Opera prior to entering service with her current owner in 2007.[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS_Cristal
 
A gyro ( /ˈjɪəroʊ/ yeer-oh,/ˈʒɪəroʊ/ zheer-oh;[1] Greek: γύρος, [ˈʝiros], lit. 'turn') is a dish of meat roasted on a vertical spit. It is usually served as a sandwich, also called a gyros, with tomato, onion, and tzatziki sauce, wrapped in pita bread. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gyro_(food)
 
Until the 14th century, the court was formally known as the 'Apostolic Court of Audience'. The first recorded use of the term Rota, which referred to the wheel-shaped arrangement of the benches used by the court in the great hall at Avignon, is in Thomas Fastolf's http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Rota
 
St Davids Station is a commuter rail station located in the western suburbs of Philadelphia at Chamounix Road & Glynn Lane, Wayne, Pennsylvania.[2] It is served by most Paoli/Thorndale Line trains. There is no ticket office at this station. There are 57 parking spaces at the station. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Davids_(SEPTA_station)
 
Fastow was one of the key figures behind the complex web of off-balance-sheet special purpose entities (limited partnerships which Enron controlled) used to conceal their massive losses. Fastow served a six-year prison sentence for charges related to these acts. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Fastow
 
Jus commune or ius commune
The ius commune, in its historical meaning, is commonly thought of as a combination of canon law and Roman law which formed the basis of a common system of legal thought in Western Europe from the rediscovery and reception of Justinian's Digest in the 12th and 13th centuries. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jus_commune
 
A judicial decision rendered in a civil law country and not constituting a binding precedent in such a country may become binding elsewhere by a strange process of transplantation.

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise

Chapter V Substantive Law Pg.669
 
In Puerto Rico for instance it was held that the Insular Legislator when   it reenacted a civil code almost entirely copied from that of Spain, adopted not only the provision of the Code but also the interpretations previously placed upon them by the highest Court of Spain.

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
Spanish decisions which under the Civil law doctrine may have had no binding force in Spain and which were not binding in Puerto Rico when it was a Spanish possession thus became binding precedents under American rule.

In Puerto Rico for instance it was held that the Insular Legislator when   it reenacted a civil code almost entirely copied from that of Spain, adopted not only the provision of the Code but also the interpretations previously placed upon them by the highest Court of Spain.

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
The procedural law of the Ius Commune in general states that whoever has to decide a law case be it a judgement or just an interlocutory decree should take counsel with wise men and especially with legal expert before doing so.  

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
The individual auditors in turn brought for deliberation any legal problems which had arisen in litigation before them.  Before the debate began, the advocates of litigating parties in question were admitted and could plead quoting pertinent passages from the Corpus Iuris or from literature.

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
In US. v. Abiog and Abiog, 37 Phil 137, this court made this further statement on the subject:  

What we really have if we ere not too modest toclaim it is a PhilipPine Common Law influence by the derecho Comun of Spain and the customary law of the Islands and building on a case law of precedents

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
The Great Pyramid at Cholula in Mexico, a scene of human sacrifice without interruption since the third century A.D., is Peter Berger's striking symbol for the relationship between political theory and human life.  First Olmec, then Toltec priests directed the laborious construction of the cultic monument at Cholula. Then came the Aztec offering up human hearts by the thousands to the most bloodthirsty diety of all time, Quetzalcoatl. Later other priests forced the people to build hundreds of churches on and around the pyramid, and today the de-scendants of three generations of victims and slaves toil again this time under the super vision of national archaeologists to resurrect the Great Pyramid at Cholula

Pyramids of Sacrifice
Peter L. Berger
 
In this powerful new book, Peter Berger ex amines the two dominant schemes for national development in our time, capitalism and socialism, and demonstrates how often these tow are Pyramids of Sacrifices for which economic planners and intellectuals the latest priesthood demand the labor and the lives of people today on a shaky premise of a better tomorrow.

Pyramids of Sacrifice
Peter L. Berger
 
Banyan
Trading Strategies

China and America compete to lead regional free trade arrangements
The Economist May 19-25th 2012
 
Into this PhilipPine Common Law we can properly refuse to take a rule which would estop other courses of reasoning and which because of a lack of legal ingenuity would permit men guilty of homicide to escape on a TechniCality 

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
The Partidas is a Code Law and cannot in proper sense be considered as Common Law.  It specifically provided however for recourse to customs when the written law was silent.

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
Alfonso established Castilian as a language of higher learning, and was a prolific author of Galician poetry, such as the Cantigas de Santa Maria, which are equally notable for their musical notation as for their literary merit. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_X_of_Castile
 
The Twelve Colonies have warred for decades with a cybernetic race known as the Cylons, whose goal is the extermination of the human race. The Cylons offer peace to the humans, which proves to be a ruse. With the aid of a human named Baltar (an inadvertent aid in the 2003 version) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battlestar_Galactica
 
Concerned about other equal opportunity issues, Fonz wants Milwaukee racially integrated. Personally friends with African Americans, he becomes upset when a party in which Richie will welcome Hawaii into the Union gets boycotted. People have grown anxious because it will be racially integrated. Initially wanting to force people to attend, Fonzie learns from Mr. Cunningham that people cannot change their minds overnight.[10] He volunteers to go south with Al and Freedom Riders to help integrate a segregated diner. Normally flirtatious with women, Fonzie is instead disgusted that the waitress does not serve black customers. At one point he tells her that he cannot date her because of her compliance with the diner policy.[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fonzie#Civic_involvement
 
In any case, if the Partidas was written as a legal code, its ultimate objective has been a matter of dispute. Alfonso X, in what was called the fecho del imperio ("affair of the empire"), had aggressively pursued the crown of the Holy Roman Empire. His purpose for creating the Siete Partidas may have been to create a universally valid legal text for the entire Empire. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siete_Partidas
 
Siete partidas promulgated by Alfonso X of Castile and Leon in 1265. (one of the important repositories of the general principles of law Cf. Geigel v. Mariani, 85 P.R.R. 43 50 (1962) where a provision of the Siete Partidas was relied upon to answer a question left open in the Code. 

[n footnote]

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
The original operating principle was discovered in 1908, and since the subsequent development of the Geiger-Müller tube in 1928 the Geiger Müller counter has been a popular instrument for use in radiation dosimetry, health physics, experimental physics, the nuclear industry, geological exploration and other fields http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geiger_counter
 
Article 1.2 of the Spanish Civil Code establishes that inferior and superior laws to be distinguished. However, the relationship between laws is not limited to a question of hierarchy, but also relationships of competency exist between some laws and others. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_Spain
 
The first point illustrated by the case at hand is that Civil Law Courts combine judgements and opinion in a single document . Cf. Westside Property Owners v. Schlesinger 597 F.2d 1214, 1216 (9th Cir.1979)

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
Hand possessed a gift for the English language, and his writings are admired as legal literature.[2] He rose to fame outside the legal profession in 1944 after giving a short address in Central Park that struck a popular chord in its appeal for tolerance. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learned_Hand
 
After careful consideration of the shape both of the peg and of the hole the Court concluded in effect that the taxpayer was trying to fit a square peg into a round hole

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
The peg and hole analogy can be used also in other (perhaps more complex) situations raising the issue whether a particular foreign institution has certain CharacterIstics specified by our law.  An example is presented by Wood & Selick, Inc. v. Compagne Generale Transatlantique, 43 F.2d 941 (2d Cir. 1930) The peg in that case was a French prescription statute 

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
2008 (MMVIII) was a leap year that started on Tuesday in the Gregorian calendar. It was the 2008th year of the Common Era or Anno Domini designation, the 8th year of the 3rd millennium and 21st century, and the 9th of the 2000s.
2008 was designated the: International Year of Languages.[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008
 
The Second Circuit ordinarily has its clerk's office and hears oral arguments at the Thurgood Marshall United States Courthouse in Foley Square in Lower Manhattan. Due to renovations at that building, during the summer of 2006 the court temporarily relocated to the Daniel Patrick Moynihan United States Courthouse in New York City across Pearl Street from the Marshall Courthouse. Some of the Court's offices, including the Office of Legal Affairs, have moved to the Woolworth Building for the duration of the renovations, which are expected to take several years.[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Court_of_Appeals_for_the_Second_Circuit
 
The Pacific Islands Trust Territory was held to be a foreign country for purposes of the Federal Torts claims Act. It may therefore be arguable that the law of that Territory is foreign law. 
World Communication Corp v. Micronesian Telecommunications Corp., 456 F.Supp.1122 (D.Hawaii 1978)

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
New Caledonia (French: Nouvelle-Calédonie[5]) is a special collectivity of France located in the southwest Pacific Ocean. the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines and a few remote islets.[7] The Chesterfield Islands in the Coral Sea are also part of New Caledonia. Locals refer to Grande Terre as "Le Caillou", the stone.[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Caledonia
 
During the American Revolution a Continental Army force under Henry Knox brought captured cannons from Fort Ticonderoga by ox-drawn sleds south along the west bank of the Hudson River from the fort to Albany where he then crossed the Hudson. Knox and his men continued east through the Berkshires and finally arrived in Boston. This feat, known as the "Noble train of artillery" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Berkshires#History
 
Nevertheless it is generally assumed in the Civil Law world that when an opinion of an intermediate appellate Court is cited as an alleged precedent it is both necessary and possible by careful analysis of the opinion to separate its legal reasoning (which may have some precedential value) from the discussion of factual issues (which has no such value)
Wright v. Paramount Richards Theaters F.2d 303 (5th Cir. 1952)

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
Summoning an expert witness (if permissible) will not aid an impecunious party as the expert is entitled to a reasonable feefor testifying including where appropriate a charge for a portion of the expenses of the original research. Wright v. Jeep Corp., 547 F.Supp. 871, 877 (E.D. Mich. 1982). Moreover the expert cannot in the face of the Thirteenth Amemdment be compelled to do additional research for the case at hand.

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
This article is about the year 1982 (January 6 – William Bonin is convicted of being the Freeway Killer.; January 8 – AT&T Corporation agrees to divest itself into 22 subdivisions) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1982
 
Under recidivist statutes a former felony conviction in a foreign country may lead to enhanced punishment.  United States v. Tucker 404 U.S. 443. 92 S.Ct  589 (1972) 

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
In the Civil Law Countries where no jury participates in the decision of Civil cases such early separation of factual and legal issues is unnecessary. Hence no demurrers or motions to dismiss for insufficiency and no other motions addressed to the pleadings exists. 
Lord Somerwell of Harrow in Qualcast (Wolver-Hampton)Ltd. v. Haynes, [1959]  A.C. 743, [1959] 2 All E.R. 38 (H.L.) 

T.C. Hartley,  comity and the use of Anti Suit Injunctions in International Litigation 35 Am.J.Com.L. 487 (1987) noting at 502

Comparative law
Case Text Materials
Sixth Edition 
Rudolf B. Schlesinger
Hans W. Baade
Peter E. Herzog
Edward M. Wise
 
Poor Know Act Stress (Rest) / Porno Actress 
 
During the time that France was divided into provinces (or dukedoms, as they were called) there reigned in one of these provinces a usurper, who had deposed and banished his elder brother, the lawful duke.

AS YOU LIKE IT
TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE
CHARLES & MARY LAMB
NELSON
 
The states of Syracuse and Ephesus being at variance there was a cruel law made at Ephesus that if any merchant at Syracuse was seen in the city of Ephesus he was to be put to death unless he could pay a thousand marks for the ransom of his life.

THE COMEDY OF ERRORS
TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE
CHARLES & MARY LAMB
NELSON
 
AEgeon, an old merchant of Syracuse was discover in the streets of Ephesus and brought before the duke either to pay this heavy fine or to receive sentence of death. 

AEgeon had no money to pay the fine and the duke before he pronounced the sentence of death upon him desired him to relate the history of his life and to tell for what cause he had ventured to come to the city of Ephesus which it was death for any SyraCuSan merchant to enter

THE COMEDY OF ERRORS
TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE
CHARLES & MARY LAMB
NELSON
 
The place of his execution was near this convent and here he arrived just as the abbess retired into the convent; the duke attending in person that if any offered to pay the money he might be present to pardon him 

THE COMEDY OF ERRORS
TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE
CHARLES & MARY LAMB
NELSON
 
Adriana stopped this melancholy procession and cried out to the duke for justice, telling him that the abbess had refused to deliver up her lunatic husband to her care. While she was speaking her real husband and his servant Dromio who had got loose came before the duke to demand justice complaining that his wife had confined him on a false charge of lunacy and telling in what manner he had broken his bands and eluded the vigilance of his keepers. Adriana was strangely surprised to see her husband when she thought he had been within the convent
 

THE COMEDY OF ERRORS
TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE
CHARLES & MARY LAMB
NELSON
 
The storm still continuing to rage furiously and the sailors having a superstition that while a dead body remained in the ship the storm would never cease the came to Pericles to demand that his queen should be thrown overboard and they said What courage sir? God save you! Courage enough said the sorrowing prince I do not fear the storm it has done to me its worst yet for the love of this infant this fresh new seafarer I wish the storm was over. 

Though Pericles knew how weak and unfounded this superstition was yet he patiently submitted

PERICLES, PRINCE OF TYRE
TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE
CHARLES & MARY LAMB
NELSON
 
But when she had gained from education all these graces which made her the general wander Dionysia the wife of Cleon became her mortal enemy from jealousy by reason that her own daughter from the slowness of her mind was not able to attain to that perfection wherein Marina excelled and finding that all praises was bestowed on Marina whilst her daughter who was of the same age and had been educated with the same care as marina though not with the same success was in comparison disregarded she formed a project to remove marina out of the way vainly imagining that her untoward daughter would be more respected when marina was no more seen.

To compass this she employed a man to murder Marina and she well timed her wicked design when Lychorida the faithful nurse had just died 

PERICLES, PRINCE OF TYRE
TALES FROM SHAKESPEARE
CHARLES & MARY LAMB
NELSON
 
The Indians have so influenced in deed so transformed the lives of white and black men in North America that we are eager to know where they came from and how their culture developed. But in this search we find little but silence, darkness and mystery.

The Oxford History of the American People [Hardcover]
Samuel Eliot Morison
http://www.amazon.com/The-Oxford-History-American-People/dp/0195000307
 
No gold was to be found but some of Columbus's shapemates returning from a trip upcountry discovered something that has created more well being than gold. They met many people with a firebrand in the hand and herbs to drink the smoke thereof as they are accustomed.

The Oxford History of the American People [Hardcover]
Samuel Eliot Morison
http://www.amazon.com/The-Oxford-History-American-People/dp/0195000307
 
These Cuban natives rolled their own Cigars which they called tobaccos. A walking party such as the Spaniards encountered would carry one big cigar with lighted firebrand at every halt they lit up and everyone took a few puffs and felt refresh.

The Oxford History of the American People [Hardcover]
Samuel Eliot Morison
http://www.amazon.com/The-Oxford-History-American-People/dp/0195000307
 
These Cuban natives rolled their own Cigars which they called tobaccos. A walking party such as the Spaniards encountered would carry one big cigar with lighted firebrand at every halt they lit up and everyone took a few puffs and felt refresh.

The Oxford History of the American People [Hardcover]
Samuel Eliot Morison
http://www.amazon.com/The-Oxford-History-American-People/dp/0195000307
 
The Civil Code of 1865 was similar to the Napoleonic Code. The fundamental principles, of both the Napoleonic code and 1865 Italian Civil Code, indicated that all male citizens were equal before the law: primogeniture, hereditary nobility, and class privileges were to be extinguished; civilian institutions were to be emancipated from ecclesiastical control; and freedom of person, freedom of contract, and inviolability of private property were to be placed under the formal protection of Civil Law.[44] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Italian_citizenship#1865
 
The modern Italian Civil Code contains 2969 articles and is divided into six books categorized under the headings Persons and Family, Succession, Property Obligations, Labor, and Protection of Rights. The Civil Code was adopted in 1942 whereas the Penal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure have been formally used by Italy since 1931. In 1988 a new Code of Criminal Procedure was adopted in realization of the constitutional principles.[45] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Italian_citizenship#1942
 
Female exclusion from civil rights
Under the Civil Code of 1865 women were formally categorized based, almost exclusively, on the nature of their relationship with an Italian male. Women, as a result, as a group were denied the privilege of civil rights. Women were excluded from political and administrative suffrage, were not allowed to hold any public office, and barred from representing civil state authority. As a result of these limitations women were banned from holding several jobs and lacked access to certain privileges. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Italian_citizenship#1942
 
The Italian language has been considered an important characteristic of Italian national identity since the time of unification. It was the overwhelming use of regional dialects and foreign languages that lead non-Italian speaking minorities to be considered a threat to the development of national consciousness. As a result of this the first eighty or ninety years of Italian history characterizes non-Italian speaking minorities as intruders in the national domain; who were to be given no official existence.[38] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Italian_citizenship#Language_rights_and_discrimination_in_Italian_national_history
 
PSU State College "(The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (P.L. 78-346, 58 Stat. 284m), known informally as the G.I. Bill, was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G.I._Bill)"
 
THE IRISH ECCLESIASTICAL RECORD.
AUGUST, 1865.

The see of Dromore, though founded by St. Colman, seems for several centuries to have comprised little more than the abbey of that great saint and its immediate territory. In the synod of Rathbreasil (a. d. 1118), in which the boundaries of the various dioceses were defined, no mention is made of Dromore, and the territory subsequently belonging to it was all comprised within the limits of the see of Connor http://mirrors.syringanetworks.net/gutenberg/3/3/7/0/33708/33708-h/33708-h.htm
 
Coleman Company, Inc., is an American company that specializes in outdoor recreation products. Historically, Coleman is known for camping gear.
It was founded by William Coffin Coleman, who began selling kerosene lanterns in 1900 in Kingfisher, Oklahoma. He moved to Wichita, Kansas, in 1902. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coleman_Company
 
SLAVERY AND FOUR YEARS OF WAR A POLITICAL HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES TOGETHER WITH A NARRATIVE OF THE CAMPAIGNS AND BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR IN WHICH THE AUTHOR TOOK PART: 1861-1865

BY JOSEPH WARREN KEIFER BREVET MAJOR-GENERAL OF VOLUNTEERS; EX-SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, U. S. A.; AND MAJOR-GENERAL OF VOLUNTEERS, SPANISH WAR.

ILLUSTRATED

VOLUME I. 1861-1863

G. P. Putnam's Sons
New York and London
The Knickerbocker Press
http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/22100/pg22100.html
 
PRIVATEERING AND PIRACY IN THE COLONIAL PERIOD: ILLUSTRATIVE DOCUMENTS


EDITED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY OF THE COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA

BY
JOHN FRANKLIN JAMESON

DIRECTOR OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN
THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON

CONTENTS
New York
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1923

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/24882/24882-h/24882-h.htm#CONTENTS
Translate
Translate
 
It may be remarked that an examination of the statutes of our State concerning marriage might give the impression that marriage in no other form is permitted here but it has many times been held that a valid marriage may be contracted although none of the prescribe statutory requisites are followed.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Similarly the Italian Code sheds no light on the method of validating a religious marriage but it does not follow that there is no provision for its legalization

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Foot Note k
Should it be
assume that
the Italian Code contains as incomplete
a set of rules
as the New York statutes
and that the Code
like an American statute
must be
read against the background of an all permeating common law

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The Lateran Treaty was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, signed on February 11, 1929 and ratified by the Italian parliament on June 7, 1929, ending the "Roman Question". Italy was then under a Fascist government; the succeeding democratic governments have all upheld the treaty.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateran_Treaty
 
A concordat is an agreement between the Holy See of the Catholic Church and a sovereign state on religious matters. Legally, it is an international treaty. Concordats often include both recognition and privileges for the Catholic Church in a particular country. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concordat
 
From the Lateran Treaty known as the Concordat effective 1929 it appears that immediately after a religious ceremony the priest will draw the marriage certifiCate a complete copy of which must be forwarded within five days to the Commune in order that it may be entered in the register of the Civil Status.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
While it is claimed that the treaty is not retroactive it may be that it is simply declaratory of the there to fore existing practice and law of Italy.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
H. W. Baade Marriage and Divorce in American Conflict Law: Governmental Interest Analysis and the Restatement (SecOnd) 72 Colum.L.Rev. 329, 364-68 (1972) 

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Matter of Gordon v. New York Life Ins. Co., 300 N.Y. 652, 654, 90 N.E.2d 898, 899 (1950) McKinney's  N.Y. Workm.comp.Law, $20

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
G.R. Kinney Company was an American manufacturer and retailer of shoes from 1894[1] until September 16, 1998.[2] Its listing on the New York Stock Exchange, symbol KNN, began in March 1923.[3] 

On August 31, 1963 the G.R. Kinney Company was sold to F.W. Woolworth.[2] Prior to this it was a subsidiary of the Brown Shoe Company which sold it for $45 million.[9] The firm was renamed the Kinney Shoe Corporation and continued as a fully owned subsidiary of Woolworth. It retained its own eleven member board of directors and an existing panel of corporate officers.

The business chain numbered 362 stores at the conclusion of 1929, with 44 of these opening in the final year of the decade.[5] Foot Locker began as a division of the Kinney Shoe Corporation in 1974.[6]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinney_Shoes
 
Thom McAn is a brand of shoes and was formerly a retail chain. The brand is distributed by Footstar, Inc., formerly the Melville Corporation (now known as CVS Caremark) and is currently sold in Kmart and Sears stores. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thom_McAn
 
The company was created in St. Louis and was originally named Bryan, Brown & Company after its founders George Warren Brown and Alvin Bryan. The name was changed to Brown Shoe Company in 1893. The George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University in St. Louis was endowed in 1925 by G.W. Brown's widow. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_Shoe_Company
 
Vergnani v. Guidetti 308 Mass. 450, 32 N.E.2d 272 (1941)

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Rheinstein Trends in marriage and Divorce law of Western Countries 18 law & Comtemp.Prob.3, 15 (1953)

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
51
DISTRIBUTED BY:
GREENBRIER INTERNATIONAL, INC.,
CHESAPEAKE, VA 23320
MADE IN THAILAND
SEASHELL SOAP
IN MESH BAG/HANGING
4 SEASHELL = 3.4 Oz
4 BALLS        = 0.70 Oz
TOTAL SOAP WT. = 4.10 Oz.

INGREDIENTS : COCONUT OIL, PALM OIL, SODIUM HYDROXY, DIPHOSPORIC ACID EDTA, FRAGRANCE COLOR INDEX, CI 11680

CI 11680 CI 45100 CI 74160
 
Campbell, Fascism and Legality, 62 Law Q.Rev. 141, 144 (1946)  
COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
J. Gaudemet L'Accord du 18 Fevrier 1984 entre l'Italie et le Saint Siege 1984 Annuaire Francais de Droit International 209, 215-16

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
A nudum pactum in Latin literally means 'Bare or Naked Promise.' In common law, it refers to a promise that is not legally enforceable for want of consideration. An example of a nudum pactum would be an offer to sell something without a corresponding offer of value in exchange. While the offer may bind a person morally, since the offer has not been created with any consideration, it is gratuitous and treated as a unilateral contract. The offer is therefore revocable at any time by the offeror before acceptance by the offeree. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nudum_pactum
 
Pothier paid particular attention to the correction and co-ordination of the text of the Pandects. His Pandectae Justinianae in novum ordinem digestae (Paris and Chartres, 1748-1752) is a classic in the study of Roman law. In 1749 he was made professor of law at the University of Orleans. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Joseph_Pothier
 
Reader's Digest is a general interest family magazine, published ten times annually. Formerly based in Chappaqua, New York, its headquarters is now in New York City. It was founded in 1922, by DeWitt Wallace and Lila Bell Wallace http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reader%27s_Digest
 
Moses (Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה‎, Modern Moshe Tiberian Mōšéh ISO 259-3 Moše ; Arabic: موسى‎ Mūsā ) was, according to the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses
 
There is almost no private law code in force in any civilian country today which is not substantially copied from or in its structure or some of its provisions directly or indirectly influenced by the Codes of France Germany or Switzerland

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The Austrian General Civilian Code of 1811 was a work of great originality. It exercised considerable influence through the countries of Eastern and Southeastern Europe; but outside of Austria itself this influence was greatly reduced when as a result of the expansion after world war II of the Communist orbit these countries created new codes.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Depending on the predominance of French German or Swiss influence it is possible to divide the Civil law Countries into code families.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Noting that this was one of the reasons for the heavy reliance on foreign models in the remaking of business related legislation in certain former East Block Countries but also indicating that all such borrowing must eventually become integrated into the local system.  

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
But it should be kept in mind that the Code drafters often prefer not to follow a single pattern but to skim what they consider the best features from all existing Codes.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The CODE NAPOLEON and the Common Law World at 92 ff. (1956)

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The Greek Civil Code of 1946 is one of the outstanding examples of a code based on painstaking comparative research.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Even if a given Code of a Nation  X has been literally Copied by Nation Y the two Codes may not in all respects be uniformly interpreted by the Courts of both Countries. 

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
For an instance in which the same same Code Provisions were differently interpreted by French and Belgian Courts. 

Piret, Le Code Napoleon en Belgique de 1804 a 1954, 6 Revenue International de Droit Compare 753 (1954)

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
In Louisiana a project for reform of the Civil Code was undertaken about 
The same time as in Quebec
In fact
there was some 
Consultations between the bodies charged with Code reform
in the two jurisdiction 
given their common law environment


COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The project resulted in a step by step revision of the Code between 1976 and 1991 which included the addition of a Book IV the Louisiana Conflict of Laws Statute.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Auxiliary statutes from the tables of contents of typical Civilian Codes which are reprinted above the reader will have gathered that the coverage of such Codes is exceedingly broad.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
in the annotations to the outlines of the French and German so called auxiliary statutes (Nebengesetze) which although pertaining to the general subject matter of a Code have been separately enacted and have not been incorporated into the code itself.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Re enacted in somewhat revised form in 1978 this auxiliary statute is now known under the shortened and simplified title of HaFTPflichtgesetz (Liability Law)
COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Land reform in developing countries is an example of a social problem usually tackled by way of special enactments outside the framework of the traditional codes which are apt to enshrine the status quo

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Apt was at one time the chief town of the Vulgientes, a Gallic tribe; it was destroyed by the Romans about 125 BC and restored by Julius Caesar, who conferred upon it the title Apta Julia; it was much injured by the Lombards and the Saracens, but its fortifications were rebuilt by the counts of Provence. The bishopric was founded in the 3rd century. Castor of Apt was bishop of the city during the 5th century. The bishopric was suppressed in 1790. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apt,_Vaucluse#History
 
He was born in Nîmes and may have been the brother of Saint Leontius of Fréjus. Castor was a lawyer and married to a wealthy widow. He lived in Marseilles. His wife, however, allowed him to enter the religious life; she herself entered a nunnery. Castor founded the monastery of Manauque (Monanque) in Provence. He was subsequently made bishop of Apt. He died of natural causes. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castor_of_Apt
 
Unlike many east-west street names in Philadelphia, the "Lombard" name is not continued in West Philadelphia. Historically, the eastern end of Lombard St. was home to one of the oldest free black neighborhoods in the United States, which was displaced during urban redevelopment since the 1950s. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lombard_Street_(Philadelphia)
 
To a somewhat uncertain degree traditional Civilian theory makes allowance for customary law but the practical importance of ancient customary law is insignificant in most of the continental legal systems.  Concerning a new type of customary law which in reality is decisional law.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Most of the 19th and 20th Century Codes Contains some provisions of enormous breadth and generality.

To deal with those cases in which neither a specific provision of the Code nor one of its general Clauses is applicable Civilian codifiers developed the further technique of inserting so called directory provisions into their Codes.

Analogy as a Gap Filling Technique

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
A more conventional explanation for the term PLURALISM is: within the legal system of a given country different groups of people are subjected to different bodies of law with the result that interpersonal (Interterritorial) Conflict of law problems arise in many situations.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Like their German predecessors the Arab conquerors of the middle ages recognized that everyone conqueror and conquered alike should live under their own personal law.  Applying this principle they ordained that the law applicable to a person (and the jurisdiction of religious courts over him) should be determined by that persons religion.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Comparovich: Yes indeed and in particular two of its idols whose monuments flanked the entrance to the Supreme Courts. These are Manuel Otero the father of the Amparo and Ignacio Vallarta Mexico's leading jurist of the late 19th century.

From Otero came the idea (now reflected in article 103I of the Constitution and article 1 (1) of the Ley de Ampro)

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The Spanish derived law of Puerto Rico or the Danish law governing Pre 1921
land titles in the Virgin Islands is domestic law in a federal court setting there.  This remains true if an appeal is taken from that court to the US court of Appeals or the US Supreme Court with the result that those Courts must of their own motions inform themselves of such law as best they can.

 
COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Danish tradition also affect the law of divorce in the Virgin Islands. 
Burch v. Burch 195 F.2d 799, 805 ff. (3d Cir 1952)

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Shearer v. Shearer 356 F.2d 391 (3d Cir. 1965), Cert denied, 384 U.S. 940, 86 S.Ct 1463 (1966)

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Long one of America’s most popular mints, Certs was the first breath mint to be nationally marketed in the United States, and has been a fixture at American drug stores and convenience stores since its debut on the market in 1956. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Certs
 
BENELUX COUNTRIES
There may be good reasons on the other hand for unifying the law with respect to certain selected subjects either on a regional or even on a world wide scale.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
LUXEMBOURG (ABUSE OF RIGHTS)
In 1987 Luxembourg which uses the French civil Code adopted a new Article 6-1 of the Civil Code dealing in briefer form then in the Netherlands with abuse of rights.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Liechtenstein (Limited Liability of Sole Trader) 
Pioneered the idea that a sole trader without incorporation may obtain the privilege of a limited liability to the assets of a certain enterprise by complying with specific statutory requirements.


COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Decedants Estates 

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The Second Mile is a nonprofit organization for underprivileged youth, providing help for at-risk children and support for their parents in Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1977 by Jerry Sandusky, a former Penn State assistant college football coach.[1][2][3]  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Second_Mile
 
ECOSOC at Work:

The world’s economic, social and environmental challenges are ECOSOC’s concern. A founding UN Charter body established in 1946, the Council is the place where such issues are discussed and debated, and policy recommendations issued.

As such, ECOSOC has broad responsibility for some 70% of the human and financial resources of the entire UN system, including 14 specialized agencies, 9 “functional” commissions, and five regional commissions.  http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/about/index.shtml
 
In 1972 he was named World Fellow in Residence to a consortium of universities in Philadelphia, including the University of Pennsylvania. He retained his connection with both SIU and the University of Pennsylvania until his death http://bfi.org/about-bucky/biography
 
DIRTY WEATHER
Let’s face it: The weather outside is different than it used to be. Record heat waves make it a chore to go outside. Floods and rainstorms damage our homes and cities. Crops wilt under severe droughts. Hot, dry weather sparks widespread fires.
http://climaterealityproject.org/
 
Ugly racial and religious riots arose in the Eastern cities at least once every decade.  These were not only the result of inherited no popery but also of Irish provocation

The Oxford History of the American People 
Samuel Eliot Morison
 
The word "potpourri" comes into English from the French word "pot-pourri." The French term has two connotations. It is the French name for a Spanish stew with a wide variety of ingredients called "olla podrida," specialty of the town of Burgos. The word was taken and copied by the French military during the Napoleonic occupation of Burgos (1808-1813)." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potpourri
 
An Act to prevent the further Growth of Poperty (commonly known as the Popery Act or the Gavelkind Act.[1]) was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of Ireland passed in 1703 and amended in 1709, one of a series of penal laws against Roman Catholics. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Popery_Act
 
The American States had accorded to Catholic immigrants complete religious and Political liberty far more than Spain and several other Catholic Countries has accorded Protestants to this day.

Native born Americans dislike having their heads broken by the bhoys when they attempted to vote Whig in the cities and resented catholic agitation against the use of the King James Bible in the public schools.

The Irish on the other hand resented having Protestant slanted textbooks crammed down their children's throats and regarded as Protestant bigotary the understandable reluctance of employers to give genteel jobs to newly arrived uncouth peasants .

The Oxford History of the American People 
Samuel Eliot Morison
 
In 1843 nativist resentment against immigrants mostly Irish in the East and Germans in the West boiled over into politics. A shortlived American Republican party was founded pledged to obtain a new naturalization law requiring a residence of 21 years.  In the midst of this agitation occurred the worst religious riot of the century in the City of Brotherly Love.   

The Oxford History of the American People 
Samuel Eliot Morison
 
The Philadelphia Nativist Riots (also known as the Philadelphia Prayer Riots, the Bible Riots and the Native American Riots) were a series of riots that took place between May 6 and 8 and July 6 and 7, 1844, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, and the adjacent districts of Kensington and Southwark. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia_Nativist_Riots
 
The movement went underground except for BaltiMore 
Edgar Allen Poe died a victim to Baltimore political practices. Arriving from Richmond by steamer just before the fall election of 1849 in a state of advanced inebriation he was seized and hustled into one of the Coops where local Whig politicians kept Down and Dut ON ICE for repeated voting,

The Oxford History of the American People 
Samuel Eliot Morison
 
He was rescued after five days detention but in such condition that he died in a hospital.

The Oxford History of the American People 
Samuel Eliot Morison
 
Decedants Estates
X a resident and national of Ruritania who had been Ruritania Sales Manager for Y Inc. a New York Corporation died recently. His holographic testament valid under the Civil Code of Ruritania (a civil law country) gives all of his property to his daughter Z who has reached majority and who like the decedent is a resident and national of Ruritania. Asserting that at the time of X's death, Y still owed him a certain amount of salary and commissions, Z sues Y in a New York Court.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Nowadays these remnants of civil Law often are hidden under a thick layer of Common law But a lawyer who practices in Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona or California or in any of the States which were included in the Louisiana Purchase cannot afford to overlook these remnants when dealing with problems of land title, mining law, water rights, or matrimonial property. 

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Swenson Civil and Common Law Precedents to American Mining Law in 1 The American law of Mining Sec 1.1 (Looseleaf ed.); Snyder, Mines and Mining 38 ff. (1902) cf. Moore v. Smaw, 17 Cal. 199 (1861)

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The French settlers of Louisiana originally lived under French law; but from 1769 - 1803 Spanish law was imposed on them as a result of treaties concluded among European powers followed by Military Conquest.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The Provision can thus also benefit an American party to litigation in a Convention Country.

cf. the facts in Overseas Union Ins. Ltd. v. New Hampshire Ins. Co. Case c-351/89, June 27, 1991, 1991 E.C.R. I3317.  

But the enforcement Provisions of the ConVention clearly do not apply to a judgement in a third party country.  

Owens Bank, Ltd. v. Bracco, Case No. C-129/92, January 20th, 1994, 1994 E.C.R. I-117

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Domat was one of the few later French scholars of Roman law of international significance. His principal work, Les lois civiles dans leur ordre naturel (1689, 68 later editions) was to become one of the principal sources of the ancien droit on which the Code Napoleon  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Domat
 
The European Court of Justice ruled in Overseas Union Insurance Ltd. v New Hampshire Insurance Co. (1991) ECR I-3317 that Article 27 applies to all proceedings commenced in the courts of the European Union regardless of the habitual residence or domicile of the parties. The Article provides for the court first seised to have priority in the same cause of action between the same parties without giving a second court the right to examine the first court's grounds for accepting jurisdiction with Article 27(2) imposing a mandatory duty on the second court to decline any jurisdiction unless the first court determines not to accept jurisdiction. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lis_alibi_pendens
 
Lis pendens is Latin for "suit pending."[1] This may refer to any pending lawsuit or to a specific situation with a public notice of litigation that has been recorded in the same location where the title of real property has been recorded. This notice secures a plaintiff's claim on the property so that the sale, mortgage, or encumbrance of the property will not diminish plaintiff's rights to the property, should the plaintiff prevail in its case. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lis_pendens
 
The Raritan Valley Line is a diesel-engine-powered commuter rail service operated by New Jersey Transit (NJT), originating out of Pennsylvania Station, located in Newark, New Jersey, with most trains terminating at the Raritan station (Whitehouse Station)

One weekday morning inbound train continues to Hoboken Terminal, located Hoboken, New Jersey. At other times, passengers can reach Hoboken as well as New York City's lower Manhattan and the Financial District via the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) system.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raritan_Valley_Line
 
The Three Leagues was the alliance of 1471 of the League of God's House, the League of the Ten Jurisdictions and the Grey League, leading eventually to the formation of the Swiss canton of Graubünden. Most of the lands of Graubünden were part of the Roman province Raetia in 15 BC http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Leagues
 
The name Grey League is derived from the homespun grey clothes worn by the people. The league became part of the canton of Graubünden. The Grey League allied itself to the two other powers of Raetia in 1471, forming the Three Leagues. It was also an associate and ally of the Swiss Confederation and played a role in the build up to the Thirty Years' War. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grey_League
 
Domat endeavoured to found all law upon ethical or religious principles, his motto being "L'homme est fait par Dieu et pour Dieu.
He was closely in sympathy with the Port-Royalists, and on Pascal's death, he was entrusted with his private papers
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Domat
 
As a result the Court rejected the common law approach under which it is often claimed the dog gets the first bite free. Holland v. Buckley, 305 So.2nd 113 (La.1974)

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
Illustration 3 (The Fate of the Bona Fide Purchaser of Chattles)
Every developed legal system must resolve the conflict between two innocent parties which occurs in the typical bona fide purchaser situation.  In the discussion which follows the original owner will be A. The bailee or thief who acting as if he had title for purports to transfer such title and deliver possession of the chattel to a third person will be called B. The third person, i.e. the purchaser will be named C. 

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The Civil Law systems began very early to face up to the problem. Again the trail begins in ancient Rome.  Roman law clearly resolved the issue in favor of A.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The rule prevailing in Germanic customary laws first reliably reported in the 12th Century but probably of much older origin was more favorable to C.  Under the rules a basic distinction was drawn depending on whether A had lost possession of his chattel against his will (e.g. by theft), or whether he had entrusted it to a bailee of his choice

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The draftsmen of the Italian Civil Code of 1942 one of the more recent Civilian Codes went further and discarded all of the traditional approaches.They fashioned an original solution (Arts. 1153-57)
according to which the bona fide purchaser (c) acquires good title regardless of whether A's loss of possession was voluntary or involuntary. 

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The old adage all too frequently repeated that the Civilian Codes presently in force are merely a modernized version of Roman law is simply nonsense.  In many respects the solution adopted by the codifiers were not traditional and of the traditional ones many were not Roman.

COMPARATIVE LAW SIXTH EDITION
RUDOLF B. SCHLESINGER
HANS W. BAADE
PETER E. HERZOG
EDWARD M. WISE
1998
FOUNDATION PRESS
 
The women of the Hadassah Society called them "bund pans". The German word bund in bundkuchen originated either from bundling or wrapping the cake's dough around the pan's centre hole[3] or because a bund is a gathering of people.[2] (In both German words, the final d is pronounced like a t.) Dalquist trademarked the word bundt, and Pillsbury licensed the name in 1970 for a line of cake mixes.
November 15 is national bundt cake day. [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bundt_cake
 
ALBUM, ALBUMEN, white; —— OVORUM, the “whites” of egg; —— PIPER, white pepper, etc 
APICIUS COOKERY AND DINING IN IMPERIAL ROME
A Bibliography, Critical Review and Translation of the
Ancient Book known as Apicius de re Coquinaria
NOW FOR THE FIRST TIME RENDERED INTO ENGLISH
BY
JOSEPH DOMMERS VEHLING
With a Dictionary of Technical Terms, Many Notes,
Facsimiles of Originals, and Views and Sketches of
Ancient Culinary Objects Made by the Author

INTRODUCTION BY PROF. FREDERICK STARR
Formerly of the University of Chicago
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29728/29728-h/29728-h.htm#Page_275
 
[75] PUMPKIN, ALEXANDRINE STYLEALITER CUCURBITAS MORE ALEXANDRINO

PRESS THE WATER OUT OF THE BOILED PUMPKIN, PLACE IN A BAKING DISH, SPRINKLE WITH SALT, GROUND PEPPER, CUMIN, CORIANDER SEED, GREEN MINT AND A LITTLE LASER ROOT; SEASON WITH VINEGAR. NOW ADD DATE WINE AND PIGNOLIA NUTS GROUND WITH HONEY, VINEGAR AND BROTH, MEASURE OUT CONDENSED WINE AND OIL, POUR THIS OVER THE PUMPKIN AND FINISH IN THIS LIQUOR AND SERVE, SPRINKLE WITH PEPPER BEFORE SERVING. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29728/29728-h/29728-h.htm#r75
 
[437] ALEXANDRINE [1] SAUCE FOR BROILED FISHIUS ALEXANDRINUM IN PISCE ASSO

PEPPER, DRY ONIONS [shallots] LOVAGE, CUMIN, ORIGANY, CELERY SEED, STONED DAMASCUS PRUNES [pounded in the mortar] FILLED UP [2] WITH VINEGAR, BROTH, REDUCED MUST, AND OIL, AND COOK IT.

[1] Alexandria, Egyptian city, at the mouth of the river Nile, third of the three great cities of antiquity excepting Carthage during Apicius’ time a rival of Rome and Athens in splendor and commerce. Most important as a Mediterranean port, where fishing and fish eating was (and still is) good.

[2] G.-V. mulsum, mead. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29728/29728-h/29728-h.htm#r437
 
In 1905-06 he made a careful study of the pygmy races of Central Africa, and made investigations in the Philippine Islands in 1908, in Japan in 1909-10, and in Korea in 1911.

In his collection of articles regarding the Congo Free State, 'Truth about the Congo Free State', Starr wrote: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Starr#Selected_works
 
Frederick's of Hollywood is a well-known retailer of women's lingerie in the United States, with stores in many modern shopping malls across the USA. Frederick's of Hollywood store on Hollywood Blvd The business was started by Frederick Mellinger (inventor of the push-up bra) in 1947.[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick's_of_Hollywood
 
It is possible that Brenda may be derived in part from the Old Norse element brand, meaning "(flaming) sword".[1] Prior to the 20th century, Brenda was primarily used in Ireland and Scotland,[1] later it became popular in England.[2] Its use in the Gaelic-speaking countries is attributed to the similar, although likely etymologically unrelated masculine name Brendan.[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brenda#Etymology
 
ATRIUM, living room in a Roman residence, formerly [279] used for kitchen purposes, hence the name, “black room,” because of the smoky walls. Like all simple things then and now, the Atrium often developed into a magnificently decorated court, with fountains and marble statues, and became a sort of parlor to receive the guests of the house http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29728/29728-h/29728-h.htm#Page_275
 
Americans are more given to experiments, but because here in the United States the inconveniences of having no standard system have been more sharply felt. New England being wholly settled from Old England, long continued the English system of pronouncing Latin. In the Middle States, the Germans and Dutch introduced their own methods; in the South and West, the French pronunciation came in quite frequently; and all over the Union, the Catholic clergy in their schools and colleges have propagated the traditional usage of their Church. Hence a Babel of pronunciations and systems existing and practised side by side, in a picturesque confusion such as no European country ever knew; and hence the general willingness to accept a single method, especially one that is based upon historic truth.

LATIN PRONUNCIATION
A SHORT EXPOSITION OF THE ROMAN METHOD
BY
HARRY THURSTON PECK, M.A., PhD
PROFESSOR IN COLUMBIA COLLEGE
SECOND EDITION AUGMENTED
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/28994/28994-h/28994-h.htm#1
 
My honored Duke: I am induced to dedicate this work to you by the historical circumstances of which it treats and also by personal considerations.

In it you will behold the founders of your ancient and illustrious family. 

LUCRETIA BORGIA
ACCORDING TO ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS
AND CORRESPONDENCE OF HER DAY
TRANSLATED FROM THE THIRD GERMAN EDITION
BY JOHN LESLIE GARNER
TO
DON MICHELANGELO GAETANI
DUKE OF SERMONETA

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/20804/20804-h/20804-h.htm
 
Serimner, the wild boar whose lard fed the vast multitude in Einheriar, the hall of Odin. Though fed on daily, the boar never diminished in size. Odin himself gave his own portion of the lard to his two wolves, Geri and Freki.—Scandinavian Mythology. (See Rusticus’s Pig.) http://www.gutenberg.org/files/20851/20851-h/20851-h.htm
 
Wheaton Morainal Plain
South of the Chicago Lake Plain is the Wheaton Morainal Plain. The Wheaton Morainal Plain follows the Valparaiso Moraine in a sweeping arc, paralleling the Lake Michigan Shoreline. The plain consist of rolling Wisconsinan-age moraines. The Morainal Plain is clayey till, and sandy and loamy till, with areas of sand and gravel. Other deposits include lake clay, silt, and alluvium. Deposits are between 50 and 200 ft thick, with many southern areas have over 200 ft of till. (Mades, 1987).[8]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northwest_Indiana#Wheaton_Morainal_Plain
 
Salmonella is closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in cold- and warm-blooded animals (including humans), and in the environment. They cause illnesses such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness.[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonella
 
During the last twenty years the patient researches of successive students in the archives of North Italian cities have been richly rewarded. The State papers of Milan and Venice, of Ferrara and Modena, have yielded up their treasures; the correspondence of Isabella d'Este, in the Gonzaga archives at Mantua, has proved a source of inexhaustible wealth and knowledge. A flood of light has been thrown on the history of Italy in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; public events and personages have been placed in a new aspect; the judgments of posterity have been modified and, in some instances, reversed.

We see now, more clearly than ever before, what manner of men and women these Estes and Gonzagas, these Sforzas and Viscontis, were. We gain fresh insight into their characters and aims, their secret motives and private wishes.

BEATRICE D'ESTE
DUCHESS OF MILAN
1475-1497
A STUDY OF THE RENAISSANCE
BY
JULIA CARTWRIGHT
(MRS HENRY ADY)

Author of  "Madame," "Sacharissa," "J. F. Millet"
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/25622/25622-h/25622-h.htm
 
[287] [Baked Picnic] HAM [Pork Shoulder, fresh or cured]PERNAM

THE HAM SHOULD BE BRAISED WITH A GOOD NUMBER OF FIGS AND SOME THREE LAUREL LEAVES; THE SKIN IS THEN PULLED OFF AND CUT INTO SQUARE PIECES; THESE ARE MACERATED WITH HONEY. THEREUPON MAKE DOUGH CRUMBS OF FLOUR AND OIL [1] LAY THE DOUGH OVER OR AROUND THE HAM, STUD THE TOP WITH THE PIECES OF THE SKIN SO THAT THEY WILL BE BAKED WITH THE DOUGH [bake slowly] AND WHEN DONE, RETIRE FROM THE OVEN AND SERVE [2]. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29728/29728-h/29728-h.htm#r287
 
286] ROAST LOINS MADE THUSLUMBULI ASSI ITA FIUNT

SPLIT THEM INTO TWO PARTS SO THAT THEY ARE SPREAD OUT [1] SPRINKLE THE OPENING WITH CRUSHED PEPPER AND [ditto] NUTS, FINELY CHOPPED CORIANDER AND CRUSHED FENNEL SEED. THE TENDERLOINS ARE THEN ROLLED UP TO BE ROASTED; TIE TOGETHER, WRAP IN CAUL, PARBOIL IN OIL [2] AND BROTH, AND THEN ROAST IN THE OVEN OR BROIL ON THE GRIDIRON. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29728/29728-h/29728-h.htm#Page_169
 
Utopia (book)
English translations of the title include A Truly Golden Little Book, No Less Beneficial Than Entertaining, of the Best State of a Republic, and of the New Island Utopia (literal) and A Fruitful and Pleasant Work of the Best State of a Public Weal, and of the New Isle Called Utopia (traditional).[1]

He lays most of the problems of theft on the practice of enclosure—the enclosing of common land—and the subsequent poverty and starvation of people who are denied access to land because of sheep farming
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utopia_(book)
 
Friedman's challenges to what he later called "naive Keynesian" (as opposed to New Keynesian) theory[4] began with his 1950s reinterpretation of the consumption function, and he became the main advocate opposing activist Keynesian government policies.[5] In the late 1960s he described his own approach (along with all of mainstream economics) as using "Keynesian language and apparatus" yet rejecting its "initial" conclusions.[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Friedman
 
Nicolas Appert (dit par erreur François1, Nicolas-François, Charles ou Charles-Nicolas2), né le 17 novembre 1749 à Châlons-sur-Marne3 et mort le 1er juin 1841 à Massy, est un inventeur français. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Appert
Translate
 
Neuvième enfant d’un couple d’aubergistes de Châlons-sur-Marne (aujourd'hui Châlons-en-Champagne), Nicolas Appert se familiarise dès sa jeunesse avec les métiers de cuisinier et de confiseur, et avec les modes de conservation des denrées alimentaires. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Appert#Biographie
Translate
 
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.[citation needed] The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic and volcanic activity. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southeast_Asia
 
The engraving of Satan presiding at the Infernal Council illustrates the debate among Satan's "Stygian Council" in the council-chamber of Pandæmonium at the beginning of Book II of Paradise Lost. In the engraving, Satan is depicted enthroned at the heart of the hall of his Palace of Pandæmonium, at the centre of a rotunda filled with onlooking throngs of fallen angels, illuminated by the new technology of gaslight. His throne is placed atop a black hemisphere. The composition may be inspired by an illustration in the 1782 edition of William Beckford's novel Vathek. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satan_Presiding_at_the_Infernal_Council
 
It is the title of various entities, both human and divine, who challenge the faith of humans in the Hebrew Bible.[6] In Christianity, the title became a personal name, and "Satan" changed from an accuser appointed by God to test men's faith to the chief of the rebellious fallen angels ("the devil" in Christianity, "Shaitan" in Arabic, the term used by Arab Christians and Muslims).[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satan
 
UN Habitat I
That historic meeting (Vancouver 1976) led to a new understanding about cities and communities, and the urgent need to make them sustainable to preserve a mutually supportive urban-rural balance.” said Canada’s Minister of Human Resources and Social Development, Ms. Diane Finley in 2006 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UN_Habitat_I
 
Area code 315 is a telephone area code in upstate New York. It stretches from the eastern border of Monroe County to Little Falls, north to the Canadian border, east to Massena and south to near Cortland. One of the original area codes created in 1947, it has only been split once. In 1954, its southern portion was combined with the eastern portion of area code 716 to form area code 607. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area_code_315
 
Friedman was best known for reviving interest in the money supply as a determinant of the nominal value of output, that is, the quantity theory of money. Monetarism is the set of views associated with modern quantity theory. Its origins can be traced back to the 16th-century School of Salamanca or even further http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Friedman#Scholarly_contributions
 
The stadium is nicknamed "The Big O", a reference to both its name and to the doughnut-shape of the permanent component of the stadium's roof; "The Big Owe" has been used to reference the astronomical cost of the stadium and the 1976 Olympics as a whole.[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympic_Stadium_(Montreal)
 
The Olympic Village is a twin-tower structure in Montreal, Quebec, Canada built as the athletes' residence for the 1976 Summer Olympics. It was built by René Lépine

All the athletes were housed there, except those participating in equestrian sports and sailing, who were housed in residences set up in Bromont, Quebec and Kingston, Ontario.[7][8]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympic_Village_(Montreal)
 
Morchella, the true morels, is a genus of edible mushrooms closely related to anatomically simpler cup fungi. These distinctive mushrooms appear honeycomb-like in that the upper portion is composed of a network of ridges with pits between them http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morchella
 
For some years after the conquest, the form of government was purely military. It was, indeed, only in 1774, that two Acts were passed by the British government, one with the view of providing a revenue for the civil government of the Province of Quebec, as the whole of Canada was then termed, the other, called "The Quebec Act," 

THE RISE
OF
CANADA,
FROM
BARBARISM
TO
WEALTH AND CIVILISATION.
BY
CHARLES ROGER,
QUEBEC.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/24550/24550-h/24550-h.htm#II
 
Richard Montgomery (December 2, 1738 – December 31, 1775) was an Irish-born soldier who first served in the British Army. He later became a Major General in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and he is most famous for leading the failed 1775 invasion of Canada http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Montgomery
 
In 1816, a settlement of emigrants was begun, under the direction of the military, in Bathurst, Drummond, Beckwith and Golbourne. The first settlers of Canada had a free passage afforded them from the United Kingdom, and were provided with rations and tools on their arrival in the colony. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/24550/24550-h/24550-h.htm#IV
 
Traditionally he is a character in many children's stories. He is said to sprinkle sand or dust on or into the eyes of the child at night to bring on dreams and sleep. The grit or "sleep" in one's eyes upon waking is supposed to be the result of the Sandman's work the previous evening. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandman
 
FRESHMAN YEAR PSU BEHREND; Roomate Don Brooks: In 1749, Giacomo Justerini, from Bologna, fell in love with an opera singer and followed her to London, bringing with him a number of recipes for liqueurs created by his uncle, who was a distiller. He found an English partner, George Johnson, and together they set up as wine merchants. In 1760, Justerini returned to his native land after selling the business to Johnson. That same year, King George III honoured the firm with the first of its eight Royal Warrants.[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justerini_%26_Brooks
 
The Magician's Nephew is an early example of a prequel.[citation needed] The middle third of the novel features creation of the Narnia world by Aslan the lion, centered at a lamp-post brought by accidental observers from London during year 1900. The visitors then participate in the beginning of Narnia history, 1000 years before The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe[a] (which inaugurated the series in 1950). The frame story set in England features two children ensnared in experimental travel via "the wood between the worlds". So the entire novel shows Narnia and our middle-age world to be only two of many in a multiverse that changes as some worlds begin and others end. It also explains the origin of foreign elements in Narnia, not only the lamp-post but the White Witch and a human king and queen.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Magician's_Nephew
 
Know Die Self (JUTE) Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, which has been classified in the family Tiliaceae, or more recently in Malvaceae. However, it has been reclassified within the family Sparrmanniaceae. https://plus.google.com/u/0/114963786071989905755/posts/BCkStbEuqHn