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Creative Diagnostics
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a leading manufacturer and supplier of antibodies, viral antigens, innovative diagnostic components and critical assay reagents
a leading manufacturer and supplier of antibodies, viral antigens, innovative diagnostic components and critical assay reagents

237 followers
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Immunoprecipitation Guide
Immunoprecipitation (IP) is a method of precipitating target protein out of solution by using an antibody that specifically binds to that particular protein. This process is powerful to isolate and concentrate a particular protein and/or protein complex from a sample containing many thousands of different proteins.
learn more : http://www.creative-diagnostics.com/immunoprecipitation-guide.htm
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Improved diagnostics fail to halt the rise of tuberculosis
TB remains a big killer despite the development of a better test for detecting the disease. learn more: https://www.nature.com/news/improved-diagnostics-fail-to-halt-the-rise-of-tuberculosis-1.23000
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MIT scientists propose a safer way to edit genes with CRISPR
In a new study, MIT researchers have developed nanoparticles that can deliver the CRISPR genome-editing system and specifically modify genes in mice. The team used nanoparticles to carry the CRISPR components, eliminating the need to use viruses for delivery.
learn more:
http://news.mit.edu/2017/crispr-carrying-nanoparticles-edit-genome-1113
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Antibody protects against Zika and dengue, mouse study shows
An antibody administered soon after infection with Zika virus protected the fetuses of pregnant mice (left), while the fetuses in infected mice that did not receive the antibody withered away (right). Researchers have identified an antibody that protects against both dengue and Zika disease, a first step toward an antibody-based preventive drug to protect fetuses from brain damage caused by Zika, while also protecting their mothers from Zika and dengue.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/09/170925132912.htm
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Polyclonal vs. Monoclonal Antibodies
http://www.creative-diagnostics.com/polyclonal-vs-monoclonal-antibodies.htm
What is the Difference Between Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies?

Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are secreted by B cells (plasma cells) to neutralize antigens such as bacteria and viruses. The classical representation of an antibody is a Y-shaped molecule composed of four polypeptides-two heavy chains and two light chains. Each tip of the "Y" contains a paratope (a structure analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. The ability of binding to an antigen has led to their ubiquitous use in a variety of life science and medical science. These antibodies can be classified into two primary types (monoclonal and polyclonal) by the means in which they are created from lymphocytes. Each of them has important role in the immune system, diagnostic exams, and treatments.

This overview will describe the synthesis of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, their differentiating properties, and their role in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.
Polyclonal Antibodies vs. Monoclonal Antibodies: Production.

Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) are mixture of heterogeneous which are usually produced by different B cell clones in the body. They can recognize and bind to many different epitopes of a single antigen.

Polyclonal antibodies are produced by injecting an immunogen into an animal. After being injected with a specific antigen to elicit a primary immune response, the animal is given a secondary even tertiary immunization to produce higher titers of antibodies against the particular antigen. After immunization, polyclonal antibodies can be obtained straight from the serum (blood which has had clotting proteins and red blood cells removed) or purified to obtain a solution which is free from other serum proteins.
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Clinical significance of five immunoglobulin tests
Clinically, some people often have repeated allergies, eczema and respiratory infections or other parts of the infection, in this case, in addition to some routine tests such as tests for white blood cells, immunoglobulin series, lymphocyte subsets, etc., the five immune immunoglobulin tests are also necessary. Although many people do these tests in the doctor’s advice, they do not know its role or clinical significance. Here you can find an explanation.

1. What is immunoglobulin?

Immunoglobulin (Ig) refers to a class of globulin with antibody activity or with chemical structure similar to antibody, and it is the main reaction substances of humoral immune response. With anti-bacterial, anti-viral effect and strengthening the phagocytosis of cells function, as well as killing or dissolving pathogenic microorganisms in the complement of the collaboration, it is an important component of disease resistance in the body.

Immunoglobulin is produced by plasma cells, widely found in blood, tissue fluid and exocrine fluid, accounting for about 20% of the total plasma protein. At present there are five classes of Ig found in the human body, namely IgA, IgG, IgM, IgE, IgD.

Five Immunoglobulin tests include IgA (immunoglobulin A), IgG (immunoglobulin G), IgM (immunoglobulin M), complement C3 and C4.

Immunoglobulin is produced by plasma cells, widely found in blood, tissue fluid and exocrine fluid, accounting for about 20% of the total plasma protein. At present there are five classes of Ig found in the human body, namely IgA, IgG, IgM, IgE, IgD.

Five Immunoglobulin tests include IgA (immunoglobulin A), IgG (immunoglobulin G), IgM (immunoglobulin M), complement C3 and C4.

learn more: http://www.creative-diagnostics.com/blog/index.php/clinical-significance-of-five-immunoglobulin-tests/
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Adipose Tissue Macrophage-Derived Exosomal miRNAs Can Modulate In Vivo and In Vitro Insulin Sensitivity
http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(17)30993-5
MiRNAs are regulatory molecules that can be packaged into exosomes and secreted from cells. Here, we show that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in obese mice secrete miRNA-containing exosomes (Exos), which cause glucose intolerance and insulin resistance when administered to lean mice. Conversely, ATM Exos obtained from lean mice improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when administered to obese recipients. miR-155 is one of the miRNAs overexpressed in obese ATM Exos, and earlier studies have shown that PPARγ is a miR-155 target. Our results show that miR-155KO animals are insulin sensitive and glucose tolerant compared to controls. Furthermore, transplantation of WT bone marrow into miR-155KO mice mitigated this phenotype. Taken together, these studies show that ATMs secrete exosomes containing miRNA cargo. These miRNAs can be transferred to insulin target cell types through mechanisms of paracrine or endocrine regulation with robust effects on cellular insulin action, in vivo insulin sensitivity, and overall glucose homeostasis.
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FDA Approves Novartis’ CAR-T Drug, First Gene Therapy Approval in US

On Aug. 30, 2017, FDA approved Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel), Novartis’ chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy, for treating a form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This marks the first CAR-T therapy, as well as the first therapy based on gene transfer, to be approved by FDA in the United States, according to press releases by FDA and Novartis.

Kymriah is a genetically modified autologous T-cell immunotherapy that is a one-time treatment. Each dose is a customized treatment created using an individual patient’s own T-cells. The patient’s T-cells are collected and sent to a manufacturing center where they are genetically modified to include a new gene that contains a specific CAR protein. The genetic modification directs the T-cells to target and kill leukemia cells with a specific antigen, in this case, antigen CD19, on the surface. Once the cells are modified, they are infused back into the patient to kill the cancer cells.

“We’re entering a new frontier in medical innovation with the ability to reprogram a patient’s own cells to attack a deadly cancer,” said FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD, in the agency press release. “New technologies such as gene and cell therapies hold out the potential to transform medicine and create an inflection point in our ability to treat and even cure many intractable illnesses. At the FDA, we’re committed to helping expedite the development and review of groundbreaking treatments that have the potential to be life-saving.”

Kymriah uses the 4-1BB costimulatory domain in its CAR to enhance cellular expansion and persistence. In 2012, Novartis and the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) formed a global collaboration to further research, develop, and commercialize CAR-T cell therapies, including Kymriah, for the investigational treatment of cancers.

"At Novartis, we have a long history of being at the forefront of transformative cancer treatment," said Joseph Jimenez, CEO of Novartis, in the company press release. "Five years ago, we began collaborating with the University of Pennsylvania and invested in further developing and bringing what we believed would be a paradigm-changing immunocellular therapy to cancer patients in dire need. With the approval of Kymriah, we are once again delivering on our commitment to change the course of cancer care."

"This therapy is a significant step forward in individualized cancer treatment that may have a tremendous impact on patients' lives," said Carl June, MD, the Richard W. Vague professor of immunotherapy, director of the Center for Cellular Immunotherapies in Penn's Perelman School of Medicine, who is a pioneer of this new treatment. "Through our collaboration with Novartis, we are creating the next wave of immunocellular cancer treatments, and are eager to progress CAR-T therapy in a host of hematologic and other cancer types."

Novartis plans additional filings for Kymriah in the US and European Union later this year, including applications with FDA and European Medicines Agency for treating adult patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Additional filings beyond the US and EU are anticipated in 2018.

Further Collaboration
Novartis also announced a collaboration with the US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) focused on improving efficiencies in current regulatory requirements to deliver value-based care and ensure access for this specific patient population. This approach is intended to include indication-based pricing for medicines and supports payments for a medicine, such as Kymriah for its initial indication, based on the clinical outcomes achieved, which would eliminate inefficiencies from the healthcare system. Other value-based approaches related to future indications for Kymriah and CAR-T cell therapies are under discussion.

Novartis is also collaborating with CMS to make an outcomes-based approach available to allow for payment only when pediatric and young adult ALL patients respond to Kymriah by the end of the first month. Future potential indications would be reviewed for the most relevant outcomes-based approach.

Kymriah will be manufactured for each individual patient using their own cells at the Novartis Morris Plains, NJ facility, which the company acquired from Dendreon in December 2012 for $43 million. Novartis has designed a reliable and integrated manufacturing and supply chain platform that allows for an individualized treatment approach on a global scale. This process includes cryopreservation of a patient's harvested cells, giving treating physicians and centers the flexibility to initiate therapy with Kymriah based on the individual patient's condition.

Novartis has demonstrated a reproducible product based on its experience manufacturing CAR-T cells for over 250 patients from 11 countries across various indications. The company continues to advance its CAR-T manufacturing expertise in Morris Plains, where it has been supplying CAR-T cells for global clinical trials and where it continues to invest to support the anticipated demand from patients.
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Immunohistochemistry Guide from Creative Diagnostics
mmunohistochemistry (IHC) combines histological, immunological and biochemical techniques for the identification of specific tissue components by means of a specific antigen/antibody reaction tagged with a visible label. IHC makes it possible to visualize the distribution and localization of specific cellular components within a cell or tissue. The technique is widely used in dermatologic diagnostics and research, and its applications continue to be extended because of its ease of use, reliability, and versatility. In IHC, an antigen–antibody construct is visualized through light microscopy by means of a color signal. The advantage of IHC over immunofluorescence techniques is the visible morphology of the tissue around the specific antigen by counterstaining, e.g., with hematoxylin (blue). Results of stained IHC markers are reported semiquantitatively and have important diagnostic and prognostic implications, particularly for skin tumors, lymphoma, and the detection of infectious microorganisms. Figure 1 shows a typical immunohistochemistry workflow. Step I~V are sample preparation procedures, step VI~IX are analytical procedures.

http://www.creative-diagnostics.com/Immunohistochemistry-guide.htm
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