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William Casarin
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> Often, it is unclear who should be paid: according to the Berklee report, up to half the money owed to artists/writers never reaches them, lost in a “dense thicket of micropayments and ‘black boxes’ where relationships among rights, royalties, processes, and participants, in the eyes of many, are deliberately obscured or, at best, have become hopelessly complex and outdated”.

I work at a record label and I can 1000% confirm this.

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Comic book version of Isaac Asimov's "The Last Question".

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Japan was a lot of fun, would definitely recommend it. Things I sorely miss now that I'm back: hot towels / wetnaps at every establishment, and the futuristic toilets.

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Google's Closure [1], Microsoft's TypeScript [2], Angular's AtScript [3], and Facebook's Flow [4] are all attempting to add stronger typing to JavaScript.  All of them have a static component; this is basically thinking of a type as a "part of speech".  Such a view of types prevents writing code that doesn't make sense, in the same way that parts of speech prevent utterances like "Boy the threw ball brother his to the." or "This sentence no verb."

However, there's another view of typing where types are predicates about terms; for example, we may consider the set of sentences that mention Santa Claus, or those that use a transitive verb.  In programming languages, these kinds of types are usually called "contracts" or "guards", and often appear as runtime constraints.  TypeScript is looking at the possibility of enabling user-defined type guards [5]; AtScript is trying to be TypeScript plus pluggable runtime type information; and Flow allows some dynamic type tests [6].

Mellies and Zeilberger have a great paper that shows how we can think of the two views as living in two different categories, and how "type refinement" is a functor between them.  The first paragraph above describes what they call "intrinsic" types, while the second paragraph describes "extrinsic"types.  A refinement is then a functor from extrinsic to intrinsic types.  The idea of "abstract interpretation" in the field of static analysis is an example of this, but their paper vastly generalizes it.  In fact, any functor can be seen as a type refinement system [7].

[1] https://developers.google.com/closure/compiler/docs/js-for-compiler#types
[2] http://www.typescriptlang.org/Handbook
[3] https://docs.google.com/document/d/11YUzC-1d0V1-Q3V0fQ7KSit97HnZoKVygDxpWzEYW0U/edit
[4] http://flowtype.org/docs/type-annotations.html#_
[5] https://github.com/Microsoft/TypeScript/issues/1007
[6] http://flowtype.org/docs/dynamic-type-tests.html#_
[7] http://noamz.org/papers/funts.pdf

I did a small experiment with the Oculus Rift. I stood very still, and then I did bursts of movement in game. I noticed my body swayed a bit each time I moved. I can only conclude that my brain is doing motion detection on my visual inputs and then using that information when calculating balance.

According to Wikipedia this is well known, but it was cool to see it in action.

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these are great

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Looks like Google does auto awesome videos now. Neat.
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