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Roudaina Mahmoud
Works at architechlb
Attended Lebanese university
Lives in RIMHALA
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Slanted House is a home visualized by Michal Nowak. The project will be carried out by 81.WAW.PL. Renderings courtesy of Michal Nowak
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Apartment in Saint Petersburg is a residential project completed by GEOMETRIUM. It is located in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Floor Plan Floor Plan Renderings courtesy of GEOMETRIUM
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Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, chemical and gustatory.

The communication modalities used by domestic cats have been affected by domestication.


Vocalizations

Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.

Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).

Brown et al. categorised vocal responses of cats according to the behavioural context: (1) during separation of kittens from mother cats, (2) during food deprivation, (3) during pain, (4) prior to or during threat or attack behavior, as in disputes over territory or food, (5) during a painful or acutely stressful experience, as in routine prophylactic injections and (6) during kitten deprivation. Less commonly recorded calls from mature cats included purring, conspecific greeting calls or murmurs, extended vocal dialogues between cats in separate cages, “frustration” calls during training or extinction of conditioned responses.

Miller classified vocalisations into 5 categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/snarl/hiss.


Purr

The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic cat kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.

The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partly because cats do not have a unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the vocalization. One hypothesis, supported by electromyographic studies, is that cats produce the purring noise by using the vocal folds and/or the muscles of the larynx to alternately dilate and constrict the glottis rapidly, causing air vibrations during inhalation and exhalation. Combined with the steady inhalation and exhalation as the cat breathes, a purring noise is produced with strong harmonics. Purring is sometimes accompanied by other sounds, though this varies between individuals. Some may only purr, while other cats include low level outbursts sometimes described as "lurps" or "yowps".

Domestic cats purr at varying frequencies. One study reported that domestic cats purr at average frequencies of 21.98 Hz in the egressive phase and 23.24 Hz in the ingressive phase with an overall mean of 22.6 Hz. Further research on purring in four domestic cats found that the fundamental frequency varied between 20.94 and 27.21 Hz for the egressive phase and between 23.0 and 26.09 Hz for the ingressive phase. There was considerable variation between the four cats in the relative amplitude, duration and frequency between egressive and ingressive phases, although this variation generally occurred within the normal range.

One study on a single cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) showed it purred with an average frequency of 20.87 Hz (egressive phases) and 18.32 Hz (ingressive phases). A further study on four adult cheetahs found that mean frequencies were between 19.3 Hz and 20.5 Hz in ingressive phases, and between 21.9 Hz and 23.4 Hz in egressive phases. The egressive phases were longer than ingressive phases and moreover, the amplitude was greater in the egressive phases.

It was once believed that only the cats of the genus Felis could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tigers, lions, jaguars and leopards) also produce sounds similar to purring, but only when exhaling. The subdivision of the Felidae into ‘purring cats’ on the one hand and ‘roaring cats ’ (i.e. non-purring) on the other, originally goes back to Owen (1834/1835) and was definitely introduced by Pocock (1916), based on a difference in hyoid anatomy. The ‘roaring cats’ (lion, Panthera leo; tiger, P. tigris; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus) have an incompletely ossified hyoid, which according to this theory, enables them to roar but not to purr. On the other hand, the snow leopard (Uncia uncia), as the fifth felid species with an incompletely ossified hyoid, purrs (Hemmer, 1972). All remaining species of the family Felidae (‘purring cats’) have a completely ossified hyoid which enables them to purr but not to roar. However, Weissengruber et al. (2002) argued that the ability of a cat species to purr is not affected by the anatomy of its hyoid, i.e. whether it is fully ossified or has a ligamentous epihyoid, and that, based on a technical acoustic definition of roaring, the presence of this vocalization type depends on specific characteristics of the vocal folds and an elongated vocal tract, the latter rendered possible by an incompletely ossified hyoid.





Meow

The meow is one of the most widely known vocalizations of domestic kittens. It is a call apparently used to solicit attention from the mother.

Adult cats commonly vocalise with a "meow" (or "miaow") sound, which is onomatopoeic. The meow can be assertive, plaintive, friendly, bold, welcoming, attention soliciting, demanding, or complaining. It can even be silent, where the cat opens its mouth but does not vocalize. Adult cats do not usually meow to each other and so meowing to human beings is likely to be an extension of the use by kittens.








Language differences

Different languages have correspondingly different words for the "meow" sound, including miau (Belarusian, Croatian, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, Lithuanian, Malay, German, Polish, Russian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish and Ukrainian), mnau (Czech), meong (Indonesian), niau (Ukrainian), niaou (?????, Greek), miaou (French), nya (??, Japanese), miao (?, Mandarin Chinese, Italian), miav/miao or mjav/mjau (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian), mjá (Icelandic), ya-ong (??, Korean), ????? / Miya?un_ (Urdu) and meo-meo (Vietnamese). In some languages (such as Chinese ?, mao), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.

Read more : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_communication

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beautiful kitchen so classy
Belgian interior designer Guido Decoussemaecker designed the interiors of this exclusive private residence. Once a farmhouse, this dream home is located in North Holland, a province in the Northwest of The Netherlands. Photos by: Rene van Dongen
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Beach Boiserie is a private residence located in Lido di Jesolo, Italy. It was designed in 2014 by JM Architecture. Beach Boiserie by JM Architecture: "The trademark of this beachfront apartment remodeling located in Jesolo Lido, Venice, is a new white lacquered wood skin with horizontal reveals running endlessly and creating a yacht-like feeling. Walls, closets, doors and cabinets vanish under the same vertical surface, orga...
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Have her in circles
68 people
Mohamad Bacha's profile photo
Inas Hamadeh's profile photo
Daisy Rogers's profile photo
Basselanishalawe Basselanishalaww's profile photo
Danny El Feghaly's profile photo
aboudi khalil's profile photo
Layla Mahmoud's profile photo
harsh vardhan's profile photo
Lama Riman's profile photo
Education
  • Lebanese university
    fine arts, 2005 - 2010
  • Lebanese university
    language ET communication, 2004 - 2005
Basic Information
Gender
Female
Story
Introduction
Am interior designer, married to monah  mahmoud ,lived in barouk, and studied in th lebanese university, where i had masters in interior architecture. 
Bragging rights
Have a little doggy "Mika"
Work
Occupation
Head of Interior Design Department in ARCHItech.lb.sarl
Employment
  • architechlb
    head of Int.design depart., 2011 - present
  • condas (shop drawing)
    cad operator, 2010 - 2011
Places
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Currently
RIMHALA
Previously
ALEY
Links
Roudaina Mahmoud's +1's are the things they like, agree with, or want to recommend.
Soho bathroom version
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"The creative concept plays with essential lines and forms. Minimal elegance and aesthetic balance are the note that qualify the Soho line,

Loulou/Hoda by david/nicolas
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What you see before you is not uncommon. Being Lebanese, one would surely have warm memories consisting of one or more of these items, proba

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S House is a home visualized by Igor Sirotov. It will be constructed in Kiev, Ukraine, and presents an interior that is both elegant and sty

White House by Pierre Antoine Compain | HomeDSGN
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French studio Pierre Antoine Compain completed the remodeling of the White House. This townhouse with it's stunning interior is located in t

Brioni Worldwide - Bespoke
www.scoop.it

Brioni – premium menswear brand is on a glob trot and Park Associati is the architect behind the high fashion Italian brand’s bespoke intern

Pou
market.android.com

Você sabe o que é preciso para cuidar de seu próprio animal de estimação alienígena?! Alimentá-lo, limpá-lo, brincar com ele e vê-lo crescer

Apartment in Germany by Alexander Zenzura | HomeDSGN, a daily source for...
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Interior Design and Inspirational Homes Magazine - HomeDSGN, your daily source for interior design ideas, home design trends, modern homes a

touch | The leading mobile operator in Lebanon
www.touch.com.lb

Need to Know. 1. To subscribe to Web & Talk, send “W” to 1100 from your magic line. Subscription to the bundle will be automatically renewed

Ufogel Holiday House Floats Above the Meadows in Lienz, Austria
freshome.com

If you plan to visit Austria anytime soon, we'd suggest you to stay at the Ufogel holiday house (near Lienz). We've discovered it on Homedit

Extravagant Taste, Discreet Luxury : Shape of Art Deco Interior in St. P...
freshome.com

This private apartment tastefully decorated by NG-studio Sanremo in the Russian capital of art and culture, St. Petersburg, unveils a living

Futuristic Approach to Contemporary Moscow Apartment by Geometrix Design
freshome.com

Working with a provocative open space that needed to be wisely dealt with, Geometrix Design delivered a daring modern apartment decor in Mos

Free standing vent free fireplace GLOBE by Vauni | design Markus Grip
www.archiproducts.com

GLOBE is a flueless designed fireplace that combines tradition with classic form in a modern interpretation. The model is free-standing with

The Warehaus by Residential Attitudes | HomeDSGN, a daily source for ins...
www.homedsgn.com

Interior Design and Inspirational Homes Magazine - HomeDSGN, your daily source for interior design ideas, home design trends, modern homes a

4M Office
www.archilovers.com

Suspended from above, watching over all that happens, hang the director’s revolutionary concept of square mud tiling, created remarkably in

Amitzi architects
www.houzz.com

Amitzi architects - modern - home office - tel aviv - by Amitzi Architects

Departamento CGB by ARCO Arquitectura Contemporánea | HomeDSGN, a daily ...
www.homedsgn.com

Interior Design and Inspirational Homes Magazine - HomeDSGN, your daily source for interior design ideas, home design trends, modern homes a

Paris Baguette bakery by JHP, Seoul » Retail Design Blog
retaildesignblog.net

Distilling the very essence of the best Parisienne patisserie, and transporting East towards the hippest district in Seoul, South Korea, a c

Villa H by Smartvoll Architekten ZT KG | HomeDSGN, a daily source for in...
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Interior Design and Inspirational Homes Magazine - HomeDSGN, your daily source for interior design ideas, home design trends, modern homes a

Color and Personality: Webshake Office in Bucharest by Archinteriors
freshome.com

Monica Corduneanu of Archinteriors sent us photos of the Webshake office, a project which she recently completed. According to the designer,