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Sumatilal Sheth
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How are potato chips are made?

The key is to set a high standard of quality, achieve it, and achieve it constantly

    What do we require to produce good potato chips?
        Excellent quality raw materials ( potatoes, vegetable oil, flavorings and fresh water.)
        Excellent processing techniques and equipment.
        Excellent teamwork
        Customers who want to buy them - demanding high quality products and service.
    How are Potato chips made?
        Potatoes are picked, cleaned and sliced before frying.
        The frying process boils off the water in the potato slices and replaces it with vegetable oil, giving color, texture and flavor to the crisp.
    How do we get consistency?
        Using "Best Practice" in growing and storing the right variety of potato.
        By ensuring the slicing machines are working properly and changed at the correct frequency.
        The frying machinery operates to the correct program
        Constant recording of the key measures - moisture, color, slice thickness and temperature

What is a Potato?

A potato (also called a tuber) was first brought to Europe by Sir Walter Raleigh and is widely consumed throughout the world. The potato plant uses the tuber for storing sugars that it can use to grow, repair it, and stay alive. If we can store the harvested tuber in the best condition possible it gives us the best quality crisp. If tubers are badly handled they will give problems during processing through disease, bruising, discoloration, or dark brown colors. In the field, the potato plant traps sunlight energy (by photosynthesis) to form simple sugars (glucose and fructose), which it then converts into the more complex sugar storage material called starch. It uses the starch as its energy reserve that will keep it alive once picked in the potato store. The Potato Quality Manager has to ensure storage conditions are perfect.

The Potato grower: The potato grower's job is to ensure the maximum amount of starch is stored in the tuber, as this will produce the greatest yield. His next job is to store the potatoes correctly so that the starch does not break down into simpler sugars that produce dark crisp colors. Not only are different storage conditions required throughout the year, but processing requirements also differ during the year in order to keep the crisp flavor and color consistent. In order to understand the importance of storage and processing in quality we need to understand how the crisp making process works.
Process of Potao chips

Potato varieties:

The two main crisping varieties are Lady Rosetta and Lady Clare although there are others. The secret of a good crisp potato depends on using:

    Good quality seed

    having good planting, growing and harvesting disciplines

    the correct storage conditions

    good weather throughout the growing season (August September).

The potato quality manager must liaise closely with the growers to ensure they carry out the correct farming procedures (drilling, spraying, fertilizer application, irrigation) that will produce a consistent, high quality potato throughout the year. The choice of grower and storage method are key elements in good quality potato production. Potatoes are harvested from late July through to October and are used directly from the fields. The best quality potatoes are then stored for use throughout the year.

We have to start with the best quality potatoes available.

Potatoes are a vegetable crop whose quality varies throughout the year. To make good quality potato chips you will need low sugar and high solid content potato to be secured from various places during the year. firstly why we need low sugar in potato, the reason is chips made from high sugar potato will turn brown after frying, while low sugar potato chips will remain white ( Golden yellow after frying). Good Quality potatoes contain up to 79% water, so solid content is 20%, if the solids content is low means to make a kilogram of chips one has to use more potatoes compered to high solid content type, also more water potatoes required more fuel to evaporate the water.

Percentage solids:

A potato is made up of starch, water, and other materials and the amount of
microscopestarch it contains is called its "percentage solids". A percentage solids of, say, 23% means 23% of the potato's weight is starch, 76% is water, and there will be about 1% of other materials. (23% + 76% + 1% = 100%). A 20 % solids mean the water content of the potato is 79% (20%+79%+l% =100%) If you looked inside a potato with a microscope you will see millions of potato cells. Each cell contains water, starch and other materials.

What is starch and why is it so important?
Starch gives the crisp its taste, texture and color. Starch is made up of thousands of molecules of a simple sugar (sucrose) linked together In a chain-like pattern. Sucrose is made up of two even simpler sugars (glucose and fructose) S-S-S-S-S-S-S-S-S-S-S-S-S x 000's = Starch (a chain of sucrose molecules) S=Sucrose (a combination of glucose and fructose) Glucose and fructose are called "reducing sugars"

Why is this important?
The perfect potato has a high starch content and a low "reducing sugar" content. It is the "reducing sugars" (glucose and fructose), that give the darker brown colors during frying. To get a golden crisp color, the Potato Quality Manager must ensure the potatoes are stored correctly. This in turn depends on: 1. how well they grew in the field 2. the weather (wet, dry, cold or hot) 3. the quality of the potato seed variety that year.

Crisp taste and texture
potato chipsThis is dependent on the starch content and the way the potato is sliced and processed. If the % solids are high then the potato contains a lot of starch and it can be sliced thinly and still produce a good texture and flavor. If the potato has a low % solids then there is less starch, and in order to produce a good crisp taste and texture the potato must be sliced thicker - to leave as much flavor in the slice as possible. (some of brands Rough Cuts are sliced thicker still - on purpose). If the frying temperature is too high, the slices may become overcooked and brittle. If too low, the slices will be soft and unpleasant to eat. If the flow through the fryer is too fast, slices may be uncooked. If the flow is too slow the slices will be overcooked.


Potato size The potato grower will grade the potatoes before putting them into storage. The intention is to remove the potatoes that are too small and those that are too big. Removal of small potatoes is important because:
Potato Size

1. They are generally immature
2. they discolor easily
3. they do not cook evenly
4. they produce a mass of small bits when sliced. Large potatoes have the opposite problem and they may well be too big to pass down into the packing machines. This causes blockages and a considerable amount of machine delays.



Slicing Is the crucial step in producing a fantastic crisp. It delivers...

1. An evenly cooked crisp because potato slices are cut evenly, (a thick slice will cook differently from a thinner slice).

2. An even slice reduces crisp breakage from overcooking thin potato slices.

3. Evenly sliced potatoes retain a lot more taste than badly sliced ones. The slice thickness must be set accurately using sharp slicer blades. Changing the blades when required keeps the cutting even and gives a better quality of crisp.

The Fryer

Fryers are drying systems, reducing the moisture in the potato slices from around 76% down to around 1.6%. This cooks the potato slices to give a crisp with a good flavor and golden color.

There are two different types of fryer systems available: Direct heated fryers and Indirect heated fryers. Direct heated fryers are those in which the cooking oil is heated by an internal source in the fryer pan. Indirect fryers on the other hand are those in which the cooking oil is heated by a source external to the fryer pan. The main characteristics of the two fryer types are listed in the table as below

Direct heated Fryer and Indirect Heated Fryers: A Comparison

Direct Heated Fryer


Indirect heated Fryers

Still oil bath


continuous oil circulation

By-pass filtration only


Full flow filtration

Total system oil volume is filtered between 1 and 4 times an hour


Total oil volume in system is filtered approximately every 60 Seconds

Fast temperature response


Fast Temperature response

Size of the fryer governs heat input


Fryer is sized on the space required to cook products

Fines removal is difficult


fines are kept suspension for ease of removal by filtration

Straightforward installation requirements


Modular design makes installation straightforward

Large system oil volumes due to pan depth


5-50% less system oil volume

Because of the need to have heating elements built into direct fryers, the pans of direct heated fryers are always deeper than the equivalent capacity indirect fryer and therefore hold more oil. This has an adverse effect on both product and oil quality which will be discussed later.

An additional complication of this effect results from the frequent need to base the size of a fryer for a particular product and capacity, not on the space required to cook the product but on size of the heating elements to achieve sufficient heat transfer. This may result in fryers up to 25% longer than an equivalent indirect fryer which in turn further increases the total system oil volume.

System oil volume In most frying operations the free fatty acid level of the cooking oil will rise to an unacceptable level if the total volume of oil in the system cannot be turned over within seven to eight hours. Turnover occurs by the pick-up of oil into the products as they pass through the fryer and this oil is replenished with fresh oil. Many food products do not have a very high rate of oil pick-up and to achieve an acceptable turnover time it is critical that the volume of oil in the system be kept as low as possible. Typically an indirect fryer has between 25% and 50% less system oil volume than the equivalent capacity direct fryer. This substantially lowers oil turnover times and helps keep free fatty acids) at acceptable levels. In terms of outcomes this means that products may have better flavor and smell and give better shelf life when cooked in an indirect fryer. To achieve equivalent results using a direct fryer it may be necessary for the processor to discard oil from the fryer and replace it with fresh oil which dramatically increases the operating costs of the fryer.

Oil filtration In an indirect fryer, fitted with full flow primary filtration, the entire system oil is passed through the primary filter approximately every 60 seconds. Because of this oil circulation, fines are many times more likely to remain in suspension in the fryer until removed by the filter. In comparison, a direct fryer with by-pass filtration passes the oil through a filter typically between one and four times an hour. A micro-fine secondary filter is often installed on indirect fryers processing those products that produce very small fines particles. To prevent any possibility of build up of these charred fines and the risk of oil degradation resulting, all system oil is circulated through the secondary filter at least four times per hour. The outcomes of this filtration are the almost total elimination of black particles (burnt fines) on the finished product, reduced carbon In an indirect fryer, fitted with full flow primary filtration, the entire system oil is passed through the primary filter approximately every 60 seconds. Because of this oil circulation, fines are many times more likely to remain in suspension in the fryer until removed by the filter. In comparison, a direct fryer with by-pass filtration passes the oil through a filter typically between one and four times an hour. A micro-fine secondary filter is often installed on indirect fryers processing those products that produce very small fines particles. To prevent any possibility of build up of these charred fines and the risk of oil degradation resulting, all system oil is circulated through the secondary filter at least four times per hour. The outcomes of this filtration are the almost total elimination of black particles (burnt fines) on the finished product, reduced carbon build-up, discoloration and smoke and improved oil life.

Continuous Fryers with external heat exchanger usually have three sections:

1. The first section has a set of paddles that drive the slices forward. 2. The second stage is a submerge belt which pushes the slices under surface of the oil. 3. The third stage is the take-off belt. Fryers use hot vegetable oil to fry the potato slices. The oil is heated to around l82°C which drives the moisture out of the cells in the potato slices. The oil replaces the water to produce a crisp. Fried crisps are removed from the fryer by the take-off belt. Jas Enterprise is s recommend fried in rapeseed oil, an vegetable oil that is naturally lower in saturated fat. Rapeseed oil is also a good source of Omega 3 and Omega 6 oils that are essential for maintaining a healthy heart. Frying Temperature The texture and color of the crisps is dependent on the frying oil temperature. The time that a crisp is in the cooker will be about 3 minutes 50 secs. In that time, slices must cook uniformly. This gives the cooks information about the fryer's performance. The fryer performance can be predicted from the number of crisps displaying "saddles" or fold-overs. If the crisp is sliced too thin it will bend over on itself and look like it has been folded over.

Crisp Quality - A Summary There are four key determinants of quality:
1. color The first thing that a consumer sees when they open a bag of potato chips is the color of the crisps. color therefore is a key quality measure.
2. Texture This depends on the starch content of the potato and the way crisps are sliced and fried. The crunchiness derives from the final moisture content and is best tested by eating the crisps.
3. Oil Content Salt and fat content are often quoted as the two most desirable characteristics of potato crisps. The factors affecting oil content of crisps are:
• The specific gravity or % solids
• Partial drying of potato slices in air prior to frying
• Slice thickness
• Type of oil used
• Temperature of frying
• Frying time

At end off this news letter we must inform you that

    Never compromise on the quality of the flavor. as it is the flavor which the customer eats, plain unflavored chips are bland.

    Always Experiment with new flavors, but first of all go with the running flavors in the market they will immediately gives you sales.

    Always aim for the next step in the ladder. Don't try to jump, if you are new to this line start with small plant, if you are already manufacturing snack food than aim for a auto plant. Remember "ROME WASN'T BUILT IN A DAY"

    You have to create a bouquet of products, add namkeen, pellets, kurkure to the set of products.
    For More Details please visit us at http://www.pulverizerindia.com/potato-chips-production-machine.html and watch video at http://www.pulverizerindia.com/videos/

Good Luck Is The Result of Hard Work And Preparation
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William Mwangi's profile photo
 
Great informative article. Well put and said. Between direct heat fryer and indirect, which is better? 
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Semi automatic chapati making machine offered by jasenterprise.com please visit to us at http://www.jasenterprise.com
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Sumatilal Sheth

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The present scenario holds the nature to be totally protected. Environmental pollution is the greatest hazard for the present and future generations, which is a visible truth known by every human and purposely being neglected. This hazard not only spoils the pleasant living, but also leads to dreadful diseases, which questions the peace and health of every man on this planet.

Fortunately, at least a minority has started realizing the need for environmental awareness and protection – thanks to globalization. Recently, every day is becoming a brand new day of research to find the best means to attain a pollution free environment.

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For more details please visit us at http://pulveriser.co.in/kitchen-waste-crusher.html#food-waste-disposer-machine
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