I find myself rather fascinated by this article.
If you really believe that the function of grading is solely to give a score to students, the methods that are proposed here make sense. Whether you have grading done by an algorithm or by an outside service that doesn't know the student, why the heck not outsource it? But if the function of grading is to assist in the teaching process, outsourcing grading misses the point.
One teacher I know, who has been teaching English at a top prep school for over 40 years, told me recently that he's often up till 1 am grading papers. I sent him this article to get his reaction. He wrote:
"Responding to student papers is a teaching activity, not contest-judge work, and so fairness or unfairness isn't even an issue."
He is up till all hours because marking papers is part of his teaching. He's not scoring a test or an essay for purposes of giving a grade.
It strikes me that the whole idea of computerized or outsourced grading is based on a failure to understand what education is really about.
A better direction might well be the one suggested by teachers who have adopted Khan Academy lectures, effectively outsourcing the lecturing so they can spend more time one-on-one with students.