Financial Ratio Analysis
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Description
Revenue/Sales "Revenue is the amount of money that a company actually receives during a specific period, including discounts and deductions for returned merchandise. It is the ""top line"" or ""gross income"" figure from which costs are subtracted to determine net income.
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- Cost of Goods Sold "Cost of goods sold (COGS) are the direct costs attributable to the production of the goods sold by a company. This amount includes the cost of the materials used in creating the good along with the direct labor costs used to produce the good. It excludes indirect expenses such as distribution costs and sales force costs. COGS appears on the income statement and can be deducted from revenue to calculate a company's gross margin. Also referred to as ""cost of sales.""
"
Gross Profit "Gross profit is a company's total revenue (equivalent to total sales) minus the cost of goods sold. Gross profit is the profit a company makes after deducting the costs associated with making and selling its products, or the costs associated with providing its services.

"
- SG&A Expenses "it is the sum of all direct and indirect selling expenses and all general and administrative expenses of a company.

Direct selling expenses are expenses that can be directly linked to the sale of a specific unit such as credit, warranty and advertising expenses. Indirect selling expenses are expenses which cannot be directly linked to the sale of a specific unit, but which are proportionally allocated to all units sold during a certain period, such as telephone, interest and postal charges. General and administrative expenses include salaries of non-sales personnel, rent, heat and lights.
"
EBITDA "Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization is an indicator of a company's financial performance which is calculated in the following manner:

EBITDA = Revenue - Expenses (excluding tax, interest, depreciation and amortization).

EBITDA is essentially net income with interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization added back to it, and can be used to analyze and compare profitability between companies and industries because it eliminates the effects of financing and accounting decisions.
"
- Depreciation "Depreciation is a method of allocating the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life. Businesses depreciate long-term assets for both tax and accounting purposes.

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- Amortization "The spreading out of capital expenses for intangible assets over a specific period of time (usually over the asset's useful life) for accounting and tax purposes. Amortization is similar to depreciation, which is used for tangible assets, and to depletion, which is used with natural resources. Amortization roughly matches an asset’s expense with the revenue it generates.

"
EBIT/Operating Profit "Operating profit is the profit earned from a firm's normal core business operations. This value does not include any profit earned from the firm's investments (such as earnings from firms in which the company has partial interest) and the effects of interest and taxes.

Also known as ""earnings before interest and tax"" (EBIT) or ""operating income"".
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- Interest Interest is the charge for the privilege of borrowing money, typically expressed as annual percentage rate. Interest can also refer to the amount of ownership a stockholder has in a company, usually expressed as a percentage.
- Taxes "Taxes are generally an involuntary fee levied on individuals or corporations that is enforced by a government entity, whether local, regional or national in order to finance government activities. In economics, taxes fall on whomever pays the burden of the tax, whether this is the entity being taxed, like a business, or the end consumers of the business's goods.
"
Net Profit "Net income (NI) is a company's total earnings (or profit). Net income is calculated by taking revenues and adjusting for the cost of doing business, depreciation, interest, taxes and other expenses. This number is found on a company's income statement and is an important measure of how profitable the company is over a period of time. The measure is also used to calculate earnings per share.

Often referred to as ""the bottom line"" since net income is listed at the bottom of the income statement. In the U.K., net income is known as ""profit attributable to shareholders"".

"
﻿

Description
Revenue/Sales "Revenue is the amount of money that a company actually receives during a specific period, including discounts and deductions for returned merchandise. It is the ""top line"" or ""gross income"" figure from which costs are subtracted to determine net income.
"
- Cost of Goods Sold "Cost of goods sold (COGS) are the direct costs attributable to the production of the goods sold by a company. This amount includes the cost of the materials used in creating the good along with the direct labor costs used to produce the good. It excludes indirect expenses such as distribution costs and sales force costs. COGS appears on the income statement and can be deducted from revenue to calculate a company's gross margin. Also referred to as ""cost of sales.""
"
Gross Profit "Gross profit is a company's total revenue (equivalent to total sales) minus the cost of goods sold. Gross profit is the profit a company makes after deducting the costs associated with making and selling its products, or the costs associated with providing its services.

"
- SG&A Expenses "it is the sum of all direct and indirect selling expenses and all general and administrative expenses of a company.

Direct selling expenses are expenses that can be directly linked to the sale of a specific unit such as credit, warranty and advertising expenses. Indirect selling expenses are expenses which cannot be directly linked to the sale of a specific unit, but which are proportionally allocated to all units sold during a certain period, such as telephone, interest and postal charges. General and administrative expenses include salaries of non-sales personnel, rent, heat and lights.
"
EBITDA "Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization is an indicator of a company's financial performance which is calculated in the following manner:

EBITDA = Revenue - Expenses (excluding tax, interest, depreciation and amortization).

EBITDA is essentially net income with interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization added back to it, and can be used to analyze and compare profitability between companies and industries because it eliminates the effects of financing and accounting decisions.
"
- Depreciation "Depreciation is a method of allocating the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life. Businesses depreciate long-term assets for both tax and accounting purposes.

"
- Amortization "The spreading out of capital expenses for intangible assets over a specific period of time (usually over the asset's useful life) for accounting and tax purposes. Amortization is similar to depreciation, which is used for tangible assets, and to depletion, which is used with natural resources. Amortization roughly matches an asset’s expense with the revenue it generates.

"
EBIT/Operating Profit "Operating profit is the profit earned from a firm's normal core business operations. This value does not include any profit earned from the firm's investments (such as earnings from firms in which the company has partial interest) and the effects of interest and taxes.

Also known as ""earnings before interest and tax"" (EBIT) or ""operating income"".
"
- Interest Interest is the charge for the privilege of borrowing money, typically expressed as annual percentage rate. Interest can also refer to the amount of ownership a stockholder has in a company, usually expressed as a percentage.
- Taxes "Taxes are generally an involuntary fee levied on individuals or corporations that is enforced by a government entity, whether local, regional or national in order to finance government activities. In economics, taxes fall on whomever pays the burden of the tax, whether this is the entity being taxed, like a business, or the end consumers of the business's goods.
"
Net Profit "Net income (NI) is a company's total earnings (or profit). Net income is calculated by taking revenues and adjusting for the cost of doing business, depreciation, interest, taxes and other expenses. This number is found on a company's income statement and is an important measure of how profitable the company is over a period of time. The measure is also used to calculate earnings per share.

Often referred to as ""the bottom line"" since net income is listed at the bottom of the income statement. In the U.K., net income is known as ""profit attributable to shareholders"".

"
﻿