- Architecture, present
- Southern California Institute of ArchitectureArchitecture, 2009 - 2012
- Arizona State UniversityDesign, 2005 - 2009
I love in the comments section how one person says that this is junk and that any computer could do it faster. They forget the human brain is able to have many more threads working at the same time. Computers may have multiple processors but each must be working on its own task. They do not run 1's and 0's from the same program the same programs on multiple CPU's. If it were possible to have an Operating System with only 1 program in it. (impossible) but if we could then we would only need 1 processor because that program can not be divided up over 2 processors yet. Thankfully our computers are running literally thousands of small programs at one time so the computer can split the number in half and farm them out to multiple processors.
Dr. Banting and Best were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1923 for the discovery of the insulin molecule or protein. The knew what it did and how to get it they just had no idea what it looked like. They knew what it was because it worked. Can you imagine attempting to find something you can not see and have no idea what it is your are looking for.
The primary (just the list of amino acids in the chain) structure of insulin was determined by British molecular biologist Frederick Sanger. Insulin was the first protein to have its sequence be determined. He was awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work. That is the flat sequence however no protein is flat they fold in on themselves with weak hydrogen bonds that naturally form the most stable form of the protein.
In 1969, after decades of work, Dorothy Hodgkin determined the spatial conformation of the molecule, the so-called tertiary structure, by means of X-ray diffraction studies. She had been awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964 for the development of crystallography. I was born in 1967 and still the 3d structure was not settled until.
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow received the 1977 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the development of the radioimmunoassay for insulin. Ok so from discovery of the insulin protein to how it folds in onto itself in order to fit the human body's insulin receptor site only 54 years. This protein was the most studied protein of all time. If it makes one wrong fold then it is not insulin it is some other protein. Again .....That is a grand total of 54 years for them to get it right. Now they use insulin as one of the easy proteins to train players on the game "fold it." There are players who have been able to get the complete 3d structure in under 1 hour. Not only do we have the 3d structure of the insulin molecule but "fold it" helped figure out what amino acids and what 3d shape the receptor site had to have in order to hold the insulin molecule. Kind of like finding the baseball glove that holds only one kind of ball.... an insulin ball. Now they are changing the insulin molecule (the ball) in diverse ways to make it fit the mitt (receptor site) better than natural human insulin. Now that we know what the exact shape of the mitt, they are designing many insulins that fit the glove just a little better and work faster or take longer to degrade and last longer. This is happening at such a rapid pace now. Thanks to the game "fold it."
If you are interested in the best article on multi-brain parallel thought process the best article is called "The Cathedral and the Bizzar" Open source works in programming as it does in Protein folding.
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