Archimedes' principle indicates that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces. Archimedes' principle is a law of physics fundamental to fluid mechanics. Archimedes of Syracuse formulated this principle, which bears his name.
 is, in my mind (and many other peoples'), a top contender for a Fields medal later this year at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Seoul. A report on some recent work of his is here:
He has announced that the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture  is true for at least (just under) 2/3 of all elliptic curves. This is an improvement of past results of his (and coauthors) in this direction (showing a 'positive proportion' satisfy BS-D), and a comment to the post indicates that this is expected to improve to 4/5 given some ongoing work by Chris Skinner and collaborators.
That this work is considered by many to be Fields medal-worthy is analogous to how Stephen Smale  and Michael Freedman  won the Fields medal (essentially) for their proofs of the Poincaré conjecture in dimensions 5 and above, and in dimension 4, respectively ; it wasn't the original big conjecture, but it shed light on the general problem and why proving it in dimension 3 (the 'real' Poincaré conjecture , eventually proved by Grisha Perelman ) was going to need completely different tools.
So what is the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture? Essentially, it tells us something about the number of rational-number solutions to certain two-variable cubic equations in two variables, with rational coefficients, defining a so-called elliptic curve. Such curves are not ellipses, but there is an indirect historical link, via functions which calculate lengths of arcs on ellipses. If we look at solutions over the complex numbers, then one finds they form a surface looking like the skin of a donut (the one with a hole), possibly pinched or 'degenerate'.
However, if we look for solutions among the rational numbers a/b, with a and b whole numbers (and possibly b=0, corresponding to a 'point at infinity'!), then this is a lot harder, and then the problem falls into two cases: a finite number of solutions and infinitely many solutions. In the infinitely many solutions case, we can further distinguish the 'number' of solutions, in a manner of speaking, by the dimension, or rank, of the infinite part. (And the finite number of solutions in fact corresponds to rank 0.) The fact that this dimension is finite is a hard theorem all on its own, due to Mordell . There is an algebraic structure on the rational solutions to the equation underlying an elliptic curve, namely that of an abelian group, and the animated gif below shows one way of thinking about this (source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EllipticGroup.gif). This algebraic structure means that the possible solutions are very constrained and there is a rich theory behind elliptic curves for this very reason (and this algebraic structure is why elliptic curves can be used for cryptography, including the infamous set with a built-in back door )
Now there is another way to calculate a 'rank' for an elliptic curve, which uses complex analysis, or more roughly, infinite products built from the elliptic curve. One defines a so-called L-function, similar in character to the famous Riemann zeta function  (but unrelated), and then the Modularity Theorem , proven in part by Andrew Wiles  on his way to proving Fermat's Last Theorem , tells us that this L-function makes sense for inputs other than when it was first defined, namely we can plug in any complex number and get a sensible result. If one analyses the behaviour of this function at the input 1, roughly how fast it grows heading away from that point, then this defines a non-negative integer called the analytic rank of the original elliptic curve.
That these two numbers, the rank and the analytic rank, have anything to do with each other, especially since the second one wasn't even defined for all elliptic curves until the late 1990s, is hugely surprising. Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer made their conjecture based on computer work in the early 1960s on elliptic curves for which the various quantities were known.
So at last, what is the conjecture? Namely that the rank and analytic rank are equal, and in fact there is a conjectured formula for the rate at which the values of the L-function associated to the elliptic curve increase as one heads away from the point 1 in the complex plane. This is terrifically scary, involving the size of the Tate-Shafarevich group Ш (one of the few, if only, instances of Cyrillic used internationally by mathematicians), which is mentioned in the linked blog post, the number of solutions in the 'finite part' of the elliptic curve (for those who know group theory: the order of the torsion subgroup) and other quantities which are associated to each elliptic curve.
Now the really interesting thing is that we expect most elliptic curves to have rank (either sort!) equal to either 0 or 1, and by 'most' I mean 100% of them. Thus 0% of elliptic curves should have rank bigger than 1. This may seem weird, but there are infinitely many elliptic curves, and so 0% really means something like 'given any tiny positive number t, then taking larger and larger samples of elliptic curves, I expect less than t% of them have rank bigger than 1'. And for the rank 0 and 1 curves, these are expected to be split 50-50 (the 'parity conjecture') between the two cases. The large-rank curves are indeed rare: the largest explicitly-known rank of an elliptic curve is 18, with cubic equation
y^2 + xy = x^3 − 26175960092705884096311701787701203903556438969515x + 51069381476131486489742177100373772089779103253890567848326,
due to , though there are examples with a rank at least 28, but with actual rank unknown. Interestingly, the 'finite part' of the elliptic curve (the torsion subgroup), can only be one of 15 things: the trivial group, the cyclic group C_n of order n=2,3,..,10 or 12, or the product of C_2 with C_2m for m=1,2,3,4.
To summarise: what Bhargava has done (with his collaborators) is show that in at least 2/3 of all elliptic curves, the rank and the analytic rank coincide, showing the BSD conjecture for this many curves, with a view to extend this to 4/5 of all elliptic curves.
(Thanks to for the link to Matt Baker's blog posting)
But on another hand we've gained lots of perspective since the times of Copernicus and Newton. Epicycles can be viewed as precursors to Fourier theory. Newtonian Gravitation that concluded the Copernican Revolution has been superseded by Einstein's theory; and a very well known and long-advertised issue with the latter, is the difficulty of assembling it with quantum mechanics in a mathematically comprehensive whole - what's called the unification problem in physics.
Meanwhile, I believe it quite accurate to affirm that Fourier Theory is to Quantum Mechanics like Arithmetic Addition to Accounting.
Of course, astrophysics admits Fourier theory or related ideas to describe purely gravitational situations like orbital resonances or star vibrations and likely much more, but at the most elementary level, the negative status of the epicycles idea which could as the gif illustrates, positively serve as a pedagogical entry point to Fourier theory -- that negative status stands out as intriguingly correlated, when squinting, with how Gravitation resists marrying to QM -- QM that's in turn completely dependent on Fourier theory.
This makes me wonder if a more charitable treatment of epicycles than the traditional one dictated by history, should not be viewed as a plausible missing ingredient to the solution of the unification problem in physics.
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Since publishing my first two novels I have discovered that I enjoy writing books much more than I love reading them. I probably should have been an Engineer but life got in the way. I love that all of my crazy ideas that I come up with can be brought to life through the books that I write.
I Love to write books and read others books. I am a God fearing, family man with a 8 - 5 day job. I enjoy riding my motorcycle, and building models, along with spending as much time as possible raising my children with my wonderful wife.
I have written and E-Published two novels so far.
"Whisper" in January of 2011.
"No Rules Of Engagement" in September 2011.
Look for "Leviathan Deterrent" Sometime in 2013.
Currently the sequels to both books are being edited.
About to finish the rough draft of my fifth novel.
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