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Ramesh Natarajan
Bringing IT Infrastructure to Life
Bringing IT Infrastructure to Life


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Happy New Year 2018 – From Geek, Dolls and Penguins:

Happy New Year to all Geeks from Me, My Daughters (Diya and Neha), and our Penguins.

We wish you and your family a happy, healthy, and joyful New Year.

At TGS, our goal is to educate you on Linux and open source technologies. We are committed in publishing high quality articles on an on-going basis.

From my heart, I appreciate all the love and support given by the regular readers of the blog. I’m very grateful to have you as part of TGS blog.

Leave a comment with your New Year wishes.
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15 mysqlbinlog Command Examples for MySQL Binary Log Files:

In MySQL or MariaDB, anytime you make a change to the database, that particular event is logged.

For example, when you create a new table, or update data on an existing table, those events are stored in the binary logs.

Binary log is very helpful in MySQL replication, where the main server will send the data from the binary logs to the remote servers.

You'll also be dealing with binary log files when you are performing any kind of recovery operations in MySQL.

mysqlbinlog command is used to view the content of the binary log in a readable user friendly format. You'll also use the mysqlbinlog command to read the content and pipe it to other mysql utilities.

In this tutorial, we'll discuss the following examples using mysqlbinlog command:

1. Get a List of Current Binary Logs
2. Mysqlbinlog Default Behavior
3. Get Entries for a Specific Database
4. Disable Binary log for Recovery
5. Control base-64 BINLOG in the Output
6. Debug Messages in mysqlbinlog Output
7. Skip First N number of Entries
8. Save Output to a File
9. Extract Entries starting from a Specific Position
10. Extract Entries upto a Specific Position
11. Flush Logs for Clean Binlog Output
12. Display Only SQL Queries in the Output
13. View Entries starting from a Specific Time
14. View Entries upto a Specific Time
15. Get Binary Log from a Remote Server

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How to View Chrome OS Current version and Force Update Chromebook OS:

One of the important feature in Chromebook is that you don’t need to manually update the Chrome OS.

Chrome OS updates the OS in the background on an ongoing basis. This way, you’ll always be running the latest version of the Chrome OS.

But, there may few situations where you may want to view the current version of the Chrome OS, and if it is old, forcefully update Chrome OS to the latest version.

The following are couple of scenarios where you may want to do it:

1. If you have a Chromebook, which was shutdown and not used for sometime, it might be on a very old release. In that case, it might take some time for Chrome OS to catch-up and update your OS to latest version. So, in this scenario, before you use your Chromebook, you may want to force update chrome OS immediately to the latest version.

2. When Google releases update to the Chrome OS, sometimes it takes few days for Google to push out those changes to all the Chromebooks automatically. So, in this scenario, you may want to force update the OS and get the latest security fix immediately instead of waiting for the auto-update to kick in.

This tutorial explains how to do a force update of Chrome OS on your chromebook to handle both of the above situations.
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7 Nginx Rewrite Rule Examples with Reg-Ex and Flags:

Ability to change (rewrite) incoming URL into a different URL based on your criteria is an essential feature for any webserver.

Nginx rewrite is very powerful and flexible.

In this tutorial, we’ll explain the following examples on nginx rewrite:

1. Nginx Rewrite Example Using $1, $2, ..
2. Creating Controller File Using Nginx Rewrite
3. Rewrite Break Flag in Location Context
4. Adding Question Mark to Nginx Rewrite Replacement String
5. If Context and Rewrite Directive
6. Nginx Rewrite Flags Examples
7. Capture Nginx Rewrite Hits in Error Log File
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How to Install LDAP 389 Directory Server On Linux with Detailed Steps:

389 Directory Server is an open source enterprise LDAP Server.

This can handle very huge volume of data. One of the huge benefit of 389 LDAP server is that it is lighting fast and process upto handle several thousands of operations per second.

This has several advanced features including asynchronous multi-master replication for horizontal scaling, which in-turn provides provides 100% fault tolerance and extremely high throughput.

Also, keep in mind that this supports TLS, SASL for authentication and transport. 389 Directory server is fully LDAPv3 compliant.

This tutorial explains how you can install and configure 389 directory server on your Linux environment.
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How to Launch an Amazon AWS EC2 Instance with UserData from CLI:

In Amazon AWS, all the activities that you perform to manipulate your EC2 instances from AWS Console web interface can also be performed from command line using aws cli utilities.

The command is aws. You can use the ec2 option in the aws command to manipulate your ec2 instances.

This tutorial specifically covers about UserData in EC2. We’ve shown the CLI examples for the following:

1. Launch a New EC2 Instance without UserData from CLI
2. Create a new EC2 Server Instance with UserData from CLI
3. View the UserData of an existing EC2 Instance from CLI

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15 SELinux chcon Command Examples to Change Security Context:

In SELinux, one of the frequent task that you may do is to change the security context of an object. For this, you'll use chcon command.
chcon stands for Change Context.
This command is used to change the SELinux security context of a file.
This tutorial explains the following chcon command examples:
1. Change the Full SELinux Context
2. Change Context Using Another File as a Reference
3. Change Only the User in SELinux Context
4. Change Only the Role in SELinux Context
5. Change Only the Type in SELinux Context
6. Change Only the Range (Level) in SELinux Context
7. Combine User, Role, Type, Level in chcon
8. Default Behavior of Chcon on Symbolic Link
9. Force Change SELinux Context of Symbolic Link
10. Change SELinux Context Recursively
11. Display Verbose Details of chcon Operation
12. Chcon Default Behavior on Symbolic links for Recursive
13. Force chcon to Traverse Specified Symbolic links for Recursive
14. Force chcon to Traverse ALL Symbolic links for Recursive
15. Chcon Behavior on / root directory for Systemwide Change

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C++ Inheritance – Public Vs Private Vs Protected Explained with Example Program:

In C++, the most common type of inheritance is public.

The public type of inheritance is used in order to broaden the parent class with some functionalities or some data members.

This type of public inheritance is sometimes called the " is ", as the parent class and the child class are of the same type and that could be seen with conversions, where the child class has more to it, than parent one.

The private inheritance is of different type, it is of " has " type.

This means that private inheritance is suitable for situations in which we need to prevent main program to accidentally access some of the methods inherited from the parent class.

The protected inheritance is less restrictive than private and it is useful when we need some of the implementations from grand parent class.

The following table will illustrate this difference:

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12 Essential Python For Loop Command Examples:

For loop is an essential aspect of any programming language.

In python, for loop is very flexible and powerful.

In this tutorial, we've explained the following Python for loop examples:

1. Python For Loop for Numbers
2. Python For Loop for Strings
3. Python For Loop Using Default Range Function
4. Python For Loop With Custom Start and End Numbers
5. Python For Loop With Incremental Numbers
6. Python For Loop Range with Negative Values
7. Continue Statement Inside Python For Loop
8. Break Statement Inside Python For Loop
9. Can a For Loop itself have an Else without If?
10. Else and Break Combination Behavior Inside Python For
11. Nested For Loops in Python
12. Handling List-of-Lists in Python For Loop

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How to Fix VMWare ESXi Some Other Host Already Uses Address Error:
If you are running VMWare ESXi, after you make certain configuration changes that doesn't have anything to do with ip-address change, you might get the following error message during the system startup.

"Bringing up interface eth0: Error, Some other host already uses address [FAILED]"

As you can imagine, this will not start the network, and you cannot connect to the host node that is running on the VMWare ESXi.

Most of the time, this particular issue happens on ESXi host that is running Linux distros. In this particular example, I had this issue on CentOS 6 host.

In this quick article, we'll explain how to fix this issue.
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