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Louis Paul Cailletet born September 21, 1832 was a French physicist and inventor. In an effort to determine the cause of accidents that occurred while tempering incompletely forged iron, Cailletet found that heating the iron put it in a highly unstable state, with gases dissolved in it. He then analyzed the gases from blast furnaces, which helped him understand the role of heat in the changes of states (phases) of metals. This brought him to the work of liquefying the various gases. In 1877 Cailletet succeeded in producing droplets of liquid oxygen.
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