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SPORT Clinic Physical Therapy
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Review finds that exercise is one of the best ways to prevent falls: The incidence of falls is expected to continue rising Falls are one of the biggest problems that older adults face. Data has shown that approximately 36% of adults over the age of 65 will experience a fall every year, and each one of these accidents can have serious implications. Not only can a fall result in a serious injury or death, but older individuals that do fall go on to have more anxiety and depression, and a reduced quality of life as a result. The world's population is also aging, which means that the incidence of falls is expected to continue rising with it. This shows why it's so important to identify methods that will help prevent falls among older persons. Many prevention methods are available and a great deal of research has been conducted on this subject, but a comprehensive review that ranks all of these methods is yet to be performed. With this in mind, a team of researchers conducted a powerful pair of studies called a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine which interventions were most effective for preventing falls in older adults. Four medical databases searched for relevant studies The team of researchers performed a search of four major medical databases for studies that evaluated the effectiveness of fall-prevention programs for the elderly. This led to 1,210 articles being screened and 283 randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) being accepted. RCTs are high-quality individual studies that are considered the gold standard for determining how well a treatment or intervention works. Once collected, the data from each of these RCTs were analyzed and compared to one another to detect trends and develop conclusions on the most beneficial fall-prevention programs. Researchers also assessed the quality of studies, which helped them gauge how reliable their results were. Exercise consistently found to reduce the risk for falling A total of 54 RCTs with 39 different interventions focused on the risk of falls that caused injury, and the findings from these studies showed that some of the most effective interventions for reducing this risk included exercise, vision assessment, and environmental assessment and modification. Another 158 RCTs with 77 interventions focused on the number of fallers, and once again, exercise was amongst the most effective strategies for reducing this figure. Other positive interventions included orthotic devices, dietary modifications and calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Most of the included RCTs had a low risk of bias, which means their quality was high and their findings could be consistently relied upon. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that exercise is one of the best possible methods for reducing the risk for falling and the number of falls in the elderly population. Other interventions like dietary and home-based modifications, vision assessments, orthotics and supplements also appear to be helpful and may be recommended in addition to exercise. Older adults who may be at risk for falling are therefore encouraged to visit a physical therapist for an exercise treatment program. These programs are based on patients' needs and abilities, and when followed, can help reduce the risk of falls and keep seniors safer. - As reported in the November '17 issue of JAMA http://www.sportclinicpt.com/library_newsfeed_1062
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Exercises to Keep Your Shoulders Healthy: Exercises to Keep Your Shoulders Healthy Here is our latest monthly video. http://www.sportclinicpt.com/library_nl_4465
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Football sport injuries, tips on how to prevent them. #SeeAPT1st: Football leader in popularity, leader in sport injuries, learn what you can do to protect your kids from unnecessary injury. #SeeAPT1st Click Here for the Article http://www.sportclinicpt.com/library_newsfeed_1039
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Two exercises programs are effective in reducing falls in older men: Prevention strategies are needed to address a major danger in the elderly community As individuals grow older, several changes occur that are considered risk factors for falling. These include decreases in balance, control of posture, muscle strength and changes in walking performance. For this reason, prevention strategies are needed to address these risk factors and lower the risk for falls in the elderly community. There are many exercise programs that are used to accomplish this, and the majority of them are based on aerobic training, which is effective for reducing fall risk factors. More recent guidelines suggest that other elements should also be included to increase the impact of these exercise programs, such as resistance exercises, which are used to increase strength. Despite the evidence available on aerobic and resistance exercises, its not completely clear if combining the two of them is any more effective than each one of them individually. For this reason, a powerful study called a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) was conducted, which is considered the gold standard used to determine the effectiveness of a treatment. 55 older men complete the 32-week study Men between the ages of 65-79 who were medically approved for exercise were recruited for the study and screened to determine if they were eligible to participate. A total of 55 individuals fit the necessary criteria and completed the study. These participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: the aerobic exercise group, the combined exercise group or the control group. Both exercise programs consisted of three sessions each week for 32 weeks and were planned for moderate-to-vigorous intensity. The aerobic exercise group trained twice per week in a land environment and once per week in an aquatic environment. All sessions consisted of a 10-minute warm-up, 30 minutes of brisk walking, 10 minutes of strengthening exercises and a 5-minute cooldown. The combined exercise program was the same as the aerobic exercise program, but one of the weekly land sessions was replaced by a resistance exercise session. The main part of this session consisted of a circuit of seven resistance-based strengthening exercises, which increased in intensity for the first 24 weeks and then decreased afterward until the end. The control group had no exercise intervention and was instructed to pursue their habitual daily life activities. All participants were evaluated using a number of tests before the study and then at weeks 1, 8, 16, 24 and 32. Both exercise programs are effective, but combining them is even more beneficial Results showed that both aerobic and resistance exercises on their own were more effective than no exercise for reducing risk factors for falls such as balance, posture control, mobility and leg strength; however, combining these two types of exercise interventions was actually even more effective for reducing these falls risk factors. In particular, the combined exercise program was found to be more effective for increasing agility, two types of balance, and leg strength and power. Although this RCT did not evaluate the actual risk for falls or fear of falling, these results do suggest that following this type of combined exercise program can result in an added protection for falls in the elderly community. Based on these findings, it appears that either an aerobic or resistance exercise program can be effective for reducing the risk of falls in older men, but combining both of them is even more effective and may serve an important role in addressing this significant danger. -As reported in the April 17 issue of Clinical Rehabilitation http://www.sportclinicpt.com/library_newsfeed_929
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Motivational Monday: -Sarah Caldwell http://www.sportclinicpt.com/library_newsfeed_906
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Recipe Wednesday - Oven-Crusted Chicken Breast: Lots o' ingredients, lots o' flavor! Click here for this great recipe! http://www.sportclinicpt.com/library_newsfeed_765
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Exercise program is the most effective in reducing falls: Controversy and uncertainty exist despite extensive research Up to 35% of older adults fall each year, and falls are the main cause of injury, injury-related disability, and death in this population. In addition to the physical and economic repercussions, falls can also have a psychological impact, as older adults who fall often develop a fear of falling and become less physically active as a result. Several systematic and meta-analyses have therefore established several approaches for reducing falls and healthcare costs, but some controversy and uncertainty still exist. For this reason, a "state of the art" review was conducted that summarized the best available evidence on how to assess and address risk factors for falls in community-dwelling older adults. High-quality studies prioritized over others Three medical databases were searched for pertinent studies, and researchers only selected studies that focused on risk factors, assessment, and management strategies or interventions to reduce falls in older adults. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized-controlled trials and works that were cross-referenced most often were prioritized, and the most clinically relevant information from each was summarized. Exercise is essential for all older patients, especially those at risk Researchers found that the first step in reducing fall risk is to identify at-risk patients. This is accomplished by having patients check in with their healthcare provider yearly to report any falls or difficulties with gait and balance and to have a comprehensive screening assessment. The assessment should evaluate gait, balance, frailty, disability, comorbid conditions, and current medications, functional abilities, and fear of falls. If the patient is found to be at high risk for falls and is ready and willing to participate in a program, they should be offered a multifactorial, tailored exercise program, which was found to be most effective for reducing falls and resulting healthcare costs. Physical therapists specialize in creating these types of programs and can guide patients through them. For patients not at a high risk, regular exercise is still recommended in order to maintain adequate fitness and keep fall risk low, and community-based exercise programs, Tai chi, and independent physical activity are all recommended. Healthcare professionals and caretakers should be aware of these evidence-supported recommendations and comply with them in order to reduce falls in the elderly community. -As reported in the April '16 issue of the British Medical Journal http://www.sportclinicpt.com/library_newsfeed_936
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Knee arthritis patient outcomes affected by significant hip weakness: Understanding the role of hip strength can help improve treatments Osteoarthritis (OA) is a condition in which cartilage that normally protects a joint gradually wears down over the course of time, which leads to pain and other symptoms when the bones begin rubbing against one another. OA can develop in any joint, but is most common in the knee because it's a joint that bears a great deal of weight. Knee OA is associated with high levels of pain and reduced function, and when the condition gets too bad, individuals often go on to have surgery to replace the knee joint. This shows why it's so important to establish effective treatments for knee OA patients that will help them avoid surgery, but experts have pointed out that much more work needs to be done on the topic. One area of interest is the role of hip strength, as some have suggested that knee OA patients may have weak muscles surrounding their hips, and treatments can therefore target this weakness. With this in mind, a team of researchers performed a powerful pair of studies called a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine if patients with knee OA have deficits in their hip strength compared to healthy individuals. Five medical databases searched for relevant studies Investigators performed a search of five major medical databases for studies that evaluated the relationship between knee OA and the strength of patients' hip muscles. They identified 102 studies that were screened in more detail, and five of these were accepted into the review, which contained data on 237 participants. The findings from each of these studies were then compared to one another, and their quality was assessed to determine how reliable they were. The weak hip muscles identified can be targeted in physical therapy programs Overall, the quality of the studies reviewed was variable, but there was enough information to show that the hip muscles of knee OA patients were generally weaker than those in healthy individuals. In terms of isometric hip strength—the strength used if you were to push against an immovable object—there was moderate-quality evidence that knee OA patients have weaker hip abduction strength when compared with controls. (Abduction is moving the hip and the leg away from the center of the body.) When considering isokinetic hip strength—the strength that occurs when a muscle contracts and shortens at a constant speed—there was also moderate quality evidence that knee OA patients have weaker abduction/adduction and transverse internal/external rotation hip strength. Unfortunately, there were no studies that specifically evaluated hip strength as a risk factor for the development of knee OA. Nonetheless, this systematic review and meta-analysis show that patients with knee OA have deficits in their hip strength when compared to healthy individuals. Although more research is still needed on the topic, this could mean that improving hip muscle strength could lead to reduced pain levels and better hip function. Individuals with knee OA should therefore consider seeing a physical therapist for a comprehensive treatment program that will include hip-strengthening exercises to increase the chances of a successful outcome that does not involve surgery. -As reported in the August '16 issue of JOSPT http://www.sportclinicpt.com/library_newsfeed_1060
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