The new discovery indicates that even during the warmest periods since the ice sheet formed, the center of Greenland remained stable. "It’s likely that it did not fully melt at any time," said University of Vermont geologist and lead author Paul Bierman. This allowed a tundra landscape to be locked away, unmodified, under ice through millions of years of global warming and cooling.
Image Credit: Joshua Brown, University of Vermont
#ice #green;and #nasa #science #climate #climatechange #greenlandicesheet
Explore hundreds of Veronese’s work through Europeana: http://bit.ly/Veronese-Europeana
Image: “The Holy family with the little John” 1550 – 1575, Paolo Veronese. Rijksmuseum (Public Domain) http://bit.ly/PeS6RE
Image Credit & Copyright: Dan Long (Apache Point Observatory) - Courtesy: Tom Murphy (UC San Diego)
This is not a scene from a sci-fi special effects movie. The green beam of light and red lunar disk are real enough, captured in the early morning hours of April 15. Of course, the reddened lunar disk is easy to explain as the image was taken during this week's total lunar eclipse. Immersed in shadow, the eclipsed Moon reflects the dimmed reddened light of all the sunsets and sunrises filtering around the edges of planet Earth, seen in silhouette from a lunar perspective. But the green beam of light really is a laser. Shot from the 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory in southern New Mexico, the beam's path is revealed as Earth's atmosphere scatters some of the intense laser light. The laser's target is the Apollo 15 retroreflector, left on the Moon by the astronauts in 1971. By determining the light travel time delay of the returning laser pulse, the experimental team from UC San Diego is able to measure the Earth-Moon distance to millimeter precision and provide a test of General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity. Conducting the lunar laser ranging experiment during a total eclipse uses the Earth like a cosmic light switch. With direct sunlight blocked, the reflector's performance is improved over performance when illuminated by sunlight during a normal Full Moon, an effect known as the real Full Moon Curse.
“Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote / The droghte of March hath perced to the roote, / And bathed every veyne in swych licour / Of which vertu engendred is the flour; / Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth / Inspired hath in every holt and heath / The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne / Hath in the Ram his halve cours yronne, / And smale foweles maken melodye, / That slepen al the nyght with open ye / (So priketh hem nature in hir corages); /Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages. (Geoffrey Chaucer, “The Canterbury Tales”)
It was a very subtle revolution when Geoffrey Chaucer, a staunch supporter of "Old John of Gaunt, time-honoured Lancaster" and recently back in royal favour, read for the first time parts of his Canterbury Tales at the Plantagenet's court. Not in Norman French or scholarly Latin but in English. Three years later, Richard would tell a different tale, of the death of kings; How some have been deposed; some slain in war, Some haunted by the ghosts they have deposed; Some poisoned by their wives: some sleeping killed; All murdered, as he himself would be when his nephew and John of Gaunt’s son Henry of Bolingbroke took the throne as Henry IV. But on this day, the tales turned on a travelling party on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St Thomas á Becket in Canterbury, telling a story or two for a free meal at Tabard Inn in Southwark.
Byron once found Chaucer to be obscene and contemptible, owing his fame only to his venerable age, but, even if he was only part of a trend of writing in vernacular English that started with Wycliffe’s Bible translation some ten years before, he gave voice to others characters than the nobility and the clergy, a process of democratisation in the choice of fictional characters, along the lines of Boccaccio’s “Il Decamerone”, with the same fair amount of church criticism on the eve of the Reformation. The 29 characters of the tales and the narrator tell stories of utmost cultural relevancy in the days, when the Middle Ages ended in Europe, besides nagging questions about religion they tell of love, betrayal and greed and most haven’t lost their actuality in more than 600 years.
Depicted below is an imagination of the pilgrims’ progress through the English countryside by the illustrator Paul Hardy (1862 – 1942), a regular contributor to the “Strand Magazine”, from 1903. Canterbury City Council Museums and Galleries.
And more on:
#history #literature #europeanhistory #europeanliterature #medievalhistory
If it weren’t for the lights of the plane itself, you would, in fact, be able to have some of the best skies available to humans. Astronomers know this fact very well, in fact, and we actually have an airplane-mounted telescope that NASA flies: SOFIA!"
Finally, the answer to the world's most pressing question: why can't you see stars out of an airplane window at night?
The leading western edge of a massive storm in Saturn's atmosphere (eight times the surface area of Earth) can be clearly seen in this image. Pictures from Cassini's cameras show the storm wrapping around the entire planet covering approximately 1.5 billion square miles (4 billion square kilometers). At its most intense, the storm generated more than 10 lightning flashes per second and it featured vertical wind speeds exceeding 300 mph (500 kilometers per hour).
Monster storms rip across the northern hemisphere of Saturn once every 30 years or so, or roughly once per Saturn year. This is an RGB composite of images taken by the Cassini spacecraft on February 25, 2011 from a distance of 2.1 million km.
The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA. The VIMS team is based at the University of Arizona in Tucson.
Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Sciences Institute/Mike Malaska
Thank you, Mike!
#NASA #Space #Saturn #Storm #Weather #Atmosphere #Lightning #Planet #Cassini #Robotic #Spacecraft #JPL #Astronomy #Rings
"To laugh often and much;
to win the respect of intelligent people and the affection of children;
to earn the appreciation of honest critics and
to endure the betrayal of false friends.
To appreciate beauty;
to find the best in others;
to leave the world a bit better whether by a healthy child, a garden patch, or a redeemed social condition;
to know that even one life has breathed easier because you have lived.
This is to have succeeded."
R. W. Emerson
- University of Bonn
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