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cosmetic ingredients, cosmeceuticals, active ingredients, and skin care ingredients
cosmetic ingredients, cosmeceuticals, active ingredients, and skin care ingredients

BulkActives's posts

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Matrix ‪#‎metalloproteinases‬ inhibition is a mechanism of preserving skin elasticity and youth aspect. Because starting with young age both collagen and elastin produces decreases during time (dramatically for ‪#‎elastin‬) and because ‪#‎dermis‬ - where the ‪#‎collagen‬-hyaluronic-elastin extracellular matrix is located - is hard to reach, the best results in conserving skin health and postpone aging effects is to decrease the ‪#‎MMP‬ activity and thus stop the accelerated matrix breakdown. While pharmaceuticals are yet to be standardized and approved, laser ‪#‎cosmetic‬ treatments have limited use and are expensive there is an untapped pool of resources: natural active. Most of the natural active ingredients have been used for centuries in various preparation forms and are still available now. With little to none side effects, and with no possibility of over dosage, they are proper to use on any skin type in order to obtain the desired ‪#‎antiaging‬ effects.

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#Skin elasticity is one of the most important characteristics of young, healthy skin. With age, skin loses its elasticity through complex processes that involves decrease and stop of #elastin, collagen and #hyaluronic acid production and the constant action of MMP.  This unfortunate effect is only aggravated by prolonged photoexposure and inappropriate topical hydration. Currently, there are several rejuvenation #cosmetic procedures, usually laser assisted, but their efficiency is limited, the costs are high and the repetition of the procedures can lead to serious second effects. The solution lies yet again in natural or pharmacological topical actives that provide the expected effect of enhancing and preserving skin elasticity. Elastin related research is conducted in the dermatology and cosmetology fields, proving its importance in #skinelasticity along #collagen and hyaluronic acid.

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#Parabens have a bad reputation, mainly due to a 2004 study, which basically claimed that parabens in underarm #deoderants caused cancer.

However, researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), a part of the National Institutes of Health, are not aware of any conclusive evidence linking the use of underarm antiperspirants or deodorants and the subsequent development of breast cancer, The EU Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, and The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA),do not have any evidence or research data that ingredients (including parabens) in underarm antiperspirants or deodorants cause cancer. Read more here:

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#Cholesterol is an organic molecule, more precisely a steroid alcohol that is present in animal cells and body fluids, regulates membrane fluidity, and functions as a precursor molecule in various metabolic pathways. Cholesterol is one of three major lipid classes found in the skin, besides ceramides and fatty acids, and plays a major role in maintaining cell membranes structural integrity and fluidity. Due to its role in maintaining and repairing skin barrier and moisturizing topical cholesterol is used in treating a wide variety of dry skin barrier conditions such as xerosis, ichthyosis, various types of dermatitis and other skin manifestations, in regulating sebum excess and as an antidote to skin aging. Usually cholesterol is associated with #ceramides and fatty acids in lipid mixtures for an enhanced topical effect, asd the skin's extracellular matrix has a unique composition of 50% ceramides, 25% cholesterol, and 15% free fatty acids. It is recommended that Cholesterol NF is used in combination with Ceramides and Natural Fatty Acids at a ratio of 3:1:1  ceramides, cholesterols, and free fatty acids. There are two other main sources of Cholesterol in #skincare: Emul oil and Lanolin.

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#‎Antiinflammatory‬ agents are now commonly being incorporated into ‪#‎skincare‬ products to improve skin tone and texture while reducing the appearance of aging. Many plant extracts have been shown to attenuate ‪#‎inflammation‬. Read more here:

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#VitaminE is a generic term for 8 different molecules—four #tocotrienols and four #tocopherols. Tocotrienols and tocopherols have different structures, giving them different biological properties. Both have α, β, γ, and δ forms that have varying chemical side chains in their structures [10]. The generic term “vitamin E” usually refers to α-tocopherol. α- tocopherol is the most abundant molecule found in natural vitamin E, with tocotrienols in lesser quantities, around 15% [7]. High amounts of α-tocopherol are excreted in sebm [oil], which is highly concentrated in exposed areas such as the forehead and nose where there are more sebum-producing glands [10].

Vitamin E must be supplemented, as the body cannot make it. It is present in limited quantities in the skin and readily depleted by UV exposure [more than 50% after 30 min exposure], creating a natural deficiency [2, 9]. Additionally, ozone has been shown to deplete natural levels of vitamin E in the skin [8].

Vitamin E, discovered in 1922, is one of the first known antioxidants [6]. It is the predominant skin barrier anti-oxidant, one of the first lines of defense against sun damage [10]. It protects the skin by preventing the breakdown of lipids [waxy molecules necessary to retain moisture and skin barrier function] by scavenging harmful free radicals. Free radicals are known to induce skin aging [9]. Tocotrienols are thought to have higher antioxidant potential than tocopherols [6]. Additionally, increased levels of lipid breakdown were found in patients with acne [1]. This suggests vitamin E might play a role in acne treatment.

Vitamin E has potential to enhance the effect of preventative sunscreens and help heal sun damage. Application of tocopherols and tocotrienols before UV exposure preserves the amount of vitamin E in the skin [11]. Application of vitamin E before UV exposure reduces edemas [fluid under the skin], redness, inflammation, and sunburn [10]. It reduces wrinkles due to sun exposure and protects against photoaging, chronic damage due to excessive sun exposure [10]. There is 56% less α-tocopherol in the skin of people with photoaging [9]. Topical α-tocopherol applied to the skin of mice before UV radiation showed significant anti-oxidant activity and reduced lasting damage when applied after sun exposure [2]. Similar results were seen in humans. A cream containing 10% tocopherols and 0.3% tocotrienols reduced photosensitivity [high skin sensitivity to sunlight] with a single application [6]. Additionally, vitamin E has been shown to have a greater effect when combined with vitamin C to protect against sun damage [2].

Both tocotrienols and tocopherols have shown to have anti-aging properties [3]. Treating fibroblasts [collagen producing cells] with tocotrienol and tocopherol increased collagen levels and reduced the activity of matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs] which degrade collagen and deteriorate the skin [3]. This shows both tocotrienols and tocopherols may help protect the skin from aging by increasing the amount of collagen.

Vitamin E plays a role in protecting skin barrier function and synthesizing cholesterol, a component of skin that helps retain moisture [7]. It is useful for treating burns, eczema, dryness, and ulcers [5]. In clinical studies, α-tocopherol was shown to reduce the symptoms of eczema, an inflammatory skin disorder [5, 10].

Vitamin E also aids in wound healing [5, 10]. A study in rats shows a mixture of tocopherols and tocotrienols increases collagen at the wound site and tensile strength of the wound more than α-tocopherol alone [4].

Vitamin E may enhance skin penetration [7]. Topical application of vitamin E has been shown to increase vitamin E levels in the skin better than dietary supplementation [9]. This high absorption shows potential to enhance the penetration of other molecules.

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Vitamin C is a major water soluble antioxidant that plays a vital role in photoprotection as well as in collagen synthesis. The body reservoir of vitamin C decreases with age, and habits such as smoking decrease reserves even more. VitaminC is not produced in the body and must be consumed entirely through diet and oral supplementation. Likewise, in the skin where vitamin C plays a vital role in photoprotection and aging, it must be topically supplemented since, unlike vitamin E, it is not produced in the skin.
The role of #vitaminC in #photoprotection has been demonstrated by the dramatic reduction of vitamin C in skin following UV radiation. In addition, a combination of both #vitaminsE and C work synergistically to enhance their photoprotective effects. This reinforces the benefit derived from enhancing photoprotection by combining antioxidants with sun-protection products [1,2].
Vitamin C is an essential cofactor for the hydroxylation of proline and lysine, a necessary step in collagen synthesis. In fact, fibroblasts in cell culture will selectively secrete collagen when vitamin C is added in a dose-dependent fashion. Its role in collagen synthesis is probably responsible for the wrinkle-reducing and skin-firming effects that vitamin C has on aged skin [3,4,5]. Vitamin C also appears to reduce signs of photoaging. In addition, topical vitamin C increases levels of tissue inhibitors of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinase1 (MMP-1) [6].
The ability of topical vitamin C to reduce hyperpigmentation has been demonstrated and has found its way into various skin-lightening products. Vitamin C is able to lighten hyperpigmented skin through the inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase [7].
Many forms of vitamin C have been used in various topical formulations in efforts to stabilize this highly unstable molecule. However, any form of vitamin C that is applied to the skin must convert to the L-ascorbic acid form in order to be recognized by the body and deliver a benefit.
Stabilizing vitamin C was an impossibility until 1988 when Dr. Sheldon Pinnell from Duke University, one of the pioneers of topical vitamin C research, was able to stabilize ascorbic acid in solution. The same study also showed the presence of ascorbic acid in the skin days after the application with an increase in the level of collagen as well, proving the penetration and benefit of the topically applied vitamin C [8,9].
There are many different vitamin C variations used in skin care, water soluble: L-ascorbic acid,  #AscorbylGlucoside (Ascorbic Acid 2- Glucoside), #EthylAscorbicAcid, and #SodiumAscorbylPphosphate, and fat-soluble esters such as #AscorbylTetraisopalmitate

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#Glycation (#AGEs) inhibitors and repair in #skincare

There are several ingredients that have been found that can highjack AGE formation.

Most strikingly, #Centella #asiatica extract has been shown to completely halt AGE formation facilitated by a glycating agent in human skin tissue in vitro.[17] #Antioxidants can mitigate oxidative stress and help reduce glycation. Ellagic acid (found in pomegranate peel) has been shown to stimulate collagen synthesis and inhibit an enzyme that degrades collagen in vitro.[18] Vitamin C (also known as #ascorbic acid) is required during collagen synthesis,[19] and its concentration is lower in aged skin.[20] Vitamin C treatment has been shown to stimulate collagen synthesis as well and rejuvenate aged skin in a double-blind, split-face study,[21] and a randomized, double-blind trial.[22] #Carnosine has rejuvenating effects on fibroblasts and can protect the skin from glycation induced damages.[23] Last, a compound in green tea called (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also known as #EGCG, has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation and protect the skin from ultraviolet light induced ageing.[24] On the other hand, HA supplementation has been shown to stimulate fibroblast proliferation in vitro,[25] which can help restore the lost volume associated with glycation and ageing.[26]

In summary, glycation is a chemical reaction between reduced sugar and proteins which contributes to ageing. To mitigate glycation, one can lower dietary sugar and junk food consumption, reduce dietary AGEs by changing cooking methods, protect the skin from sun exposure, and utilize topical treatments such as Centella asiatica extract, #pomegranate extract, ascorbic acid, #carnosine, #greentea extract, and #hyaluronic acid.

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#Collagen #Synthesis: stimulate #collegen production in #skincare  
Collagen is the primary structural protein found in skin, and is comprised of long, fibrous strings of amino acids. Therefore, it can greatly affect the firmness and smoothness of skin. Collagen is formed by specialized cells in the dermis called fibroblasts. When stimulated by molecules known as #fibroblast growth factors, they synthesize small subunits of collagen, known as #procollagen. These subunits are then transported out of the cell where they are strung into long chains that resemble fibers.

However, merely having a lot of collagen does not necessarily result in the desired effects; there are twelve different types of collagen, so the overall appearance of skin is affected not only by the amount of collagen present, but the way these types interact with each other as well. The different types of collagen and their function are displayed below.

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#Boswellia serrata (BS) is a deciduous tree native to India, together with several other Boswellia species residing in Africa and the Middle East, they produce oleogum resins which are then dried to form frank(“pure”)incense.[1] This fragrant incense was traditionally used by many cultures in religious ceremonies throughout history,[1][2] and the gum resin extract has also been used to treat various conditions in traditional healing practices such as Ayurveda and Chinese medicine.[3] The gum resin contains more than 200 chemical compounds, among which #boswellic acids (BAs) have been identified as the main active ingredients.[1] There are several BAs, of which β-boswellic acid, acetyl-β-boswellic acid, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid, and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) are the major anti-inflammatory agents.[3]

Besides inflammatory diseases, heart disease, asthma, cancer, diabetes, and many other illnesses,[3][4] BS/BAs have also been shown to improve skin conditions. Traditionally, BS has been used to dress wounds, relieve bruises and infected sores,[5] for which ample evidences credit its tremendous anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial (germ-killing) properties.[2][3][6][7] In addition, BAs can inhibit enzymes such as elastase,[8][7][9] hyaluronidase,[10] and several matrix metalloproteinases,[11] all of which can cut extracellular matrix, collagen, and elastic fibers, in other words, damage the skin. BAs can also activates fibroblast,[12] cells that produce collagen and elastin. Together with the above-mentioned properties, one can suspect that BS/BAs might have cosmetic benefits. Indeed, BS extract has been shown to reduce redness, sooth irritation, and even skin tones.[13] AKBA has been shown to soften facial lines and relax the skin.[14] Most importantly, in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-face clinical trials (which are considered as the gold standard), BAs have been shown to reduce #photoaging, tactile roughness, and fine lines, decrease sebum excretion, improve elasticity, and reshape dermal tissue.[15][16] In another double-blind, randomized split-face study of young individuals, BAs have also been shown to improve elasticity and firmness of the #skin.[17] Due to sebum control coupled with the antimicrobial properties, BAs might be useful against acne.[6] Other #cosmetic usage of BS/BAs have been suggested, including whitening and anti-perspiring, but further documented research is needed to support these claims.
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