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Việt Nam
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Việt Nam

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Việt Nam

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Have them in circles
69 people
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Ta về ta tắm ao ta
Introduction
Background:
The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by Communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was divided into the Communist North and anti-Communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under Communist rule. Despite the return of peace, for over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies, the persecution and mass exodus of individuals - many of them successful South Vietnamese merchants - and growing international isolation. However, since the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986, Vietnamese authorities have committed to increased economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The Communist leaders, however, maintain control on political expression and have resisted outside calls to improve human rights. The country continues to experience small-scale protests from various groups, the vast majority connected to land-use issues, calls for increased political space and the lack of equitable mechanisms for resolving disputes. Various ethnic minorities, such as the Montagnards of the Central Highlands and the Khmer Krom in the southern delta region, have also held protests.
Geography ::VIETNAM
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, as well as China, Laos, and Cambodia
16 10 N, 107 50 E
total: 331,210 sq km
country comparison to the world: 66
land: 310,070 sq km
water: 21,140 sq km
slightly larger than New Mexico
total: 4,639 km
border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km
3,444 km (excludes islands)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Fan Si Pan 3,144 m
phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower
arable land: 20.14%
permanent crops: 6.93%
other: 72.93% (2005)
46,000 sq km (2008)
891.2 cu km (1999)
total: 71.39 cu km/yr (8%/24%/68%)
per capita: 847 cu m/yr (2000)
occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta
logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
People and Society ::VIETNAM
noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)
adjective: Vietnamese
Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, others 5.3% (2009 census)
Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Buddhist 9.3%, Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, none 80.8% (1999 census)
90,549,390 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
0-14 years: 25.2% (male 11,945,354/female 10,868,610)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 31,301,879/female 31,419,306)
65 years and over: 5.5% (male 1,921,652/female 3,092,589) (2011 est.)
total: 27.8 years
male: 26.8 years
female: 28.9 years (2011 est.)
1.077% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
17.07 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
5.96 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
-0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
urban population: 30% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Ho Chi Minh City 5.976 million; HANOI (capital) 2.668 million; Haiphong 1.941 million; Da Nang 807,000 (2009)
at birth: 1.117 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
56 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 94
total: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 94
male: 21.27 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
total population: 72.18 years
country comparison to the world: 129
male: 69.72 years
female: 74.92 years (2011 est.)
1.91 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: