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Luis Galvan (NochesSinLuna)
Works at lggrCorp
Attends Everest College - Sudbury
Lives in Ontario


Luis Galvan

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String Theory
Think of a guitar string that has been tuned by stretching the string under tension across the guitar. Depending on how the string is plucked and how much tension is in the string, different musical notes will be created by the string. These musical notes could be said to be excitation modes of that guitar string under tension. 
In a similar manner, in string theory, the elementary particles we observe in particle accelerators could be thought of as the "musical notes" or excitation modes of elementary strings. 
.In string theory, as in guitar playing, the string must be stretched under tension in order to become excited. However, the strings in string theory are floating in spacetime, they aren't tied down to a guitar. Nonetheless, they have tension. The string tension in string theory is denoted by the quantity 1/(2 p a'), where a' is pronounced "alpha prime"and is equal to the square of the string length scale. 
If string theory is to be a theory of quantum gravity, then the average size of a string should be somewhere near the length scale of quantum gravity, called the Planck length, which is about 10-33 centimeters, or about a millionth of a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a centimeter. Unfortunately, this means that strings are way too small to see by current or expected particle physics technology (or financing!!) and so string theorists must devise more clever methods to test the theory than just looking for little strings in particle experiments. 
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Shouldn't the cat be in a box?
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Luis Galvan

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I'm not sure why I find this so hilarious, but I do. 
Christian Navarro's profile photoRandy Patton's profile photo
Dear God.........HA!
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Luis Galvan

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"I can't believe I have to walk the dog" -__-
#caturday   #walkthedog   #catvsdog  
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Luis Galvan

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I love this...
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Luis Galvan

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I'm really liking the +Minuum Keyboard, I think I'll buy it.
And I hope they add swipe support, I'm just very used to it. 
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Cymatics : While this is not new, we have all seen the gifs showing powders and particles which have been arranged in geometric patterns based on the frequency of the vibration applied to plates. As early as 1680, Robert Hooke observed nodal patterns made on glass plates based on modes of vibration. More recently, Jun Rekimoto a researcher at the University of Tokyo has built a device which levitates objects using just sound, and for the first time used it to maneuver them using sound. Read on to know more on the science behind Cymatics!

Article Extract: Physicists have levitated milli­meter-sized objects by trapping them in pockets of low pressure between the crest of one sound wave and the trough of another. But moving those suspended objects has been difficult. Rekimoto’s team set up four arrays of speakers pointed at the center of a half-meter-wide chamber. Once the researchers got an object hovering, they tweaked the intensity of waves in each array to move the object up and down, left and right, and back and forth.

Rekimoto’s team has described manipulating beads, feathers and alcohol droplets in their paper. This could be instrumental in mixing compounds without impurities.

History : Swiss medical doctor and Anthroposophist, Hans Jenny took a methodological and exhaustive approach to documenting Cymatic phenomena. He coined the term "Cymatics" in his 1967 book, Kymatik (translated Cymatics). Jenny delved deeply into the many types of periodic phenomena but especially the visual display of sound. He pioneered the use of laboratory grown piezoelectric crystals, which were quite costly at that time. Hooking them up to amplifiers and frequency generators, the crystals functioned as transducers, converting the frequencies into vibrations that were strong enough to set the steel plates into resonance.

Article Link:

Wikipedia source:

Research Paper:

Gizmodo related article:

Video Link: Three-Dimensional Mid-Air Acoustic Manipulation [Acoustic Levitation] (2013,2014-)

Cymatics as art:

Pics courtesy: Pic on left, Pic on right top:, Pic right middle and bottom:

#Cymatics #vibration #sound #science #sciencesunday  
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Luis Galvan

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David Malin's profile photoZen Floater's profile photoAlexey L. G.'s profile photoMike Wilkinson's profile photo
Me too!!!!
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Luis Galvan

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Hmmm, OK...
Via +David Aang
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Vladimir Korneev's profile photoIrma Garcia's profile photoKartik Nimbalkar's profile photoMike Wilkinson's profile photo
Holey man
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Luis Galvan

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A mushroom in full orgasm...  Hot..  LOL
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Luis Galvan

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Gravity Check

Newton’s law of gravity states that between any two masses there is a gravitational force.  The strength of that force depends not only on the masses, but on the distance between those masses, following what is known as an inverse square relation.  That is, if you double the distance between two masses, their gravitational attraction will be a quarter of what it was.  If you halve the distance between two masses, their attraction will be four times stronger.  Newton felt that this inverse square relation was exact, but is it?

One of the ways we know Newton’s gravity works is through the motion of the planets.  Masses like the planets and Sun are attracted to each other by gravity’s inverse square relation, and thus their motion follows a relation known as Kepler’s laws.  We have seen that this holds not only for the planets and moons in our solar system, but also for other stars orbiting each other, exoplanets orbiting their star, and even stars orbiting the supermassive black hole in the center of our galaxy.  So Newtonian gravity works very, very well.

For large masses we know that the inverse square relation for gravity isn’t quite exact.  For example, Mercury and the Sun are massive enough and close enough that Mercury’s orbit deviates slightly from a simple elliptical orbit.  This deviation was the first evidence of general relativity.  We also know that the orbit of massive neutron star orbiting with another star will decay in a way that violates Newtonian gravity (but agrees with general relativity).  Newtonian gravity works very well, but for massive objects general relativity is more accurate.

What about for small masses on very short scales?

We know that on very small scales Newtonian physics is inaccurate, and we need to use quantum mechanics. One common feature of quantum mechanics is that rather than being smooth and continuous, objects can be constrained into discrete (quantum) states.  We see this, for example, in the light emitted by an atom.  Rather than being a continuous range of wavelengths, the emitted light can only be at particular wavelengths.  This is due to the fact that an electron in an atom can only have particular energy levels.  When an electron drops from a higher energy level to a lower one, it releases a photon of a particular wavelength.

On very small scales, gravity is also be quantized. We don’t have a complete theory of quantum gravity, but for weak gravitational fields such as Earth’s, it can behave similar to the quantum energy levels of an electron in an atom.  In a new paper in Physical Review Letters, this fact was used to measure Newton’s inverse-square gravity to the highest precision yet.

What the team did was to create a “gravitational atom” by bouncing between two mirrors (not mirrors in the way we usually think, but rather a surface that can reflect neutrons). These particular neutrons were ultra-cold, so their bounces were very small and were very low energy.  Because of this the energy of these neutrons were quantized. Basically, instead of being able to bounce to any height like a rubber ball, they could only bounce to specific (quantum) heights.  In other words, the gravitational energy of the neutrons were quantized in much the same way that the energy of electrons are quantized in an atom.

The team was then able to measure these energy levels very precisely, using a method known as resonance spectroscopy.  Since the energy levels of the neutrons depend on gravity, any deviation of gravity from Newton’s inverse square relation would show up as a shift in the energy levels.  What the team found was that the energy levels matched Newtonian gravity to the limits of their measurements.

What’s interesting about this result is that it puts constraints on certain forms of dark energy and dark matter.  For example, one model of dark energy, known as quintessence, proposes that dark energy is a scalar energy field.  One prediction of quintessence is that it would cause gravity to deviate from an inverse square relation at small energy levels.  This experiment rules out quintessence unless its interaction is very weak.  One idea for dark matter is a particle known as an axion.  This type of particle would also interact at low energy levels, causing a deviation from Newton’s gravity.  This experiment rules out axions unless their interaction is extremely weak.

So it turns out that on very small scales Newtonian gravity still works, and that means that dark energy is not likely to be due to quintessence, and dark matter is not likely made of axions.

Image: The quantum gravity energy levels for a neutron. 
Credit: T. Jenke et al.

Paper:  T. Jenke, G. Cronenberg, et al. Gravity Resonance Spectroscopy Constrains Dark Energy and Dark Matter Scenarios. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 151105 (2014)
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Fascinating I wonder if we will be able to harness dark energy
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Graphic design/web/editorial, animation, multimedia, logistics, style correction, social researcher
  • lggrCorp
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
San Luis Potosi - Puerto Vallarta - Cuernavaca - Rioverde - Monterrey - Guadalajara - Querétaro - Punta Cana - La Habana - Tepoztlán - Ciudad de México
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  • Everest College - Sudbury
    RMT, 2013 - present
  • Universidad Mesoamericana
    Lic. en Comunicación, 2001 - 2005
  • Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí
    Médico cirujano, 2000 - 2001
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