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Karyomorphological Studies in Three Species of Alocasia (Schott.) G.Don.- An Ethno-medicinally and Economically Important Genus

Bandana Nabis Das*
Associate Professor, Department of Botany, Handique Girls’ College, Guwahati, Assam, India
*Address for Correspondence Dr. Bandana Nabis Das, Associate Professor, Department of Botany, Handique Girls’ College, Guwahati, Assam, India

ABSTRACT
Karyomorphological studies in Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) G.Don., Alocasia fornicate (Roxb.) Schott, Alocasia longiloba Miq. belonging to the family Araceae using root tip squash technique was carried out. It was observed that the chromosome number for the three species was found to be 2n=28 and chromosomes are smaller in size. The chromosomes in Alocasia longiloba were found to be longer in length in comparison to Alocasia macrorrhiza, Alocasia fornicata. Present studies also reveal that the karyotype is a symmetric type. The present karyomorphological study has been undertaken as it is an established fact that karyomorphological analysis forms a prerequisite for the genetic improvement of any plant species. This study would be helpful in the protection, conservations of the species by establishment of germplasm bank.
Key-words Alocasia macrorrhiza, Karyomorphology, Karyotypes, Symmetric type, Chromosomes
http://dx.doi.org/10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.6.8
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Growth Curve Analysis of Rhizobium leguminosarum Using Voltage Produced by Microbial Fuel Cell
Shrirang R. Maddalwar1*, Arti S. Shanware2

1Student, Department of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Biotechnology Centre, Nagpur, India
2Director, Department of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Biotechnology Centre, Nagpur, India

*Address for Correspondence: Mr. Shrirang R. Maddalwar, Student, Department of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Biotechnology Centre, Nagpur-440020, India

ABSTRACT
Microbial fuel cells could be used to the study growth rates of aerobic microbial species on the basis of voltage produced by them in the microbial fuel cell assembly. A fresh culture of Rhizobium leguminosarum was added in the anode chamber of a microbial fuel cell assembly and subsequent voltage produced by it was recorded after every fifteen minutes. The 24 ml/hr of air was pumped in the anode chamber to maintain the dissolved oxygen level and resistance of 12 ohm was applied across the electrodes. This process was studied in triplicates and voltage data was recorded. The graph plotted of voltage against time suggested the growth curve of the species in the microbial fuel cell system. It was found that voltage gradually increased with time ranging from 50 mV to 190 mV with a supply of oxygen in the anode, but it declines gradually to zero in absence of aeration with time and depletion of nutrients.

Key-words Rhizobium leguminosarum, Exo-electrogenesis, Microbial fuel cell, Sporulation, Proton exchange membrane

http://dx.doi.org/10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.6.7
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Homeopathic Remedies, Carcinosin200C and Natrum Sulphuricum200C, Used Intermittently Demonstrate Greater Ameliorative Response in Mice Intoxicated with Liver Carcinogens

Nandini Bhattacharjee1, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh2*

1Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology, Rishi Bankim Chandra College, Naihati, India
2Retired Professor and Emeritus of UGC, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, India

*Address for Correspondence: Prof. A.R. Khuda-Bukhsh, Retired Professor and Emeritus of UGC, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235; India. Residential Address: B-2/325, Husn Ara Manzil, Kalyani-741234, Nadia, West Bengal, India

ABSTRACT
Background- In homeopathy, Carcinosin 200C (Car200) and Natrum Sulphuricum 200C (Nat Sulph200), are generally used individually in liver ailments depending on the totality of symptoms. This study was designed to examine if a combined treatment of these two homeopathic remedies can provide better ameliorative effects in mammalian model mice (Mus musculus) with reference to the generation of hepatotoxicity, free radicals and liver tumors induced by chronic feeding of two carcinogens, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB) and phenobarbital (PB).
Methods- 42 mice were divided into following groups comprising 6 mice each: normal untreated (control-1), normal+succussed alcohol-fed (control-2; alcohol being “vehicle” of the drugs), p-DAB+PB fed (carcinogen-intoxicated), p-DAB+PB+succussed alcohol fed (carcinogen-intoxicated control-3), p-DAB+PB+Nat Sulph200 fed (intoxicated drug-fed-1), p-DAB+PB+Car200 fed (intoxicated drug-fed-2), and p-DAB+PB+Nat Sulph200+Car200 fed (intoxicated drug-fed-3). Cytogenetical endpoints like chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, mitotic index and sperm head anomaly, biomarkers like aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were assayed at certain intervals. Additionally, electron microscopical studies (scanning and transmission) and gelatin zymography for matrix metalloproteinases were conducted in the liver at day 90 and 120.
Results- All toxicity parameters were favorably modulated by administration of either of the two homeopathic remedies, but the protection level was greater in mice treated conjointly with both the drugs.
Conclusion- Conjoint use of Car200 and Nat Sulph200 in carcinogen-intoxicated mice ameliorated hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress significantly more than when a single drug was administered and their clinical use in human liver ailments is validated.

Key-words: Liver carcinogens, Natrum Sulphuricum 200C, Carcinosin 200C, Hepatotoxicity, Cytogenetical endpoints, Enzymatic biomarkers


http://dx.doi.org/10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.6.6
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Knowledge and Practice of Asthmatic’s Patients Regard using Meter Dose Inhaler
Hassanat E. Mustafa1*, Mishkat S.A. Rokza2, Badria A. Elfaki3

1Department of Nursing practices, Umm Al-Qura University, Faculty of Nursing, Makka, Saudi Arabia, & Al-Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan
2Department of Nursing, OmdurmanIslamic University, Khartoum, Sudan
3Department of Nursing practices, Umm Al-Qura University, Faculty of Nursing, Makka, Saudi Arabia, & Als-Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan

*Address for Correspondence: Dr. Hassanat Elbashir Mohammed Mustafa, Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing Practices, Umm Al-Qura University, Faculty of Nursing, P.O.: 715-21955, Makkah AlMakarama, Saudi Arabia

ABSTRACT
Inadequate management of asthma can lead to physical handicap and death. The study aimedto assess knowledge and practice of asthmatic participants for use meter dose inhaler device. A descriptive study involved 105 participants, conducted at public hospitals in Khartoum state from July to October2014. Questionnaire and observational check list were used for data collection. The study enrolled (51%) female and (49%) male. Most of participants their age group ranged, between 36 to 45 years, (35%) were workers and (31%) received University education while 44 % had a chronic asthma. Level of participant’s knowledge was a very good regard care and storage of the device; sequent (77% - 79%). There were(64%) had moderate level of knowledge for preparation dose (69%) replacing inhaler device and cleaning mouthpiece (60%), while 56% had very poor knowledge to rinse mouth after puff. A highly significant difference between the level of knowledge and education (P value<0.001) regard replacing the inhaler device, and cleansing mouthpiece. All participants demonstrated correct technique of using inhaler device, position, removed, pressed replacement the cap, shaking inhaler device and took deep breath. While half of them had moderate skill level for opened mouth technique, continuous breathing and rinsed mouth after puffuse, and fewer of participants had poor technique during repeating the puff. Most of participants reflected moderate to poor level of knowledge and have very good practice for correct used inhaler meter device; this reveals the discrepancy between knowledge and practice.

Key-words: Asthma, Knowledge, Meter dose inhaler, Patients, Practice

http://dx.doi.org/10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.6.5
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Seroprevalence of Rheumatoid Factor in Tertiary Care Hospital

Varad Vardhan Bisen*

Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Banda, India

*Address for Correspondence: Dr. Varad Vardhan Bisen, Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Government Medical College Banda, Naraini Road, Uttar Pradesh-210001, India

ABSTRACT
Rheumatoid arthirits (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects many tissues and organs but mainly affects the joints, producing a proliferative and inflammatory disease that progresses to damage the joint cartilage and ankylosis of the joints. About 1% of the world’s population is affected by RA. Women three to five times more often than men, it is more common in age group of 40 to 70 years of age. The useful serological markers for RA are Rheumatoid factor (RF) and antibodies to citrullinated peptides. This present study was done to find out the prevalence of serological marker in suspected arthritis case in tertiary care hospital. This prospective study was carried out in serology section in central pathology lab in Government Medical College, Banda from April 2015 to August 2018. Total 776 blood samples were received for RA factor analysis. Out of 776 samples, 111 samples were positive for RA factor 14.3% prevalence. Total 88 cases were females and 23 were males. Most common age group involved was 21 - 60 years in females and 40 - 70 years in males. For evaluation of patients with suspected RA, it is recommended to perform anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody and RF analysis to increase specificity of the results.

Key-words: Rheumatoid Arthiritis, RA Factor, Citrullinated, Anti-CCP, Serological marker

http://dx.doi.org/10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.6.4
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Tubercular Brain Abscess: Diagnostic Dilemma-A Case Report

Areena Hoda Siddiqui1*, Poonam Singh2, Shilpi Sahai3

1,2Department of Lab Medicine, Sahara Hospital, Viraj Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow, UP., India
3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sahara Hospital, Viraj Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow, UP., India

*Address for Correspondence: Dr. Areena Hoda Siddiqui, Microbiologist, Department of Lab Medicine, Sahara Hospital, Lucknow (UP)-226010, India

ABSTRACT
Isolated central nervous system tuberculosis is uncommon in immunocompetent patients. It resembles a pyogenic brain abscess clinically and radiologically and poses a problem in diagnosis and treatment. Here we described a case of recurrent frontal lobe abscess, which was diagnosed as a tubercular abscess. There was no clinical or radiological evidence of active tuberculosis elsewhere in the body. The diagnosis of tubercular abscess was confirmed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (TB-PCR) in the abscess material aspirated via a burr hole.

Key-words: Central nervous system tuberculosis, Frontal lobe abscess, Tubercular brain abscess

http://dx.doi.org/10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.6.3
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Enterocins: Symptomatic for Bio-alternative in Caries Control

Ramamoorthi Arularasi Aberna1*, Kesani Prabhakar2
1Lecturer, Department of Microbiology, Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, India
2Professor, Department of Microbiology, Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, India

*Address for Correspondence: Dr. R. Arularasi Aberna, Lecturer, Department of Microbiology, Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Chidambaram-608002, India

ABSTRACT
Background- Enterocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by Enterococcus species, which have inhibitory activity on closely related genera. Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as a pivotal organism to initiate dental caries ensuing, serious impairment to structure and functions of tooth beside the mental health of humans. Hence we investigated the possibility of using enterocins in caries treatment and prophylaxis.
Methods- S. mutans was isolated from the saliva of 50 caries-prone humans. Enterococcus faecalis were isolated from the stool samples of humans. The species identity of the isolated organisms was confirmed using conventional biochemical methods. The inhibitory activity of enterocins on S. mutans isolates and their active concentrations was identified by spot-on-lawn assay. Inhibitory activity of 3 enterocins on their target S. mutans isolates were further analyzed by time-kill assay and colony forming units (CFU)/ml over 0, 4, 8 and 12 h time interval was determined.
Results- Enterocins produced by three E. faecalis isolates demonstrated inhibitory activity on more than 75% of S. mutans isolates. Enterocins SF101, enterocin SF118 and enterocin PF98 showed 100% inhibition of their target S. mutans at 1:2, 1:4, and undiluted concentrations. The viable count of enterocin treated S. mutans isolates declined to mean log10 CFU/ml of 4.92 after 12 h time interval while the untreated control showed the increase to 9.11.
Conclusion- Enterocins exerts bactericidal activity against S. mutans, thus validating the possibility of enterocin to be used for caries treatment and prophylaxis.

Key-words: Enterocin, S. mutans, Inhibitory activity, Dental caries

http://dx.doi.org/10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.6.2
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Study on the Guard Hair of Some Domesticated Ungulate Species of the Saurashtra Region of the Gujarat, India

Vibhuti B. Raval1*, Bhupat B. Radadia1, Ashvinkumar H. Italiya2

1Department of Biology, Shree M. & N. Virani Science College, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2Department of Biology, Regional Forensic Science Laboratory, Junagadh, Gujarat, India

*Address for Correspondence: Ms. Vibhuti B. Raval, Research Scholar, Department of Biology, Shree M. & N. Virani Science College, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat, India

ABSTRACT
The study was carried out to recognize the domesticated species belonging to the family Bovidae by their specific macro-microscopic features of dorsal guard hair characteristics. Nowadays the domesticated animals played a vital role in the dairy industry and in providing easy prey-base for the various top predators which found to occur throughout the Gujarat area including protected and non-protected areas. In this, we collected control hair samples from the various cattle owners distributed in whole Saurashtra region of the Gujarat State in the year 2018. The total randomly picked up one hundred twenty guard hairs from a dorsal region of the four different cattle species were analyzed under microscopes to avail authenticated and the photographic evidence for the further carnivore scat analysis through this key. In this study, we used the recognizable qualitative and quantitative features of cuticle as well as medulla of the hair. Medullary Index (MI) found higher in domesticated Sheep 0.93±0.01, followed by Water Buffalo 0.9±0.02, followed by domesticated Goat 0.77±0.01, which further followed by domesticated cow 0.5±0.10 µm with lower MI. In this study we used the identifiable qualitative and quantitative features of Cuticle as well as Medulla.

Key-words: Guard Hair, Ungulates, Domesticated Bovid, Protected Areas, Predatory Carnivore, Qualitative and Quantitative


http://dx.doi.org/10.21276/ijlssr.2018.4.6.1
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Large Post Auricular Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Involving Facial Nerve- A Rare Case Report

Preeti Singh1*, Vishal Pathania2, Kamal Goyal3

1Assistant Professor, Department of ENT, SGT Medical College and Hospital Gurgaon, India
2Professor, Department of ENT, SGT Medical College and Hospital Gurgaon, India
3Senior Resident, Department of ENT, Medical College and Hospital Gurgaon, India

*Address for Correspondence: Dr. Preeti Singh, Assistant Professor, Department of ENT, SGT Medical College, Farukhnagar Road, Budhera Village, Gurgaon- 122505, India


ABSTRACT
Epidermoid cysts represent most common benign, cutaneous cysts. Most frequently was seen on face, scalp, and trunk. It accounts for approximately 80% of follicular cyst of skin. Epidermoid cyst usually remains asymptomatic until it gets secondarily infected. Malignant changes are seen very rarely. We describe a case of the huge post auricular epidermoid cyst, which was encasing extra-temporal part of the facial nerve and was in close proximity to external carotid artery. The cyst was excised surgically and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst.

Key-words: Epidermoid cyst, Post-auricular cyst, Fine needle aspiration cytology, FNAC
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Analysis of Changing Vegetation Pattern Under Different Climatic, Edaphic and Altitudinal Factors of Doon Valley, Uttarakhand, India

Narendra Kumar1*, Kartik Uniyal2, Zakir Nazir3

1Assistant Professor cum Head, Department of Botany, Alpine Institute of Management & Technology, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
2Assistant Professor cum Head, Department of Biotechnology & Microbiology, Alpine Institute of Management & Technology, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
3Student, Department of Botany, Alpine Institute of Management & Technology, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

*Address for Correspondence: Dr. Narendra Kumar, Assistant Professor cum Head, Department of Botany, Alpine Institute of Management & Technology, Dehradun, Uttarakhand -248 007, India


ABSTRACT
The present study was conducted in altitudinal variable hight and soil pH growing vegetation of Doon valley that the soil type found in Mussoorie is generally medium loamy but its composition, moisture, and pH generally varied from place to place. Higher silt in Mussoorie was due to higher precipitation in the form of winter snow above 1800 m. Soil temperature in Mussoorie ranged from 40C - 160C, while that of Sahastradhara and sudhowala was 15 - 190C. Soil organic matter content tended to be higher in high altitude and increased with increasing altitude. In this study, our finding observed that Soil temperature in Mussoorie ranged from 40C -160C, while that of Sahastradhara was 15 - 190C, Sudhowala 15 - 250C. Soil organic matter content tended to be higher in increase high altitudinal gradient. As per altitudinal variation and soil pH in this region dominant family of angiosperms in Garhwal Himalaya are Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Cyperaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae, Solanaceae, Sexifragaceae, Ranunculaceae Orchidaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, and Rosaceae.

Key-words: Altitude, Altitudinal Factors Angiosperms, Phytodiversity, Species analysis, Vegetation Pattern, Edaphic
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