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Math Easy Solutions
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Listen to my beautiful voice as I explain things ;)
Listen to my beautiful voice as I explain things ;)

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In #PizzaGate Part 20 I discuss the origins of the BLogo & LBLogo and show how the founders were thrown in jail for unspeakable abuse…

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Who thought newton's calculus inventions would make college students lives so hard! ;) #calculus #math #isaac #newton
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Damn you 12th Grade calculus 
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I don’t always derive the angles of a triangle inside a circle but when I do I usually find the RIGHT angle ;)

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I don’t always draw circles in polar equation form but when I do I make sure to convert the equation into Cartesian coordinates as well ;)

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Our current understanding of cosmology tells us that 75% of the universe is "dark", in that we know little about its composition and nature. Here's an article (with three great documentaries) about dark matter and dark energy.

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Tests May Solve Einstein’s Great Riddle

Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say.

Advanced technology could resolve a long-standing puzzle over what is driving the accelerated expansion of the Universe.

Researchers have long sought to determine the mechanism behind the expansion of our universe.

Calculations in a new study could help to explain whether dark energy, as predicted by Einstein, or a revised theory of gravity are responsible.

Explaining gravity
Einstein’s theory describes gravity as distortions of time and space. This included a mathematical element known as a Cosmological Constant.

Einstein originally introduced it to explain a fixed universe, but discarded the idea after it was discovered that our universe is expanding.

Research carried out two decades ago showed that this expansion is accelerating.

This suggests that Einstein’s Constant may still have a part to play in an explanation of dark energy.

Gravity effects
Without dark energy, the acceleration implies a failure of Einstein’s theory of gravity across the largest distances in our Universe.

Scientists from the University of Edinburgh have discovered that the puzzle could be solved by experiments to determine the speed of gravity in the cosmos.

Theory test
The researchers’ calculations show that gravitational waves – ripples in space-time in the universe - may hold the key.

Learn more>>
http://www.ed.ac.uk/news/2017/tests-may-solve-einstein-s-great-riddle

► The paper "Challenges to self-acceleration in modified gravity from gravitational waves and large-scale structure", published in Physics Letters B >>
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269316307948

Read the preprint on arXiv>> https://arxiv.org/abs/1602.07670

Image: Diagram showing the Lambda-CBR universe, from the Big Bang to the the current era.
Credit: Alex Mittelmann/Coldcreation
► Image source>> http://bit.ly/2kUNPnn


#Astrophysics, #Research, #UniverseExpansion, #AlbertEinstein, #CosmologicalConstant, #DarkEnergy
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Radiation from Nearby Galaxies Helped Fuel First Monster Black Holes

The appearance of supermassive black holes at the dawn of the universe has puzzled astronomers since their discovery more than a decade ago.
A supermassive black hole is thought to form over billions of years, but more than two dozen of these behemoths have been sighted within 800 million years of the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago.

In a new study in the journal Nature Astronomy, a team of researchers from Dublin City University, Columbia University, Georgia Tech, and the University of Helsinki, add evidence to one theory of how these ancient black holes, about a billion times heavier than our sun, may have formed and quickly put on weight.

In computer simulations, the researchers show that a black hole can rapidly grow at the center of its host galaxy if a nearby galaxy emits enough radiation to switch off its capacity to form stars. Thus disabled, the host galaxy grows until its eventual collapse, forming a black hole that feeds on the remaining gas, and later, dust, dying stars, and possibly other black holes, to become super gigantic.

“The collapse of the galaxy and the formation of a million-solar-mass black hole takes 100,000 years — a blip in cosmic time,” says study co-author Zoltan Haiman, an astronomy professor at Columbia University. “A few hundred-million years later, it has grown into a billion-solar-mass supermassive black hole. This is much faster than we expected.”

In the early universe, stars and galaxies formed as molecular hydrogen cooled and deflated a primordial plasma of hydrogen and helium. This environment would have limited black holes from growing very big as molecular hydrogen turned gas into stars far enough away to escape the black holes’ gravitational pull. Astronomers have come up with several ways that supermassive black holes might have overcome this barrier.

Learn more>>
http://news.columbia.edu/content/New-Study-Finds-Radiation-from-Nearby-Galaxies-Helped-Fuel-First-Monster-Black-Holes

► The study "Rapid formation of massive black holes in close proximity to embryonic protogalaxies", published in the journal Nature Astronomy>>
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-017-0075

► Read the preprint on arXiv>>
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.03805.pdf

Image explanation: The massive black hole shown at left in this drawing is able to rapidly grow as intense radiation from a galaxy nearby shuts down star-formation in its host galaxy.
Illustration Courtesy of John Wise, Georgia Tech

#Astrophysics, #MassiveBlackHoles, #Protogalaxies, #StarFormation, #EarlyUniverse, #Research
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