First research paper: http://www.nasa.gov/feature/new-horizons-publishes-first-research-paper-in-science-describing-numerous-pluto-system
#Pluto #NewHorizons #PlutoFlyBy
See also (the Moons of Jupiter): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Jupiter
From the attached article...
These are the ground rules: You can’t say Earth is your favorite planet.
This was the framework my colleagues established in a recent newsroom debate over which of the classical planets is the most awe-inspiring. You can’t pick Earth. That would be obnoxious. Like saying your spirit animal is a human.
Well, fine. I pick Jupiter.
Gargantuan, swirling, violent Jupiter. A planet made from the cloud that formed the moment the sun was born. A gas giant that contains more than twice the material of all the other planets in our solar system combined. Huge enough to house 1,300 Earths, and with a midsection that spans 44,308 miles. (The radius of Earth is 3,961 miles.)
Jupiter, where winds blow at several hundred miles an hour constantly—as in, all the time and without letting up. Jupiter, where the average temperature is a frigid 235 degrees below zero, but where it gets hotter than lava at lower and lower cloud layers. Jupiter, which gives off more heat than it gets from the sun. Jupiter, where the raging weather includes a mammoth anti-hurricane that has been churning for something like 400 years. That epic storm is what you see when you notice the planet’s famed Great Red Spot—a massive high-pressure system, equivalent in size to three of our home planet.
But it’s not always red. “It’s kind of orange and it changes color,” said Amy Simon, a planetary scientist at NASA. This is just one of Jupiter’s mysteries.
From far away, the planet looks vaguely beige. But its clouds are a kaleidoscope of warm colors—alternately red, orange, pink, and tan, with some blue. That may be the effect of sunlight breaking down chemicals like ammonia, but scientists aren’t sure. “We still don't know what makes the clouds the colors they are,” Simon said. “Another thing we don’t know is: Why the storms last so long.”
The planet’s intense weather seems to play a role in its ever-changing color scheme. When scientists observed fireballs raining down on Jupiter in 2010, they looked like little dots from afar. In reality, they were meteors the size of military tanks that released 1015 Joules of energy on impact. “For comparison,” NASA wrote at the time. “That’s five to ten times less energy than the Tunguska event of 1908, when a meteoroid exploded in Earth’s atmosphere and leveled millions of trees in a remote area of Russia.”
Jupiter has seen worse. In 1994, it was hit with a torrent of mountain-sized pieces from a dying comet, a bombardment that “ignited flashes on Jupiter... that outshone the giant planet itself,” The New York Times reported. One of the fireballs that spun out from the impact was as large as Earth. (Incidentally, Jupiter has protected Earth from many, many comet impacts. Some scientists believe that Earth owes its habitability to Jupiter for this reason.) The collision sparked unimaginable storm systems.
“We can look at Jupiter like a weather laboratory,” Simon said. The thunderstorms on Jupiter are epic, more intense than “the most crazy weather you can imagine here on Earth.” Scientists know about Jupiter’s electrical storms because they observed lightning—striking the same walls of clouds at the same time, over and over—when the Voyager spacecraft flew by in 1979. Only lightning strikes on Jupiter are 1,000 times stronger than the ones that flicker across the Earth. Jupiter is as extreme as it is tremendous. (“It wouldn’t be a very nice place to visit,” Simon said.)
Did you know about Jupiter’s rings? It has four of them. A bright, thin ring sandwiched between a thick halo of particles and two gossamer rings that are made from moondust.
Then there’s the dizzying rotational speed of the planet; a Jupiter day lasts a mere 10 hours. Oh, and have I mentioned the vast ocean of liquid metallic hydrogen? The lightest element on Earth, one that would make a balloon float skyward in our atmosphere, churns in liquid form on Jupiter. There’s no way to know what this looks like. “Not only are we talking about something nobody’s seen, but we’re talking about something that only exists at pressures that are 2 million times the pressure we’re used to on Earth—and down underneath the atmosphere, so it’s dark,” said Steve Levin, a project scientist for the Juno mission to Jupiter. “In my head, I picture it looking vaguely like liquid mercury.”
[See attached article for additional photographs, animations, videos, and the remaining paragraphs...]
Adam: "I recently spent a few days in Vermont with Michael Blanchette and Benjamin Williamson, chasing the amazing fall colors all over the place. The foliage was at peak color in many places and looked amazing!"
Nikon D810A and Nikon 14-24mm f/2.8 lens, at f/2.8 and 14mm. This is a blend of 10 images for the sky and 1 image for the foreground. The 10 images were shot at ISO 10,000 for 10 seconds each and stacked with Starry Landscape Stacker to produce a result with pinpoint stars and low noise. A single foreground shot at ISO 1600 for 15 minutes was used to capture detail in the foliage.
Credit: Adam Woodworth
Adam's website: www.AdamWoodworth.com
Location: Nichols Pond, Vermont, United States
Date October 12, 2015
#Space #Astronomy #Science #MilkyWay #Galaxy #Stars #Art
#Photography #Cosmos #Universe #Earth #Vermont #USA
The Siberian Husky (Russian: сибирский хаски, "Sibirsky hasky") is a medium size, dense-coat working dog breed that originated in north-eastern Siberia. The breed belongs to the Spitz genetic family. It is recognizable by its thickly...
Image Credit & Copyright: Babak Tafreshi (TWAN)
Stars come out as evening twilight fades in this serene skyscape following the Persian proverb "Night hides the world, but reveals a universe." The scene finds the Sun setting over northern Kenya and the night will soon hide the shores of Lake Turkana, home to many Nile crocodiles. The region is also known for its abundance of hominid fossils. On that past November night, a brilliant Venus, then the world's evening star, dominates the starry skies above. But also revealed are faint stars, cosmic dust clouds, and glowing nebulae along the graceful arc of our own Milky Way galaxy.
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