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Pam Lee
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"I ain't afraid to love a man. I ain't afraid to shoot him either." - Annie Oakley, 1899.
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Radiation from Nearby Galaxies Helped Fuel First Monster Black Holes

The appearance of supermassive black holes at the dawn of the universe has puzzled astronomers since their discovery more than a decade ago.
A supermassive black hole is thought to form over billions of years, but more than two dozen of these behemoths have been sighted within 800 million years of the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago.

In a new study in the journal Nature Astronomy, a team of researchers from Dublin City University, Columbia University, Georgia Tech, and the University of Helsinki, add evidence to one theory of how these ancient black holes, about a billion times heavier than our sun, may have formed and quickly put on weight.

In computer simulations, the researchers show that a black hole can rapidly grow at the center of its host galaxy if a nearby galaxy emits enough radiation to switch off its capacity to form stars. Thus disabled, the host galaxy grows until its eventual collapse, forming a black hole that feeds on the remaining gas, and later, dust, dying stars, and possibly other black holes, to become super gigantic.

“The collapse of the galaxy and the formation of a million-solar-mass black hole takes 100,000 years — a blip in cosmic time,” says study co-author Zoltan Haiman, an astronomy professor at Columbia University. “A few hundred-million years later, it has grown into a billion-solar-mass supermassive black hole. This is much faster than we expected.”

In the early universe, stars and galaxies formed as molecular hydrogen cooled and deflated a primordial plasma of hydrogen and helium. This environment would have limited black holes from growing very big as molecular hydrogen turned gas into stars far enough away to escape the black holes’ gravitational pull. Astronomers have come up with several ways that supermassive black holes might have overcome this barrier.

Learn more>>
http://news.columbia.edu/content/New-Study-Finds-Radiation-from-Nearby-Galaxies-Helped-Fuel-First-Monster-Black-Holes

► The study "Rapid formation of massive black holes in close proximity to embryonic protogalaxies", published in the journal Nature Astronomy>>
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-017-0075

► Read the preprint on arXiv>>
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.03805.pdf

Image explanation: The massive black hole shown at left in this drawing is able to rapidly grow as intense radiation from a galaxy nearby shuts down star-formation in its host galaxy.
Illustration Courtesy of John Wise, Georgia Tech

#Astrophysics, #MassiveBlackHoles, #Protogalaxies, #StarFormation, #EarlyUniverse, #Research
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Colors of Brazil - not Sweden

Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)

This amazing colors of this macaw species might be associated with Sweden for some, and even Ikea, but is the color nature intended to this incredible species of Brazil. It might still exist in Bolivia and Paraguay, but Brazil is where it is widely seen and actively protected in many places

The species is recovering well, and some places in Pantanal you can see many of them in one location.

This is one very special couple though, as they have gradually become so accustomed to humans that they will come close as well as talk back when you call them.

They were exceedingly talkative and babbled constantly while walking around and I must confess I really enjoyed their vocalisations – so much more mellow than all the other macaws and parrots.

Here you can listen to the bird: http://www.xeno-canto.org/115384

Image Copyright © 2014 +Morten Ross

#pantanal #brazil #parrots

#PhotoManiaScandinavia +Photo Mania Scandinavia curated by +Walli Werner +Ronny Årbekk +Robert Walter +Jakob Schüssler +Sebastian T. +Chandro Ji

#hqspbirds +HQSP Birds
#birdsgallery +Birds GALLERY #birdloversworldwide
#BTPBirdPro+BTP Bird Pro , owned by +Nancy Dempsey , curated by +Lynn Wiezycki

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