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hafsah allshari
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Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, chemical and gustatory.

The communication modalities used by domestic cats have been affected by domestication.


Vocalizations

Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.

Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).

Brown et al. categorised vocal responses of cats according to the behavioural context: (1) during separation of kittens from mother cats, (2) during food deprivation, (3) during pain, (4) prior to or during threat or attack behavior, as in disputes over territory or food, (5) during a painful or acutely stressful experience, as in routine prophylactic injections and (6) during kitten deprivation. Less commonly recorded calls from mature cats included purring, conspecific greeting calls or murmurs, extended vocal dialogues between cats in separate cages, “frustration” calls during training or extinction of conditioned responses.

Miller classified vocalisations into 5 categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/snarl/hiss.


Purr

The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic cat kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.

The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partly because cats do not have a unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the vocalization. One hypothesis, supported by electromyographic studies, is that cats produce the purring noise by using the vocal folds and/or the muscles of the larynx to alternately dilate and constrict the glottis rapidly, causing air vibrations during inhalation and exhalation. Combined with the steady inhalation and exhalation as the cat breathes, a purring noise is produced with strong harmonics. Purring is sometimes accompanied by other sounds, though this varies between individuals. Some may only purr, while other cats include low level outbursts sometimes described as "lurps" or "yowps".

Domestic cats purr at varying frequencies. One study reported that domestic cats purr at average frequencies of 21.98 Hz in the egressive phase and 23.24 Hz in the ingressive phase with an overall mean of 22.6 Hz. Further research on purring in four domestic cats found that the fundamental frequency varied between 20.94 and 27.21 Hz for the egressive phase and between 23.0 and 26.09 Hz for the ingressive phase. There was considerable variation between the four cats in the relative amplitude, duration and frequency between egressive and ingressive phases, although this variation generally occurred within the normal range.

One study on a single cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) showed it purred with an average frequency of 20.87 Hz (egressive phases) and 18.32 Hz (ingressive phases). A further study on four adult cheetahs found that mean frequencies were between 19.3 Hz and 20.5 Hz in ingressive phases, and between 21.9 Hz and 23.4 Hz in egressive phases. The egressive phases were longer than ingressive phases and moreover, the amplitude was greater in the egressive phases.

It was once believed that only the cats of the genus Felis could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tigers, lions, jaguars and leopards) also produce sounds similar to purring, but only when exhaling. The subdivision of the Felidae into ‘purring cats’ on the one hand and ‘roaring cats ’ (i.e. non-purring) on the other, originally goes back to Owen (1834/1835) and was definitely introduced by Pocock (1916), based on a difference in hyoid anatomy. The ‘roaring cats’ (lion, Panthera leo; tiger, P. tigris; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus) have an incompletely ossified hyoid, which according to this theory, enables them to roar but not to purr. On the other hand, the snow leopard (Uncia uncia), as the fifth felid species with an incompletely ossified hyoid, purrs (Hemmer, 1972). All remaining species of the family Felidae (‘purring cats’) have a completely ossified hyoid which enables them to purr but not to roar. However, Weissengruber et al. (2002) argued that the ability of a cat species to purr is not affected by the anatomy of its hyoid, i.e. whether it is fully ossified or has a ligamentous epihyoid, and that, based on a technical acoustic definition of roaring, the presence of this vocalization type depends on specific characteristics of the vocal folds and an elongated vocal tract, the latter rendered possible by an incompletely ossified hyoid.





Meow

The meow is one of the most widely known vocalizations of domestic kittens. It is a call apparently used to solicit attention from the mother.

Adult cats commonly vocalise with a "meow" (or "miaow") sound, which is onomatopoeic. The meow can be assertive, plaintive, friendly, bold, welcoming, attention soliciting, demanding, or complaining. It can even be silent, where the cat opens its mouth but does not vocalize. Adult cats do not usually meow to each other and so meowing to human beings is likely to be an extension of the use by kittens.








Language differences

Different languages have correspondingly different words for the "meow" sound, including miau (Belarusian, Croatian, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, Lithuanian, Malay, German, Polish, Russian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish and Ukrainian), mnau (Czech), meong (Indonesian), niau (Ukrainian), niaou (?????, Greek), miaou (French), nya (??, Japanese), miao (?, Mandarin Chinese, Italian), miav/miao or mjav/mjau (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian), mjá (Icelandic), ya-ong (??, Korean), ????? / Miya?un_ (Urdu) and meo-meo (Vietnamese). In some languages (such as Chinese ?, mao), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.

Read more : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_communication

#gif #cats #animals #caturday #caturdayeveryday #caturday2014 #catsrule #catsallovertheworld #catholic #catlovers #animallovers #animalphotography #catphotography #catphotos #catpictures #catpics #lol #funny #funnypics #funnypictures #funnyphotos #funnystuff #ANNIMATEDGIFS   #trendingnow   #lolcats
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عوفو رامي الخالدي مومكن
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Booted Racket Tail Humming-bird
The booted racket-tail (Ocreatus underwoodii) is a species of hummingbird. It is found in the Andean cordillera of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. A population also occurs on the Venezuelan coast. This is the only species in the monotypic genus Ocreatus
The upperparts are a golden green colour and the rump has a white bar. The throat and breast are a brilliant emerald green. The legs are feathered down to the feet with white short feathers. The tail is brownish black and deeply forked. The tail feathers on either side increase in length from the centre and the outermost ones are exceptionally long and have bare shafts tipped by oval plumes, which gives the species its common name.

Check more here:
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Photo Copyright: Nancy L. Patrick
Information Source: Wikipedia


#birds #hummingbirds #wildlife #rackettail #bootedrackettailed #bootedrackettail #birdslover
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"An Old Peaceful Tale"
Sunrise on the shore of Lake Michigan in Wisconsin.
Wisconsin Horizons by Phil Koch.
Lives in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.
http://phil-koch.artistwebsites.com

#landscapephotography   #beautifulpictures   #photography    #winterwonderland    #sunrisephotography   #Wisconsin  
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ممكن انيجك يا.... متعة يعني و انا جاهز لأي شرط الشاري 
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Bird provokes a cat and pays the price

#cat  
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جابو لنفسو ههههههههههه
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Disarming innocence

#nice  
#baby  
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مساء الخير مساء لكل صديق في الكوكل ان ينضر الى مثل هذه الصور المنشوره والرجاء نشرها  حتى يتساوى الفقير والغني لاحظ الفقير وين نايم والغني وين نايم /هذه الحلات في كل دول العالم وخاصتا في بلدنا العراق الى متى هذا ياعراق /تحياتي ‎

#مساء_الخير   #الفقير   #الغني   #العراق  
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اللهم لك الحمد لله على كل شيء قدير والحمد لله رب العباد والبلاد يا رب العرش العظيم اغني الفقراء والمحتاجين والمساكين وكل من يقراء هذا الدعاء واياكم اجمعين
جزاك الله خير تحياتي للجميع وجمعه مبارك
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I am not bored! I have my own ...Friend!  
                                                Happy Tuesday!  :)
 For more gifs JOIN my community Favorite Gifs
https://plus.google.com/u/0/communities/11194267725570947353


Credit: 4GIFs.com

#favoritegifs #gifs #doglovers #animallovers #dog #shadow   #germanshepherd   #germanshepherddog   #funnygifs #monday  
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cute
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I hope everyone is enjoying their Friday.  Here is another shot from a very productive weekend session at Montana De Oro State Park on the central coast of California.  The park boasts beautiful layered rock that creates excellent leading lines.  This area is a must visit for landscape photographers.

Nikon D800 / Nikkor 16-35 / Single Image

#landscapephotography   #photography   #montanadeoro   #seascapephotography   #naturephotography #nature   #sunset #sunsetphotography #longexposurephotography 
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Soo good
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منضر ساحر وجميل
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Noble By Wil Wardle
The Serval Cat is a medium sized Cat. It is a strong yet slender animal, with long legs and a fairly short tail... Simply Beautiful!
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Opposites do Attract!! 🐎💕😺
"Size Doesn't Matter!"

Meet "Champy the #Horse and "Morris the #Cat
Every Day Morris Meets Champy at the Fence to Say Hello & Nuzzles Him with #Love... After the Nuzzling Morris Gets On Champy's Back Where They Roam the Prairie Together All Day! 💕💞

#cutenessoverload #animallovers #horselovers 
#caturday #catlovers 
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It's true size age not matter
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Something a bit out of the norm for me. I will admit, I'm a sucker for dramatic, edge of the day light, and it is what I prefer to shoot, but on this day, I didn't have the choice. The lake was an eery kind of still that day, and luckily, I spotted this particularly shapely sand bar waiting for me. I've seen other shots from this area, but never a sand bar with as much character as this one. I've been back to the lake since, and sadly, the lake levels have dropped to the point that this area no longer has water in it(or maybe lucky for me). I would have preferred a shot of this with some nice sunset light and clouds, but that wasn't in the cards for me. I had set up a little before sunset and starting shooting, before the light started to change color, because by the time it did, the wind began to pick up and completely chopped up the lake. For me, it was pointless to try and shoot after that, so I packed it up thinking I had lost the opportunity. I pulled the file out recently, took a deep breath, mustered up some courage, and decided to give a blue sky/white cloud shot a good effort... the comp was just too interesting for me to pass up, and leave sitting on my hard drive for eternity. I'm happy with the result, and happy to have something that I think is fairly unique. 
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wow- very Nice
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The revolution lions of Bahrain | أشبال الثورة البحرينية‎
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The revolution lions of Bahrain | أشبال الثورة البحرينية

تعزيزات أمنية ترافق فورمولا-1 البحرينتعزيزات أمنية ترافق فورمولا-1 البحرين
www.aljazeera.net

كثفت قوات الأمن البحرينية إجراءاتها مع انطلاق منافسات جائزة البحرين الكبرى لسباقات فورمولا-1، بعد تزايد المخاوف بشأن سلامة المشاركين بالسباق

Bahrain activist’s daughter arrested for protesting
www.firstpost.com

The daughter of a prominent Bahraini opposition activist who has been on hunger strike for over two months was arrested on Saturday evening

البحرين / إستقبال ولي العهد في السنابس بطريقة لن ينساها
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Crown Prince of Bahrain In the village of Sanabis today المجرم ابن المجرم سلمان بن حمد ال خليفة حينما استقبله احرار وحرائر السنابس هذا اليوم

( شي من الخجل ) مونتاج لشهداء البحرين 2012م
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لم يخجلوا من الله ورسوله في هدم المساجد !!!! سيخجلون من شعب ٌ مسالم ( لنا الله ) يا ظالم

Bahrain | البحرین
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Bahrain | البحرین‎ hasn't shared anything on this page with you.

مؤشر البحرين يغلق على ارتفاع قدره 84ر1 نقطة
www.almustagbal.com

تغريدات. د.عبدالحكيم: إني جعلتك في الفؤاد محدثي *** وأبحت جسمي من أراد جلوسي رابعه العدويه......واضح; غاليه: في قلب كلُُ منا غرفه - مغلقة نخ

Bahrain قمع المتظاهرين قرب دوار أبوصيبع من الجهتين
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Suppression of peaceful protesters after the massive rally on Budaya avenue in the 1st day within days of overwhelming public anger refusing

The march of political societies in Bahrain 20-04-2012
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The march of political societies in Bahrain 20-04-2012

Protest 'won't affect' Bahrain F1
www.bbc.co.uk

The Bahraini authorities say they are "confident" the Formula 1 Grand Prix will not be disrupted by continuing anti-government protests.

‭BBC Arabic‬ - ‮رياضة‬ - ‮البحرين: "واثقون بأن الاحتجاجات لن تفسد سباق ا...
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السلطات البحرينية تعبر عن ثقتها بأن سباق سيارات الفئة الاولى المقرر ان يجرى الاحد لن تفسده الاحتجاجات.

حلبة البحرين - صخير : هجوم البلطجية على اسواق جواد 24/1/2012
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https://www.facebook.com/Martyrs.14feb Systematic attack by regime loyalist on Shia businesses in Bahrain. This incident was in Jawad 24Hour