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Just over two months ago Larry and I launched Calico. We said then that with the right goals, culture and people, we believe we can make good progress on health and well-being, in particular the challenge of staying youthful, healthy and disease-free for a longer time.

Today I am pleased to announce that four of the brightest and most accomplished individuals in the fields of medicine, drug development, molecular biology and genetics have joined Calico.

• Hal V. Barron, M.D.
• David Botstein, Ph.D.
• Robert Cohen, M.D.
• Cynthia Kenyon, Ph.D.

Hal Barron is one of the most respected clinician-scientists and successful drug developers in the biotechnology industry. Hal will join us as President, Research and Development. Hal was most recently Executive Vice President, Head of Global Product Development and Chief Medical Officer of Hoffmann-La Roche. There he was responsible for all the products in the combined portfolio of Roche and Genentech.  Barron joined Genentech in 1996 as a clinical scientist. During the next several years, he held positions of increasing responsibility and leadership within Cardiovascular Research and Specialty Therapeutics. In 2002 Barron was promoted to vice president, Medical Affairs. In 2003 he became the senior vice president of Development and in 2004 he was appointed chief medical officer. In 2003 he became the senior vice president of Development. In 2004 he was appointed chief medical officer and in 2009 he was appointed executive vice president.

Prior to joining Genentech, Barron received his Bachelor of Science in physics from Washington University in St. Louis, his Medical Degree from Yale University and completed his training in medicine and cardiology at the University of California San Francisco. Barron’s academic positions include Associate Adjunct Professor at the University of California, San Francisco. He has been issued several patents for his work in thrombosis and angiogenesis and has published more than 90 papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

David Botstein is one of the world’s leading geneticists, and will join Calico as Chief Scientific Officer. He comes to us from Princeton University, where he was Director of the Lewis-Sigler Institute from 2003-2013, and where he remains the Anthony B. Evnin Professor of Genomics. David was educated at Harvard (A.B.) and the University of Michigan (Ph.D.). He taught at MIT (1967-1987); became Vice President at Genentech (1987-1990), and then Chairman of Genetics at Stanford (1990-2003). He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1981 and the Institute of Medicine in 1993. Among his awards are the Eli Lilly Award (1978),  the Genetics Society Medal (1988), the American Society for Human Genetics Allen Award (1989), the Rosenstiel Award, 1992, the Gruber Prize in Genetics (2003), the Albany Medical Center Prize (2010), the Dan David Prize (2012) and the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences (2013).

Botstein contributed to the discovery of transposons in bacteria and an understanding of their physical and genetic properties. He devised genetic methods to study the eukaryotic cytoskeleton in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), notably general ways of detecting gene interactions. In 1980 he made theoretical contributions to human genetics by suggesting, with collaborators, a way to map human disease genes with DNA polymorphisms called restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). This became a cornerstone of the new science of genomics. He later founded the Saccharomyces Genome Database (with J. Michael Cherry) and applied DNA microarray technology (with Patrick O. Brown) to study genome-wide gene expression, notably defining thereby clinically significant subtypes of human tumors. Most recently, he has been devising and using genome-scale methods for studying system-level regulation of gene expression and gene interactions. At Princeton, Botstein established a new introductory science curriculum that combines biology, physics, chemistry, and computer science.

Bob Cohen will be joining as a Calico Fellow, in a role that will span R&D and Business Development. Bob was most recently Senior Oncology Fellow at Genentech. Bob joined Genentech’s Research organization in 1994 from University of California, San Francisco, where he trained in hematology and oncology and served as Assistant Professor in Residence in the Cancer Research Institute. During his first decade at Genentech, Bob participated in leadership roles that contributed to the development of several of the company's ground-breaking cancer drugs. He joined Business Development full-time in 2004 and was appointed Senior Oncology Fellow in 2008. Over the past several years he has focused on the development of antibody-drug conjugates, a means of delivering targeted chemotherapy to tumors. He is an inventor of nine issued U.S. patents.

Bob has a Bachelor of Arts in Chemistry from Amherst College and an M.D. with Distinction in Research from the University of Rochester. He completed his residency in internal medicine at the University of Michigan and is board-certified in internal medicine, hematology and oncology.

Cynthia Kenyon is one of the world’s foremost authorities on the molecular biology and genetics of aging and life extension, and will be joining Calico as Senior Scientific Advisor. In 1993, Cynthia’s pioneering discovery that a single-gene mutation could double the lifespan of healthy, fertile C. elegans roundworms sparked an intensive study of the molecular biology of aging. Her findings showed that, contrary to popular belief, aging does not “just happen” in a completely haphazard way. Instead, aging is a regulated process controlled by specific genes. Using C. elegans, she has now discovered many evolutionarily-conserved life-extending genes and pathways. In particular, her findings have led to the realization that a universal hormone-signaling pathway influences the rate of aging in many species, including humans.  

Cynthia graduated valedictorian in chemistry from the University of Georgia in 1976. She received her Ph.D. from MIT in 1981 and was a postdoctoral fellow with Nobel laureate Sydney Brenner in Cambridge, England. Since 1986 she has been at the University of California, San Francisco. Cynthia is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and she a former president of the Genetics Society of America. She has received many scientific awards. Currently, she is an American Cancer Society Professor at UCSF, and she directs UCSF’s Hillblom Center for the Biology of Aging, positions she will continue, while she joins Calico on a part-time basis.

We invite you to stay tuned over the following months as we continue to build out our team of exceptional scientists and clinicians.
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Congrats to an outstanding line up.
For lay persons a good intro my be the book " Transducing the Gnome "
Congrats! I truly applaud this endeavor, but believe that although eternal life may be possible, having those who seek it should be cognizant of issues with the hunger of others
Congratulations! I'm wondering whether Calico will have a need for computer programmers in addition to the scientists and clinicians. I was a software engineer at Google, and it would be fun to come work at Calico.
am greatly grateful to seeing, hearing you in union war against viruses, your thorough researches for future retreatment, i have witnessed the retreat of wars between medical researchers and the entire world of viruses, the war was tough especially HIV diseases of syndrom, syndrom mean, United attack and war, the wars takes many lives before medical professional could arrive with a little solution, now am so glad that you are getting ready for another war, you doctors uses natural resources created by the living God to defend humanity from the virus wars, you have also been enlightening the public about couses of viruses, so that they should be careful about virus attacks, the couses of HIV 'is it not sexual immorality like that of Sodom in Bible history which resulted the entire destruction of the country?' remember that syndrom is the union of viruses, you medical at war with viruses has to be unanimous to reduce the attacks, am Jesmion 
+Arthur Levinson, +Larry Page Of all possible investments in any field that google could have made Calico is by far the best choice, immortality (every endeavour is pointless until we are no longer wasted dust)

Company focus in order:
- Advertising until human populous comes to the understanding that death is not the norm
- extension of human life
- irradiccation of disease
- increase in education of life extension techniques/health understanding
- create the first immortal, once there is one no one will sit idly by and die.
Wow... Calico is going to have some really great people working on the team! I had the chance to interface with Bob Cohen when I worked at GNE, and he is fantastic. I'm looking forward to following Calico as things take off. Way to go Art! 
Art--can you say which of these folks are joining Calico in full-time roles, and when they plan to start the new jobs? Thanks --Luke Timmerman, Xconomy
Impressive group :) It's exciting to follow along and watch this all come together. Learning about further progress will be interesting, no doubt!
+James Farhat I don't agree.  People in wealthy nations on average already life longer than they every have.  A few much more worthwhile endeavours would be inventing economically viable energy production that won't render the Earth uninhabitable, inventing cleaner & more efficient ways to re-purpose non-recyclable waste, inventing economically feasible carbon capture (and re-purposing) technology.  I'm excited to see how far modern genetics & molecular biology can drive specialized treatments for different diseases, but making rich people live longer is far from the most worthwhile scientific pursuit. 
+Lee Zamparo We need to go ahead with these life extending therapies now.  They will probably be expensive at first.  However, after awhile they will get cheap and everyone will have access to them.  Everyday that we waste equals more needless deaths for the poor and rich alike. 
I personally think that our current lifespan is just about right, but hopefully Calico will come-up with therapies to improve people's quality of life.  As a Genentech scientist I am intrigued to see some of our best and brightest joining this endeavor, go Art and Hal, you are both so authentic and inspirational! 
Most excellemmnt thank all for dedication of all humans wellness 4th stage survivor hangin on. Love ann terry..i would like to help with any research i can
May all the high spirits bless u and keep u safe
I was very happy to read these news. We have an exciting challenge to go for. I wish there was an easy way to contact Calico. We are developing a new generation of drugs that boost the human brain ability to eliminate toxins. Our lead is ready to be tested in humans. Our main area of application is neurodegeneration; but that is not all.
Alex P
Thank you for the news. :)   I am excited about Cynthia joining Calico.  She trained Laura Deming, who became an 18 year old able to extend the life of worms by 6 times.  Imagine if we could do that life extension by 6 times in humans.  Laura wants to extend the human lifespan by a few more centuries ♥ at least. She started working in a biogerontology lab at 12, enrolled at MIT at 14, and at 17 started her venture capital fund, IP IMMORTAL, to commercialize anti-aging  research, bring therapies out of the lab and into the market sooner ► Laura Deming - 20U20 Episode 1. :)

I think Laura Deming and lots of other young people could be invited to join Calico as part-time volunteers at least, even if just 5 hours a week.  Calico could build a volunteer run branch dedicated to pure research.  I know 18 year olds from 50 nations who are geniuses and know more biology and chemistry and physics than people with Masters or PhD in those fields and I am certain they could be brought together under the Calico online volunteer program to establish the fastest growing anti-aging research effort globally.  I volunteer to help you bring them together.  :)    The young have a lot of energy and drive, just like Laura.  Physics is key to organ regeneration, many papers were written about how different electrical signals lead to different organs ►      

Google could aim to build a molecular simulation of a human being and their aging and see how a genetic mutation will affect the aging of a person, because we can't run clinical trials on humans as on worms, it would  take centuries.  However, having powerful computers, such as quantum computers will enable these simulations (see this Google video on quantum computers, multi-dimensional universe, time travel ► Google and NASA's Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab).  We are now reverse engineering the brain (the 1 billion dollar Eu project ► The Human Brain Project - Video Overview) and will reverse engineer the human body later.  Via personal genomics simulations we could determine how many times the lifespan increases by turning one or 400 genes off for an individual. 

Stem cells inside the body is another key area, the aging of stem cells, etc...

 In November 2013, Denny Sanford announced giving 100 million to UCSD for stem cell research ►,0,6957200.story, having donated another 600 million to healthcare related causes before (400 million gift in 2007 ►   "This, in my opinion, is the medicine of the future," Denny said, adding  "The potential of stem cells is just unbelievable."  

The 2012 Medicine Nobel Prize was given for stem cells research ► Stem Cell Scientists Win Nobel Prize in Medicine. Science papers on stem cells can be found here ►

Below are 7 brief (<6min) videos on amazing ☻stem cell cures♥:
1. heart repair ►  Heart health: Patient's own stem cells repaired damage
2. grow tracheaFirst Successful Transplant of Trachea Made of Stem Cells
3. paralyzed walksStem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury - Injured Airline Pilot Flies Again
4. blindness curedAdult Stem Cells Cure Blindness
5. grow skin ►  The Skin Gun
6. grow teethregrowing teeth.mpg
7. grow fingers ►  Man regrows severed finger using pig cells

In September, researchers have announced discovering how to turn  skin cells into pluripotent stem cells with 100% efficiency (it was 10% max before then) by removing a protein, thus eliminating the need to use embryonic stem cells ►  

In the future, using nanobots to deliver chemical signals, organs could be regenerated/repaired while inside the body, without the need to print organs from one's own stem cells and then transplant them.   

Aging is a disease due to the fact we don't do any maintenance on our cells.  Our trillions of cells are complex machines that wear out and give out just like a car does, and then we develop all kinds of diseases.  Most diseases are just cells being filled with molecular malfunctions due to wear and tear.  If we can figure out how to keep cells young and healthy, we can live with the energy of a 20 year old for thousands of years.  Google Director of Engineering, Ray Kurzweil, has been talking in public about Immortality-Singularity for 15 years.  More Immortality links can be found at  
A Ray Kurzweil video about our lives of thousands of years is here:  Ray Kurzweil — Immortality by 2045
"Millions long for immortality who don't know what to do with themselves on a rainy Sunday afternoon."  

(Susan Ertz, Anger in the Sky)
I need help with Immortality my mind. Can you kill my dayTIst
Jesus! Immortality by 2045?!!! No pressure for Calico! :)
What great news! Calico sounds so exciting and as an ex-GNE person would love to help out when the time is right!
Very cool. New job opportunities
I'm excited to see where this leads. I believe in you!
Why haven't you reached out to SENS, I mean this isn't really just another new market to try and beat the other companies
Hello +Arthur Levinson -  Congratulations on the new venture.  A number of years ago I was Director of R&D IT at Genentech.  My background is in computational chemistry and chemical informatics.  Just wondering if you will need any expertise in these areas.  If so, please keep me in mind.
Very interesting! I wonder if  Calico scientists will attempt to slow down telomere shortening during aging.
Xing Li
This is fantastic start. I am wondering there is a need for bioinformatician and biostatistician. 
If someone from Calico could contact me I have something that may be useful.
Hi, there's the possibility to send my cv to join you? I'm  just graduated in Medical Biotechnologies and Molecular Medicine. ;) Thanks,
Anna Paola Carreca
What an impressive team! But, come on. Please don't tell us that you are really going to try to tweak the complex aging metabolism through gene manipulation and the sort... You need to tackle the aging problem from a maintenance perspective - Go there and fix whatever goes wrong with age! 
preventing/reducing/postponing aging,
-- first through well selected existing medicines (by learning which one are good for health over time)
-- and later through specific gene changes (when techniques and standards are ready),
are in my views avenues to be taken. Happy to discuss such things.
Mr. Levinson, if you would be so inclined, you may look into this website:

I would be happy to drop everything to discuss partnering with you to pursue the quintessence of care of the ageing population:  comfort, hygiene, dignity, safety and freedom from responsibility.  The project requires an economy of scale unprecedented in the care of the elderly and infirm.

Randall J. Bjork, M.D.
Colorado Springs Neurological Associates, P.C.
Iam a10year 4th stage breast cancer survivor!! Now i am slowing down but am a spitfire..iwould love to help with research so others do not suffer like this please respond i luv all of u for your dedication i need to do soon in crisis as many i believe i can bemm
Please contact ann at 559 676 8198 this texting is not working for me thanks 4th stage survivor of 10years help!fire? :-) peace and love :-):-)

Yes i am willing to help if i can :4th stGe survivor. 559 676 8198 ann
I will be following Calico with great interest and I am sure great things will come from this new venture. I spent over 20 years in physiology research before moving into business with my husband (also a researcher with a PhD in Physical Chemistry). We have never lost our fascination with science and currently are working on a potential fix for carbon dioxide remediation ( by which CO2 is broken down into pure carbon and pure oxygen.
Congratulations, Art, on assembling a self-directed team beyond measure! I am sorry that I wasn't able to hop coasts and meet Hal at the Xconomy event yesterday. 
ha, is there any chance some junior people like me can join?
what will the primary research of Calico focus? Genetics? 
Does Calico have a website up yet?
Hello my name is ann Terry and I have read your script on the
+Johan Orstadius is that the way that you look at it? "helping out"? I've no doubt you can make a donation if that's your aim. Did you really mean "cash in"? :P
To “BE” is an infinitely wonderful gift of life, thus, I cannot find a pursuit more significant or symbolic of our gratitude than to seek its continuation. Congratulations to the men and women willing to combat against the current fatality of our existence. 
Dear Arthur,

Our NYU lab is working on it for the last several years. We've got good funding and made publications in Nature and Science magazines.
May I ask you, who is the right person to make contact for collaboration?
Dear Arthur Levinson,
The Science for Life Extension Foundation is happy to announce and to invite you as a special guest to the
3rd conference on the Genetics of Aging and Longevity
which will take place from the 6th until the 10th of April 2014 in Sochi, Russia.
The program covers the most recent scientific achievements in the area of longevity and life extension.
 Scientists around the world from top Universities will present their current progress in fighting aging and extending life span.
 In addition, this conference is a place where intellectual resources of leading scientists will meet investors and policy makers. 
You can find the full information about this event and scientific program on
It will be a pleasure to have you at our conference.
Mikhail Batin
President of Life Extension Foundation
Dear Dr Levinson
how to get in touch with someone at Calico?
best regards
Laurent de Narbonne, MD
Dear Mr Levinson,
I'm a french student finishing my master degree in life sciences. I have been thinking on ageing for a year. On the ageing process and possible strategies. 
I defined a project lately and I am currently looking for the right lab to apply.
I just discovered Calico as my roommate told me about it yesterday. I would like to talk with you of my ideas and project. I think it could interest you, it's about directed evolution on cellular scale to optimize cells resistance to oxydative stress and spontaneous mutations.
Please contact me at :
The name "Biology of Aging" is incorrect. This statement makes a wrong direction, which has no solution. The correct name is "Physiology of Destruction." We can see that the shell of the human body, its skin, is destroying over time. This is a natural process. As a result, the skin breath weakened, metabolism too. Anoxia internal organs comes. They start to hurt. Skin continues to deteriorate. Nobody stops this process. When destroyed kidney, heart or other organ, all alarmed. But when most large and important organ of the body is destroying - nobody gives it meaning. That's why death occurs. Still wondering - why? Funny and sad.
look into what they are doing at the methuselah foundation. they have the best strategy i've seen yet for approaching the problem of aging. the book "ending aging" sums it up pretty well. i don't agree with their approach to cancer, but the rest of it looks really solid. check it out.
Old skin is the main and basic evidence of old age. Skin getting older first in the body. Old skin makes the whole body old. But the old skin can regain their youthful structure and function. It's like a muscle and skeleton develops from stem cells and can develop. And young skin will make the old body young again.
I think a study should be based on scientific fact. Fact is that aging skin precedes death from old age. My question is: what if the first things heal old skin, recover its healthy functions and structures?  We know, the skin is a very important and the largest organ of the body, its lungs, kidneys, external brain, nervous, endocrine, immune system. Restore the skin and may not have to die? We know there are no aging programs and aging genes in an organism, the genome is transcribed. Maybe old skin is the only cause of our aging and death?
Medically speaking, the most common concerns associated with ageing, increasing in frequency, are cardiovascular diseases, cancer and kidney disease. There is much to study and understand in the latter two. There are in particular two not-for-profit international bodies which recently joined to work on these fields and on the inter-relationships between cancer (incidence, specificities, and treatment) and kidney disease in the elderly; namely the Cancer and the Kidney International Network (C-KIN) and the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG). Would be very interested in having discussions on how the new Calico entity would be interested in collaboration, exchanges, or sponsorship.
if you discuss the sens platform at your lab meetings, it would be at the least great food for thought. you may not agree with every component of that platform, but i think you will find most of it to be quite compelling. the basic concept behind sens is the first thing i completely agree with. their approach to cancer is something that i disagree with. the rest of the platform looks mostly good.
Three factors do not allow researchers to understand the nature of aging. First one:
In accordance with the Cell Theory the human body is designed in the image of the cell. That is, the human body is a giant cell and has cell's properties. But encyclopedias define the human body as an unspecified amount of cells and organs. This definition makes it difficult to understand the nature of aging, the definition of the Life chain.
Second one.
Known, the human organism produces heat, does the job, creates matter. It is the energy machine. In accordance with the laws of the thermodynamics any energy process is finite in time. It waning before the final stop. This is the aging and death of the organism.
Third one.
External organ of the body, its shell first destroyed. It is located in the most adverse conditions. This can be seen with the naked eye. Distraction of skin, wear it, weakening its vital functions is the cause of diseases of internsl organs.
But restoring the skin will healthier entire body and allow it to recover its pre-prpgrammed young structurrs and functions and work with no time limit.
Our aging is not a disease. Our aging is a natural decay of energy processes that create the substance of our body. But
they can not continue indefinitely. This is indicated by the natural laws. Their activity weakens and stop. This is our aging and death. But they can be prevented and avoided, and the old body rejuvenated. Human organism has enough power to do so.
But biologists, doctors, geneticists ignore these laws and can not understand the nature of aging and many decades offer the most fantastic explanations.
Dear Dr. Levinson!                                                       Our research ("Three Layer functional model and energy exchange concept of aging process" Valery Chuprin & William Mihajlovic) argues that old human organism is able to rejuvenate its aged body and make it young again, as it restores damaging, disease, weak body makes strong. This conclusion is confirmed by the experience of medicine, and athletic development. You should help organism to fight aging. Without help, its live processes weaken and fade over time. People call it aging and death.                                             Calico, or the “California Life Company,” aims to extend life by tackling aging and disease. Allow us to offer for your consideration our conception of aging and rejuvenation and little practical experience, which confirms the correctness of this study. We are sure this is the way to eternal youth.
Aging is related to the way your body stores memory.  Every time your body stores more experiences in the form of memory, it uses energy to do so.  The energy that is used to operate the body becomes the energy used to store the memory.  Aging happens over time as does the amount of memories that you store.  

Aging is no different than the windows memory leak leading up to the spinning wheel of death.  

The answer you're looking for is in the way memory is stored.  Once the data is processed in the brain, the memory signature is then stored as a charge in muscle filaments where it will remain until you sleep.  You get tired, stiff and sore at night because your muscles are full and can no longer hold any more data.  While you sleep, GABA is released into the muscle filament and the charge is then transferred into the cell where the memory will be stored as a protein.  

Over time, the amount of proteins in a cell continue to increase and require more and more energy.  Eventually the energy that a cell is producing is used to manage the amount of memories and no longer can maintain the functionality of its own internal operations.  The end result on the surface is the aging cycle.

If you are serious about understanding the aging process, I can show you a variety of demonstrations proving that many parts of the body will heal themselves automatically within minutes of removing memory from the cells.  
I would work at Calico. I would love to help the human kind reaching the holy grail of science. :)
You and your team are doing a great job and good luck with the new plans.   
Dear Dr. Levinson,                                                      
Our research ("Three Layer functional model and energy exchange concept of aging process" Valery Chuprin & William Mihajlovic) argues that human organism is able to rejuvenate its aged body and make it young again, as it restores damaging, disease, and weak body makes strong. Same it can make old body young again. You, Calico, and Google can start to save old people life now, today.
IMO Best research to do now:  Investigate skeletal muscle activation of PEPCK via a lentiviral vector (you can get one desinged for about $3k).   This is has already been shown to slash ageing, cancer, etc. while raising metabolism.  More food required to live, but live longer.   The kind of thing evolution wouldn't have stumbled into.    The next gene would be Mitochondrial targeted CAT (catalase).   Again a lentiviral vector could be used.   These interventions have has dramatic effects.   Finally, please hire Aubrey De Grey.  I know his personality is hard to work with, but he's really really worth it.  I know him and can talk to him if he's already turned you down.   
Calico can not explain the nature of human body aging. Question: how they
can solve this natural problem, if they do not understand it?
I don't understand how my computer works.   But I can fix it when it breaks, upgrade it, etc.   You only need to understand how to fix it, not how it works.   Empiricism is more important than theory.  If "regimen X" extends the lifespan of mice 10 to 1, then I think we are obligated to trial that in humans.
Art Levinson, unfortunately, like other researchers, ignores the Natural laws in their studies of aging. Result: dozens of fruitless theories of aging, no explanation,  just promises, complete misunderstanding of the nature of aging, and people continue to grow old and die.  
According to these Natural laws man can keep his body young without time limit, and can make his old body young again as he makes a weak body strong. The experience of medicine and athletic development gives reason to believe that 70-80 year old man can make his body 30-40 years old in 1-2 years.                                                                                                       Impossible? Please read: Valery Chuprin, William Mihajlovic, Three layer functional model and energy exchange concept of aging process.
There has been research recently showing the blood of young people having something that has a regenerative effect on an older body, and they're was research earlier about using a naturally occurring chemical to improve communication between the cell nucleus and mitochondria to improve cell function and retard aging. Both sound easier than altering DNA reliably, for the short term.
Calico looks like it's an excuse to sequence a lot of stuff.   Not really useful   We need more translational gerontology... not more sequencing (maybe because that's what I do all day)
Dr. Levinson,  if you are actually monitoring this page, please read the following.  I believe age related dementia would fall under the scope of Calico, and have a very personal experience with MCOLN1.  Please read the following from Lorraine Clark at Columbia.  No one in pharma is looking at the right target: We hypothesize that mutations in the Glucocerebrosidase gene and other lysosomal genes in the same biochemical pathway including Hexosaminidase A (HEXA), Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) and mucolipin 1 (MCOLN1) may disrupt the cellular processing and trafficking of a-Synuclein and lead to Lewy Body formation. In our previous study, R21, NS050487, we have shown that mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene are risk factors for PD and Lewy body disease. In the current application we propose to continue our studies on the GBA gene and will examine three additional lysosomal genes, mutations in which cause lysosomal storage disorders, namely, HEXA (Tay Sachs), SMPD1 (Niemann Pick Type A and B) and MCOLN1 (Mucolipidosis type IV) in clinically characterized PD patients and controls and LBD brain bank samples. There are two specific aims. In Aim1 we will identify genetic variation in 4 lysosomal including GBA, HEXA, SMPD1 and MCOLN1. 
SKI MERCHANT in MONTREAL. (POUBELLE DU SKI) Keenly aware of death (sooner or later)  Would like to do my bit, maybe on a part time basis (no salary) and , or, join organisations, such as those listed above, to promote interest in this research, maybe to help raise funds, or to do whatever I can. (Fully bilingual: French: English)
Larry and Sergei are feeling their mortality? Investing in life prolongation.  What would Einstein say about the Pandora's box we would open? Would this gift really trickle down to the common man and woman? How would it stop people from wanting to kill each other (like in the Middle East?) 

I think our nature as humans is to explore and extend knowledge, but not necessarily reshape the world and the species who populate it. Humans really only stop fighting each other when they are offered a new frontier to explore and 'conquer'. 

I would rather see Google develop an undersea ecosystem. Then we could have another great land grab - like the one that happened after the discovery of the 'new world'. Imagine settling great undersea plains, domesticating new species, designing and building new habitats, creating new art, etc. These are things that the basic human brain can understand and do. It would give purpose to the growing multitudes of the unemployed, marginalized and impoverished humanity who rely on the unpredictable generosity of the welfare state.
M. A.
Hire me. I am PHD gerontologist who can add social context and public meaning to your genetic/molecular/clinical discoveries.
S.Medico: If humans lived longer, they would make longer-term plans.   Like caring for the planet they will inhabit.   It's easy to "slash and burn" a planet when you know you won't be around to breathe the air in 100 years.
Congrats - a year late- on the hires of these four great leaders for Calico. 

Amazing company, amazing vision, but stupefying approach:  Why people cling to old mindsets for an endeavor that require an outside-the-box mind is, well, beyond my mind.  This will be an interesting experiment in sociology of corporate innovation, though.

A few thoughts:  Of course it is understandable that big names, experience, proven academic achievement and industry leadership can help. But this creates a double-edge sword situation: with experience comes old baggage. The names of these 4 individuals, raise the sad suspicion that Calico, despite association with the Google brand, might yet just be another approach to human wellness that succumbs to conventional thinking.

The main reason for the slow progress, even stagnation in health research, is the dominance of “reductionist thinking” coupled with groupthink that stifles any questioning of existing concepts of how the human body works.  

These four respected scientists, “brightest and most accomplished individuals” have been successful within the narrow box of reductionist molecular biology, the very system that has failed to cure so many ills, including cancer.

The success of Genentech and of the past work of these four new leaders, was essentially the result of extraordinary managerial ability in the solid execution of simple ideas plus a heck lot of sheer luck (which of course favours the alert, active, agile and aggressive mind). But there was no fundamental innovation in biology. The success did not require reaching beyond the realm of biological problems that are solvable by simply reducing the organism to a big LEGO game. Such obvious, mechanistic reasoning readily reveals the low hanging fruits – and all that is then needed is the skill (speed) to be the first to pick them.  Fighting aging and increasing wellness into high age is another beast than extending life of cancer patients by a few months. It will take more than the intellectual ability to play LEGO with the molecular components of life.

These fab four think alike, have been successful in playing LEGO in the life sciences and are so comfortably aligned with mainstream reductionist thinking that I fear this will create a system of intellectual incest and self-amplifying echo-chamber that will deepen their reductionist views: The geno-centric view of the organism.

While geno-centricisms has had its share of notable successes (sometimes spectacular, sometimes over-celebrated) in a handful idiosyncratic cases where monocausal mechanisms apply and the function of the pieces of LEGO for the whole is obvious,  it has also led to a much broader, rarely articulated stagnation in our understanding of cancer and other complex, chronic diseases.  Target this, target that.  (And do it faster than the competition and be lucky).  The notion of THE molecule or gene as targetable cause of everything, has offered a convenient framework of thought that one does not abandon with ease. 

Geno-centrism, embodied to the fullest by these 4 new accomplished leaders, is self-propelling because researchers, journals editors and funding agency officials, are part of the same herd: They share the same reductionist view, and they review, publish, fund and cite each other, thereby fueling a giant system of self-fulfilling prophecy of mutually confirming delusions that has dominated the course of life science for decades now. Past success, or perception of it, as well as the convenience of simple ideas and comfort of confirmation by peers has cemented groupthink.

Unfortunately, the anchors of the reductionist mind set is further strengthened by monetary success: Targeting a single molecular pathway has typically brought in billions of $ revenue per year for Genentech (for extending cancer patients’ life rarely more than a year). That is really a good reason to stick to the current mode of thinking. 

Thus, stagnation of our intellectual progress in understanding diseases has all too human roots: While Shakespeare taught us that 'good reasons have to give place to better ones', psychologists now find that 'good reasons actually suppress better ones'. 

This is not how Google started out of nowhere.  And I don’t see any mechanism to avoid the continuation of this reductionist groupthink which is at odds with innovation and the great vision of Calico. Only few see beyond the borders of this galactic system of collective delusion that slows progress. I am afraid the baggage of the old, reductionist thinking that these new hires epitomize, will show its weight at Calico, as we have seen in almost every big life science endeavor. But I hope for the best.
Thank you for your invitation, i am very grateful for becoming  a part of Calico,and i hope i can get  many  new acknowledge of drug ,diseases, and so on.
Our aging is a natural weakening of energy processes that create living matter of the human body. These processes can be artificially activated, enhance, and man can rejuvenate his old body, and live with no time limit. The human genome has already deciphered - no aging genes. It can be done today. I know how.
Aging is a natural slow strangulation of the body. The second respiratory organ of the body - its integument, skin, the largest organ in the body - wear out eventually, covered with wrinkles, becomes bloodless, create a shortage of oxygen to the internal organs. Skin turns into an old bag that is not breathable. Senile diseases - the result of suffocation, the result of increasing oxygen deficiency. Death from old age is a complete stop breathing. No oxygen, no life. Urgent need to save and restore the skin first, its vital functions - breathing, metabolism. This is the work of dermatologists, physiotherapists, but not geneticists and biologists. This is not Biology of Aging, but the Physiology of Aging. Better Physiology Rejuvenation. This is why the biological direction in the gerontology does not provide solution. Many decades.
Valery Chuprin, 63
Our aging and death is the result of tragic misconceptions of Gerontology. Aging programs and aging genes are absent in the humans, Genome is already decrypted. It makes no sense to continue seek them and increase sacrifices. Everything in the human body created for life, but organism needs our help. In accordance with natural laws, man can live without time limit and keep the body young, healthy and beautiful. A person can rejuvenate his old body, just as he makes a weak body strong. Another technique, but it is. Please read: "Three layer functional model and energy exchange concept of aging" 
I want to caution the Google and Calico, you picked the wrong direction. Your way is a dead-end. You ignore the laws of nature, so you cannot so long to explain this regular natural phenomenon - our aging and death. Please see my explanation of our aging and rejuvenation way.  I would be grateful if someone will point out the error.
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