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Essay writing, Assignment writing Help, Dissertation writing help, Research proposal writing,
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Writing a critical essay is different from descriptive writing. Most probably students get feedback from tutors as ‘not enough critical analysis’ or ‘too much descriptive’, therefore. It is very significant to know what are the features of critical writing compared to descriptive writing;+++

• There should be confident refusal if the conclusion of particular writing that cannot be accepted even without evaluating the evidences provided by the writers.

• Critical writing should have a balanced presentation of the reasons pointing the why the writer’s conclusion may be accepted or on the other hand should consider with a caution

• Should present clearly your evidences and different arguments that could lead your conclusion

• There should also be an acknowledgment of the limitations of your conclusion and arguments
The main difference between critical writing and descriptive writing is, in descriptive writing, you do not develop arguments and you just build a background within the topic. But critical writing should always present analysis and discussions based on arguments and identification of limitations of the conclusion. Therefore; before starting up to write a critical essay you should;

• Find and read as much as evidences for and against a particular topic

• Ensure the quality of those evidences and arguments

• Identify both the positive and negative points which you can comment upon those readings

• Analyse the usefulness and the relevance of those points to your debate that you are using for the assignment/essay
Below are the necessary considerations to write critical essays

1. When students engage in critical writing, it is very significant for them to develop their academic voice within the selected subject. This academic voice should involve judgements which is very critical not dismissive, confidence but not arrogance, opinions but without being opinionated, health scepticism but not cynicism, fair assessment of strength and weaknesses of other ideas without any prejudice and should have judgements which are based on all the available evidences but not use assertions without reasons.

2. It is also very significant to string together quotes that can support your argument. Here, you should present the quotes and also explain the relevance of hem through pointing the validity and relate them with the evidences

3. Should use paragraph breaks to switch from description to critical writing or vice versa. This visual representation emphasises the readers that you present both descriptions and critical analysis. Within the paragraphs, you can introduce your points, make them with supporting evidences and reflect the points critically using your academic voice

4. There should be a certain amount of descriptive writing but not too much. Use one or two sentence to describe and reference the evidences and use next few sentences to explain the contribution of the evidences to your arguments.

5. When considering the overall structure of the critical writing, it should include a line of argument from the introduction to the conclusion of the writing. Consider the ordering of the paragraphs also very important.
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•  Research method or methodology is s systematically reviews of the tools and techniques which you are going to use to undertake a particular research study.
• When you are writing a research methodology, it is very significant to use concepts and theories underlie them and justify with the clear reason for the choice of your particular methods.
• It is very important to show that you understand the concept of the methodology.
• You should also mention the necessary of the particular research method and how you address your research objectives, questions and hypotheses from those methods.
• Key points to be focused
• When writing your research methodology you can get a best understand through Saunders et al., (2009) research onion model. Below you can see the research onion model;  
• Layer 1 – first you should discuss the philosophical stances you are going to use for your research study. Understanding and choosing an appropriate research philosophy is the most important step in planning and carrying out research.
• Layer 2 – Research approach. Mainly available approaches are deductive and inductive. The approach you are going to use for the research should be strongly indicated by the decision you made in layer 2 regarding the research philosophy
• Layer 3 – Research strategies. You are available with different research strategies such as experiments, survey, case studies, action research, grounded theory, archival research and ethnography. The selection of the research strategy should be totally based on the philosophy and the research approach standpoints.
• Layer 4 – Research choice. Here you have to define how you wish to use quantitative and qualitative methods for your research study. You should decide whether you use both methods and only one method. This decision also made based on the decisions you have taken in previous layers.
• Layer 5 – Time horizon. There are only two-time horizon choices. These are cross–sectional, which is a short-term study, and longitudinal which is the research carried out over a longer period
• Layer 6 – techniques and procedures. This is the final layer of your methodology where you should discuss methods, and techniques use for your research study. Mainly you should discuss the data collection and analysis techniques, decision regarding the sample group, questionnaire content, what are the questions to be asked, etc. Here, you should always make a decision regarding the data collection and analysis tools based on the philosophies, philosophical stances, approaches, strategies, choices and time-horizons you made in previous layers.
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Referencing is an important part of the academic works. This is because, referencing demonstrate that you have read the topic in the assignment or research widely. For an accurate referencing record, it is very important to collect all the details what you have researched. Therefore, when taking notes, you should have a separate note for books, articles, journals and electronic sources.

Referencing in the text
Direct quotations – when you are taking direct quotations from a published source, you should use single or double quotation marks as below;
When organising our time ‘the centrepieces will tend to be goals and objectives’ (Adair 1988, p.51)
When organising our time, Adair (1988, p.51) states that ‘the centrepieces will tend to be goals and objectives’ Or
When organising our time ‘the centrepieces will tend to be goals and objectives’ (Adair 1988, p.51)
N.B.: Sometimes you cannot avoid taking direct quotations, but it is advisable avoid direct quotation where it possible, instead you can paraphrase the author’s work on your own words. Other in text citations When you paraphrase the quotations of others, it looks like much same as a direct quotation example but without the inverted commas. Following are some of the examples;
Citation for a book or journal with two authors
By improving their posture people can improve how they communicate feelings of power and confidence (McCarthy and Hatcher 1996, p.111) Or
According to McCarthy and Hatcher (1996, p.111) people can improve how they communicate feelings of power and confidence by improving their posture
Book or journal with more than two authors
Morris et al (2000, p.47) suggest that the any debate regarding issues should be left with the representative committees to be solved. 
Or Any debate regarding issues should be left with the representative committees to be solved (Morris et al 2000, p.47)
When you want to refer materials from discussion, seminars and etc, it should be citing as below
Dr Wilma Flintstone stated in her lecture on 5 September 2000 that acid jazz has roots as far back as 1987
Creating the references list according to the Harvard System that should be as below; Book references
One author 
Adair, J. (1988), Effective time management: How to save time and spend it wisely, London: Pan Books
Two authors 
McCarthy, P. and Hatcher, C. (1996), speaking persuasively: Making the most of your presentations, Sydney: Allen and Unwin
Three authors 
Fisher, R., Ury, W. and Patton, B. (1991), Getting to yes: Negotiating an agreement without giving in, 2nd edition, London: Century Business 
Journal articles with volume and issue no Muller, V. (1994), Trapped in the body: Transsexualism, the law, sexual identity, The Australian Feminist Law Journal, 3(2), August, pp. 103-107
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 When you are going to face for a closed book exam, following steps are very significant;

Timing – in order to ready for a closed book exam, the most important thing is the time, therefore, give plenty of time for you to study the facts. You should allocate your study time depending on the size of the exam and what it covers. You will need two to six weeks’ time 

Planning – better make a study timetable if you already know the information of the exam and the content of the exam. You should not plan to study the whole content within two days. Instead, you should have enough time and opportunity to take as much as information

Content – study only the content which will test on the exam. Since you cannot remember little things ever even though you have started studying for weeks ahead, it is vital to study only the points which your lecturer says. Keep in mind that you are not required to remember the things as the same details which you studies in the class, so do not try and freak out to remember the whole details in the textbook

Learning – within your study time it is better to take one or two hours to read the subject each day and ensure yourself that you understand the topic before you move into the next topic. You should not aim for longer study sessions; instead take plenty of breaks in order to give your brain a chance to proceeds fully. Only after you feel comfortable with the materials, you can increase the study amount.

As a starting point, you can read a detailed set of notes and do a reading for several times. Then edit them through summarising into a half of the original length and read it also again and again. Again you can cut them down and revise several times until you have only few important details in few pages. When you are revising the note, you can highlight the things you can now remember and give some extra times to remember the other notes instead of studying whole note. The things you have trouble remembering, it is better to copy those notes by hand for several times. 
You can write them down time to time in any place to test whether you can remember them. Another most important tip is you better meet the classmates and teach or explain the concepts with each other. Teaching is the most effective method of remembering things as well as it helps you to understand what you want to learn further.

If you have start studying for weeks, you are very confident to sit for the exam. You will be able to recall the things you study, but if you cannot sprightly recall something do not hang on to that point. You should move to the next point and always keep your mind very calm. That will help to remember the things you need.
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In order to score highest marks for your dissertation, you should demonstrate a first-class dissertation criterion on your research. In order to write a first-class dissertation, you have to know what the markers are exactly looking for. You can follow following guidelines;
• Communicate always with your supervisor – since your supervisor plays a crucial role in getting highest grade for your dissertation always make sure to communicate with his. Request his to review your work thoroughly before the final submission. Expect both positive feedback and constructive criticisms. Always make sure to keep inform your supervisor throughout the research process.
• Content – strictly follow the specific dissertation structure required by the supervisor or the university. The common structure begins with an introduction and literature review, followed by the research methodology and then data analysis, conclusion, recommendations and the final referencing.
• There should be a well-written introduction which can motivate and interest the reader.
• You should always demonstrate a clear and thorough knowledge of both the theoretical and practical materials. When you write a dissertation regarding business and management studies, you should make sure to develop your dissertation upon the business and management practice strategies.
• You should always use reliable data sources. You should also analyse related theories and models through the literature search. You can use textbooks, journal articles, the news and newspapers. Your information of any secondary sources should be reliable and accuracy. You can take accurate statistics and other secondary data from, and
• Pay proper attention to the writing style. Dissertation writing is far different from informal and personal letter writing. Following discuss the appropriate terminology;
• Avoid informal, colloquial or conversational expressions such as ‘just about’, ‘a kind of’. Also avoid excessive technical languages. There should be a clear concise writing style.
• Do not use first person terms like ‘me’ or ‘I’, instead you should choose nouns such as ‘the researcher’. You should also use plural subjects instead of using ‘he/she;
• Avoid words which lead for qualitative judgements such as ‘good’, ‘bad’, ‘ideal’, ‘perfect’ and etc. Instead you can use words such as ‘correct’ and ‘incorrect’ to refer to facts.
• Use proper punctuation, grammar and spelling. You should make sure to use correct punctuated marks for all the sentences and have no spellings and grammar mistakes. Your sentences should include appropriate linking phrases and words. It should include five to six sentences for a paragraph.
• After you have finished with your writing ask another person to read your paper.
• If you have any doubt or question, you are advisable to discuss them with your supervisor.
If you want to achieve highest marks for your dissertation, you must ensure that your dissertation is included all necessary elements, free from spelling and grammar errors, concisely and more importantly is  presented valid argument which can support by both theoretical and practical evidences.
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Content - Should be very clear, objective and those objectives should be very realistic. You should always make sure what is the significant of your research and why it is important. And also you should make sure the benefits of your research or the contribution of your research for the society. Your objectives should be justified (here, ‘because it is interesting’ is not enough). 
You should ask yourself;

• Who is my research going to benefit?
• Are there evidences about your research area within the literature?
• Is your research timely?
• How is your research personally addressing your academic requirements?

Style – there should be a proper structure for your research proposal. Make sure to use section headings. Do not use solid block of text, instead use only short paragraphs and also write short sentences. Use diagrams and images only if it allows by the university.
The general tips

• You should have a prospect supervisor and should always discuss with his about your idea. Always contact his and get his feedback
• You should allocate plenty of time for your proposal
• Always stick to the guidelines and keep the deadlines in your mind.
• You should have a clearly defined research topic which you are interested in and show that you understand your research area
• Should be very professional in writing, use good English with correct grammar

Areas you have to point out (Content and the style of your research proposal)
Different universities have different guidelines, so strictly follow the content which the university requires. If you are not given any guideline you can follow the following content;

• Title and the abstract – abstract discuss the overall summary of your research proposal
• Introduction – introduce to the research area

Background information – this describes brief summary of your title and theoretical assumption behind the title
The rational of the study – briefly discusses what is the research issue? why is it an issue?, why is it an issue now? And what could this research shed light on?
Significance of the study – this discuss the importance of undertaking this research for the society or the case study
The objectives, research questions and hypothesis

• Literature Review - Brief review of the literature regarding the research topic also important
• Research methodology – should briefly discuss how you are going to undertake the research, what are the methods going to use to collect, analyse and present data, population and sample of your study and justify their selection
• Possible limitations of the research 
• Ethical considerations – mention what are the ethical issues and how you are going to deal with ethical issues
• Time plan and resources require to conduct the research
• Conclusion – provide a brief summary about the overall research
• Reference list – make sure to put the books, journals and other sources which you have referred 
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Following are the main differences between the essay writing and reflective writing
Essay writing
You are expected to give a respond to a given essay question
You are given a particular set of expectations
Should follow academic conventions such as referencing
There is a logical structure, and a traditional format should be followed
Write normally using a passive voice
Written in the third person
Reflective writing
You have the ownership of writing, since you can use your personal learning points. But you are expected to frame your personal writing in relation to the learning outcomes
It should trace the experience of your personal developments and emotions and different ideas as a part of that experience
It should be written in the first person
Writing allows using emotional forms
Structure is less prescriptive
Use learning logs and personal reflective diaries instead of academic referencing conventions. But you have to use academic conventions if you are reflecting on any published or theoretical work.
Both the essays involve in personal storytelling with a purpose of explaining your views regarding a particular topic. But both the general narrative essay and reflective essay often differ in terms of the content, structure, tone and the purpose of the essay as below;

Purpose – the main purpose of reflective essay is to analyse the opinions or view explicitly. Not like general essays, reflective essays should focus more on the causes and the effects of those opinions and views. General essays normally provide your opinions in a clear and logical way but without explicit close analysis.

Structure – normally a standard essay format also suitable for the reflective essay as well. But general essay uses more flexible structure than the reflective essay. Reflective essay should show the introduction discussing the series of events and then it should narrow eventually on the main part of your critical analysis. When you are introducing a new concept in a reflective essay, you should use body paragraphs breaks.

Content – a reflective essay should have a content that could lead for a critical analysis of the topic you discuss. Write only the things which have meanings and critically important to the overall narrative. But general essay, you just write about something without lead the discussion for critical analysis

Tone – the tone of the writing a reflective essay should be critical and objective, but some flexibility also required helping with the discussion. But when writing a general narrative essay, author’s tone usually ranges from the first-person perspective to third-person objective. 
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