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Chandraprakash G (சந்திரப்பிரகாஷ்)
Being an Atheist, My mind is my temple and conscience is my god. - Prakash
Being an Atheist, My mind is my temple and conscience is my god. - Prakash
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World's single largest Wind Turbine:

- 12 MW (~capable of powering 20,000 homes)
- 260 meter long (quarter kilometer)
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Density of Materials (Solid, Liquid and Gas)

For simple understanding,
density (solid, liquid or gas) is defined as weight of how much material can you pour in a liter of bottle.

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Basic conversions:

Weight:
1 Kg = 1000 gram (g)
1 g = 1000 milligram (mg)
1 mg = 1000 microgram (μg)
1 μg = 1000 nanogram (ng)

Volume:
1 Liter = 1000 cubic centimeter (cc) = 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm

Units:
1 [Kg / Liter] = 1000 [ g / Liter]
1 [ g / Liter] = 1000 [mg / Liter]
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The easiest way to understand density is,
how much weight would a 1 liter bottle will weigh, if you fill solid, liquid or gas.

Here generally,
Solid density is in Kilograms [Kg / Liter],
Liquid density is in grams [g / Liter] and
Gas density is in milligrams [mg / Liter].

The more complex unit used are,
[Kg / Liter] or [g / cm3]
[g / Liter] or [kg / m3]
[mg / Liter] or [g / m3]

[ng / Liter] or [μg/m3]

So in simple words,
weight per liter unit is easy for you to understand and very useful for practical calculation purpose.

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Generally density of the materials ranges approximately in below numbers,
Solid (metals, rocks etc) = 1 to 23 [Kg / Liter]
Liquid (water, Oil, Honey etc) = 500 to 1100 [g / Liter]
Gas (Surface Air, Hydrogen etc) = 100 to 2500 [mg / Liter]

Air Pollution = 1 to 1000 [ng / Liter]

Solid = If you melt and pour it in one liter bottle
Liquid = pouring liquid at room temperature into one liter bottle
Gas = filling gas at atmospheric / room pressure [1 bar / 1 atm] into one liter bottle

Air Pollution = weight of PM2.5, PM5, PM10 size particles in 1 liter of air
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List of Popular Solid densities in [Kg / Liter],

Lithium [Li] = 0.53
Aluminum [Al] = 2.71
Titanium [Ti] = 4.5

Iron [Fe] = 7.85

Copper [Cu] = 8.94
Nickel [Ni] = 8.9
Silver [Ag] = 10.49
Mercury [Hg] = 13.59
Tungsten [W] = 19.25
Gold [Au] = 19.32
Platinum [Pt] = 21.45
Iridium [Ir] = 22.56
Osmium [Os] = 22.59

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List of Popular Liquid densities in [g / Liter],
[at room temperatures]

Gasoline [Petrol] = 710-770
Ethanol [Ethyl Alcohol] = 785
Methanol [Methyl Alcohol] = 786
Jet Fuel = 775-840
Jet Fuel [Jet A-1] = 805
Jet Fuel [Jet A] = 820
Kerosene = 820
Olive Oil = 800-920
Diesel = 820-950
Automobile Oil = 850-950
Isopropyl Alcohol = 870
Coconut Oil = 920-925
Cotton Seed Oil = 925
Linseed Oil = 930
Castor Oil = 955
Crude Oil = 800-975

Water [H2O] = 1000

Beer = 1010
Cow Milk = 1020-1050
Vegetable Glycerin = 1250
Honey = 1350-1450
Corn Syrup = 1330-1370
Maple Syrup = 1330-1370

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List of popular Air densities in [mg / Liter],
[at room pressure of 1 bar / 1 atm]

Hydrogen [H2] = 90
Hydrogen [H2 at 700 bar pressure] = 42,000
Helium [He] = 170
LPG [Liquefied Petroleum Gas] = 500-575
Methane [Natural Gas] = 700
CNG [Compressed Natural Gas] = 700-900 (at 200 bars of pressure, used for automobile)
Water Vapour [H2O vapour] = 800

Air [Sea level] = 1200

Nitrogen [N2] = 1200
Oxygen [O2] = 1300
Carbon Dioxide [CO2] = 1800
Propane [C3H8] = 1800
Butane [C4H10] = 2400

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Also the Air pollution density in [ng / Liter],
more complex unit being [μg/m3].

Normally pollution ranges from 1 to 1000 [ng / Liter],
be it PM2.5, PM5, PM10 etc..

The safe limit set by WHO is <35 [ng / Liter].

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For complete information on Hydrogen fuel used in cars like Toyota Mirai,
http://frozenprakash.com/dLv1k6hPqKx
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Hydrogen Energy Technology, a complete overview.

+Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association
+Hydrogen Tech
+Tesla
+TOYOTA
+Mirai Toyota
No wonder why +Elon Musk said "Why would anyone buy a Car which runs on Hydrogen, which converts H2 to Electricity, stores in battery, and then battery powers motor with electricity :D"

There is one fundamental problem with Hydrogen vehicles,
i.e DEPENDING ON FUEL STATION [3RD PARTY] FOR REFILL !!!!!!!!!!!!!

____________________________________________________________________________
Stats for Pros:
[Everything about Hydrogen fuel for vehicles]
____________________________________________________________________________

But with a pure Electric vehicle, you can generate your own electricity in home with solar, and use that to charge the car !!

Technical problems with Hydrogen fuel cars are,

- Too complex drive unit, with large fuel tanks, large fuel cell converter, and other nonsense where with pure electric vehicle like Tesla, you have battery, you have AC Motor, and all other are free space for storage !!

- Hydrogen is expensive to make and very less efficient too,
presently to generate 1 Kg of Hydrogen gas, you need 56 kWh of electricity to convert it from Water to Hydrogen [9 (kg or liter) of water will give 1 Kg of Hydrogen],

- The room pressure is around 1 bar (at sea level),
the pressure inside aerosol perfume can is around 5 to 20 bars,
and the Hydrogen is typically stored at 700 bars, which is quite a scary amount of pressure.

Added the super quality metal to hold that 700 bars cost around $10,000 to $20,000 alone,
though it's secure and have capacity to go up to 1400 bars (double) and even take a sniper bullet and doesn't burst !!!

- One more problem is, Hydrogen is very light, meaning,
density of Hydrogen at 700 bars = 42 gram / liter (or) 42 kg / m3.

That means,
you need roughly 25 liter tank to store 1 Kg of Hydrogen [1000 / 42 =~24*] which is very large in volume,
added, you need 125 liter tank to store 5 Kg of Hydrogen, which is the size of Toyota Mirai.

Even though, the energy density of 1 Kg of Hydrogen at 700 bars =~ [40 kWh / kg],
the down side is the large tank needed to store it,
where in Tesla or pure electric vehicle you can use all those space in Frunk and Trunk.

- Also considering performance,
Toyota Mirai is capable of producing only 113 kW of power [152 BHP],
Tesla Model S is capable of producing massive 570 kW of power [762 BHP].

- Finally coming to the cost and mileage,
it cost around $12 to $18 to refill one Kg of Hydrogen at 700 bars (with subsidies !!!),
and with 1 Kg of Hydrogen at 700 bars, your Toyota Mirai can achieve roughly 90 Km.

Which means, For +TOYOTA Mirai and other Hydrogen vehicles,

+ METRIC (Base 10 system, which is used by 190/193 countries in the world)
16.7 cents / Km [or 11.7 Rs / Km] (while 1 Kg of H2 = $15).
11 cents / Km [or 7.7 Rs / Km] (while 1 Kg of H2 = $10) - future prediction even if H2 prices comes down.

- IMPERIAL (Grandpa units, used by 3/193 countries in the world)
27.3 cents / mile (while 1 Kg of H2 = $15).
18.2 cents / mile (while 1 Kg of H2 = $10) - future prediction even if H2 prices comes down.

Average mileage of Toyota mileage on road is around [90 Km / 55 Miles] for 1 Kg of H2.

But considering +Tesla and other pure electric vehicles,

+ METRIC (Base 10 system, which is used by 190/193 countries in the world)
2.8 cents / Km [or 2 Rs / Km] (while 1 kWh of electricity = 14 cents) for High power charging >50 kW
1.4 cents / Km [or 1 Rs / Km] (while 1 kWh of electricity = 7 cents) for Low power charging <50 kW
0 cents / Km (while you charge with your home solar = 0 ) - while using car to office daily (unlike road trips)

- IMPERIAL (Grandpa units, used by 3/193 countries in the world)
4.5 cents / mile (while 1 kWh of electricity = 14 cents) for High power charging >50 kW
2.2 cents / mile (while 1 kWh of electricity = 7 cents) for Low power charging <50 kW
0 cents / mile (while you charge with your home solar = 0 ) - while using car to office daily (unlike road trips)

Average mileage of Tesla is around 200 Wh / Km [or 5 km for 1 kWh].

Now that should give you a overall picture of the scenario of various energy technologies.

______________________________________
For density of Solid, Liquid and Gas materials:
frozenprakash.com/ji56ubiBUJk
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