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Kenhub - Learn Human Anatomy
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Learning anatomy becomes easy!
Learning anatomy becomes easy!

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Functions of semitendinosus muscle with 3D animations

The semitendinosus muscle is situated posteriomedially in the thigh, and runs superficially to the semimembranosus.

It arises from the medial impression of the ischial tuberosity by a shared tendon with the long head of the biceps femoris. A muscular belly arises from this tendon, which is fusiform in shape. A rounded tendon then arises just below midthigh. The great length of this tendon gives the muscle its name.

It then crosses the medial collateral ligament before attaching to the upper part of the tibia medially, behind the tendon attachment of the gracilis.


We now offer 3D animation videos about the muscles of the lower leg: https://khub.me/igslx
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Cross-sectional anatomy of the lower limb

The lower extremity or lower limb refers to the part of the body that extends from hips to toes.

That includes the thighs, knees, legs and ankles. A study of the cross-sectional anatomy allows to have a clear understanding of the structural organization of this area. That will permit an unique representation of the positions, sizes, shapes, and relationships of the structures present in the upper extremity of a human body.

Here you can see the Adductor magnus muscle in relation to its surrounding structures in the human thigh. https://khub.me/nb4f4
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The muscles of the thigh

The thigh is divided into three compartments by intermuscular septa into anterior, posterior, and medial compartments of the thigh.

The anterior compartment consists of muscles responsible for leg extension at the knee joint. It includes the sartorius muscle (the longest muscle in the body) and the four large quadriceps femoris muscles: the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis, and is innervated by the femoral nerve.

The posterior compartment consists of muscles that extend the thigh at the hip joint and flex the leg at the knee joint. These muscles are termed the ‘hamstring’, and are innervated by the sciatic nerve.

The medial compartment includes muscles that are mainly responsible for thigh adduction at the hip joint. These six muscles are the gracilis, pectineus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, and obturator externus. They are all innervated by the obturator nerve except for the pectineus (femoral nerve) and part of the adductor magnus (sciatic nerve).

The thigh is supplied by the femoral and obturator arteries. The former is the largest and supplies most of the lower limb.


Training quiz about the muscles of the hip and thigh:
https://khub.me/s7umz
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FREE beginner tutorial about the Pelvis and Femur

The hip is a synovial articulation between the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the pelvic bone, which connects the axial skeleton with its lower extremity. Though similar to the shoulder joint, the multi-axial hip joint is designed for stability and weight bearing rather than mobility.

Movements of the hip joint are flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction.


Free video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wJqftUJU1io
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Arteries, veins and nerve supply of the hip and thigh - Video tutorial

The structures of the lower limb are mainly supplied with arterial blood by the femoral artery, which is a continuation of the external iliac, a terminal branch arising from the abdominal aorta. The external iliac artery becomes the femoral artery as it runs underneath the inguinal ligament, and enters the femoral triangle.

The lower limb veins drain deoxygenated blood back to the heart. They are divided into superficial and deep veins. The superficial veins are located in the subcutaneous tissue, while deep veins occur beneath the deep fascia of the lower limb, accompanying major arteries and bearing their names. Both types of veins have valves, but they are more numerous within the deep veins.

In the thigh region, the femoral nerve innervates the muscles of the anterior compartment. It is the largest nerve of the lumbar plexus.

The obturator nerve is a branch of the lumbar plexus that supplies the adductor group of muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh.

The sciatic nerve is the longest and widest nerve in the human body. It innervates the posterior muscle compartment of the thigh, and gives off its larger tibial branch that supplies the muscles of the popliteal fossa.

Video tutorial:
https://khub.me/dped1
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Are you familiar with the anatomy of the muscles of legs and knee?

Prove it in our quiz!


Kenhub quiz "Muscles of legs and knee":
https://khub.me/a42dq
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The calcaneus (heel bone) - The largest bone in the foot

The calcaneus, also known as the heel bone, is found at the back of the foot near the ankle, just below the talus, tibia, and fibula bones of the lower leg.

The calcaneus is the largest bone in the foot. It projects posterior to the tibia and fibula and acts as a short lever for the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) which insert onto its posterior surface via the Achilles tendon. It also plays an important role in weight bearing and stability.

The calcaneus provides insertion points for the abductor hallucis and the abductor digit minimi muscles.

At the back of the heel, the Achilles tendon inserts into the rough area located on the superior side. This tendon, as well as other ligaments and muscles, is necessary for standing and walking. Therefore a broken or fractured calcaneus will cause difficulty in standing and walking.


More information in our free, full article about the Calcaneus on Kenhub: https://khub.me/qkhuz
Calcaneus
Calcaneus
kenhub.com
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"Turn the foot to look at the sole"! - These are the functions of the sartorius

Keep forgetting what the Sartorius muscle does?


Learn more about this muscle's functions in our new video format using 3D animations:
https://khub.me/1mhbx
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Check out that Butt! Learn everything about the gluteal muscles in our video tutorial! https://khub.me/3te47
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What facts do you know about this muscle?

The Flexor digitorum brevis muscle originates at the calcaneal tuberosity and plantar aponeurosis.

Distally it divides into four tendons moving towards the second to fifth toe. At the proximal phalanges these tendons separate further into two smaller tendons which finally insert medially and laterally at the middle phalanges.

Innervation: medial plantar nerve

Find out more on Kenhub!
https://khub.me/qde5o
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