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R Leakey
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R Leakey

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I was born in a Marxist family and grew by reading dialectical materialism. 30 years ago, in the college, I happened to read some books by a Marxist Buddhist monk. It was really shocking, I thought how a spiritual man could be a Marxist and Materialist! To get answer I begun to study Buddhism. I found, the notion that Buddhism is idealism is really misunderstanding. Buddhism is neither a spiritualism nor materialism. Buddhism is called Middle Path, or Immaterialism. It was not Greek philosopher Anaximander who gave the concept of air, water, fire and earth as fundamental elements but it was already existed in India and Babylon. Buddhism also adopted that concept. Atomism is also not originally a Greek concept but an Indian. Pre-Buddhistic a Hindu sage Kanad gave the concept of atom. Later Buddhism and Jainism also adopted the concept. The concept of space also has great value in all Indian schools of thought. But difference among them is, where in Hinduism, Jainism and western schools of though, space is considered the fifth fundamental element but in Buddhism it is just (quantum) field. Besides, in the East and West, It is soul which transmigrate or take rebirth but in Buddhism it is consciousness that transforms or take rebirth. Buddhism does not believe in immortal soul and almighty God. Buddhism has three mundane concepts: Impermanence, Not-soul and Suffering. Therefore, we should not misunderstand consciousness as soul but a sort of mind. Buddhist logic does not accept or reject  mind-matter dualism (Read Rene Descartes too). In conclusion, consciousness is just immaterial (like bosons which have both particle and wave properties). Our brain is made of billions of neurons and they spark and create electromagnetic field. Now scientists have illustrated how bosons gain mass. Scientists have confirmed that from photon matter can be reproduced! http://phys.org/news/2013-09-scientists-never-before-seen.html Thus, the age of Materialism has fallen down really.
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R Leakey

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No doubt it is really great video about the history of science in particular physics! However, I disagree with Tyson in some points and believe that some eurocentric errors must be edited for fair justification of others cultures! 

1. Not just from the time of Galileo but since time memorial our ancestors always having been unfolding the truths instead of limitation of knowledge and technology step by step without the idea of God. For example, Buddha says that seeds of life came from outer space and evolved on the planet.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agga%C3%B1%C3%B1a_Sutta. Knowledge, Technology, Science are dependent on each other so the path of truth is vicious. Ignorance like dark matter is always here, who knows that what the ultimate truth is! We can remember the biographies of Einstein and Prof. Higgs how their theories were ridiculed by some groups of scientists! To be religious does not mean to be irrational. Rationalism is not synonym of atheism. Historically, almost all the founders of sciences and mathematics were either religious or agnostic in the worldview. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFVARio4pAk
2. The father of modern Big Bang theory was a Roman Catholic priest Mgr Lemaître but in the Indian astronomy origin of cosmos is not unilineal but circular, goes several cycles of birth and rebirth. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_cosmology
3. Indian astronomy is called Jyotishastra = Science of Light. Hence, Jyoti stands for light and shastra for science. Khagolshastra( space science) came only after 4th century AD. In a Buddhist story there is a mythological story that a god traveled the universe to know its end in the speed of light. However, we do not find the exact value of speed of light in the Indian texts! 
5. The concept of relativity of time we see in the Hindu mythology. King Kakudmi visits the Abode of Brahma to discuss about the wedding of his daughter Revati. Brahma was listening to a musical performance by the Gandharvas, so the king waited patiently until the performance was finished. Then, Kakudmi bowed humbly, made his request and presented his shortlist of candidates. Brahma laughed loudly, and explained that time runs differently on different planes of existence, and that during the short time they had waited in Brahmaloka to see him, 27 chatur-yugas (a chatur-yuga is a cycle of four yugas, hence 27 chatur-yugas total 108 yugas.
6. The concept of different kinds of Vimana (space crafts) we see in Hunduism, Jainism and Buddhism by which celestial beings traveled from one abode to another.
7. It was not Leucippus and Democritus who proposed the concept of atomism but Indian philosophers. Atom is derived form the greek Ãtomôn (άτομο). In fact, it is άτομο is corrupt form of Sanskrit word Ātmā which means soul. In the Upanishads believed that soul was very small in living bodies. Jain believed that everything is made of atoms. There are many Sanskrit words in ancient greek. For example, "ink" (Sankrit: melā, Greek: μέλαν "melan", "pen" (Sanskrit:kalamo, Greek:κάλαμος "kalamos", "book" (Sanskrit: pustaka, Greek: πύξινον "puksinon"), "bridle", a horse's bit (Sanskrit: khalina, Greek: χαλινός "khalinos"), "centre" (Sanskrit: kendram, Greek: κενδρον "kendron") and many others. These terms are not Proto Indo-European words but classical Sanskrit words. Thomas McEvilley's book is highly recommended to read to know the relationship between ancient India and Greece in classical time.
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R Leakey

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Really great talk 
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R Leakey

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Pythagoras was from Samos island which once was a part of Anatolia (Turkey) and he was typical eastern in his ideology and attaire. According to his successors, he traveled to India where he might had learnt Pythagorean theorem, spherical planet, infinite and transmigration of soul. However, many modern western scholars refuse this historical idea. Thanks to Prof. Thomas McEvilley and many others who dare to break the Eurocentrism. The concept of infinite is older than the concept of zero. The philosophical concept of zero is found in Buddhist texts but the concept of infinite seems to be exited before the Buddha specially in the Upanishads of the Hindus. In the Chula Mallunkya Putta Sutta, Buddha refuses to answer whether the Cosmos is eternal or not eternal and whether finite or infinite (http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.063.than.html). However, later Buddha as infinite light has been imagined. Amitabha Buddha means infinite light. The symbol of infinite light or wisdom is http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endless_knot
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R Leakey

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Great ancient wisdoms from various culture at one place
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R Leakey

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Weinberg does not like religion in general but has no problem with judaism and Hinduism. Why so? I think he is biased when he says judaism emphasizes on observation but others not ! Weinberg is fan of Albert Einstein who believed in Spinoza's God. Spinoza and Buddha are often compared (see Spinoza and Buddha: Visions of Dead God by S.M. Melamed, the University of Chicago Press,1933). Buddha was an agnostic atheist and was not interested in cosmological ontology. Even then, we see some description of cosmological ideas in the Buddhist texts but without the concept of creator (see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cX2f6QHkU-I). Carl Sagan once interviewed Dalai Lama and found Buddhis very interesting. (see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nc8EasjRpIo). What Carl Sagan asks here in Indian cosmology https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ugyrzr5Ds8o Buddha asked similarly long ago. Indian (Hindu, Buddhist and Jain) cosmologies believe that all the things are woven in one string, big bang is not unilinear but cyclic and there are multiverse.
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R Leakey

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I regret how could I uninformed skeptiko podcasts! Really mind blowing!
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R Leakey

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