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All under the sun 40 K R IRS dated 17th Nov 2016
1 UNSEEN WORLD by MOORE IS widely read, was in Movie and A TV show also. The exposure of ghosts, happenings surprise on earth, mental cognition etc were in our Sanskrit literatures ; how ever they were branded as myth by science; yet the media exposures on the book basis is highly seen and liked , the science had become unbelievable and myth. The unfortunate thing is what was exposed mainly were only from the west and never our views were incorporated. How ever the other one ,”Unseen World: The Science, Theories, and Phenomena Behind Events Paranormal Book by Jeremy Harwood, Richard Emerson, and Rupert Matthews”, is supposed to explain the phenomena scientifically, but the mystery remains unsolved. Fairy tales unexplained resurrects as if explained. Readers’ Digest does a service to a costly book unaffordable. The world who does not believe in “PISASA and VEDALA “ stories, made a hit out of these books.
2 CARRAGEENAN: Present TV shows advertisement will reflect it as, RED-ALGAE, A SEA WEED FROM MAINLY THE BACK WATERS OF THE KERALA. A crude form carrageenan costs Rs.200 to Rs.300 a kilogram in the market. A semi-refined form which is used in food industries, processed meat, dairy products, pet foods, cosmetics and toothpaste, is priced at Rs.500 to Rs.600. A completely refined super fine variety will cost Rs.1,000. Pepsi has a carrageenan extraction unit in Paramakudi, 80 km from Madurai. World market is expanding. And this element can be added like spice in food and all other house utilities. When its going to hit back, medically GOK. The study of sea foods in New Zealand, Australia and USA and Brittan had so for revealed negative aspects of epidemiological and neuro diseases caused in children and adults.
3 Mating with Neanderthals helped humans survive: Its another scientific fictional story given in a platter. Age of Neanderthal itself is questionable. The space expansion itself varied because of the age of the farthest visible star; and as this age increases due to powerful perception in future, the theory evolution might get bogged down. Now from 4.5 Billion years to 14 Billion years story goes. The metal ages might get cracked up as research become universal with more fossils; already Sri Lanka is going forward to disprove some theories. Dwaraka may give a different structure; so Neanderthal gave went to etc are good scientific fiction. Darwin might fade away slowly.
4 femtosecond or an attosecond: An attosecond is 1×10−18 of a second (one quintillionth of a second).[1] For context, an attosecond is to a second what a second is to about 31.71 billion years. The word "attosecond" is formed by the prefix atto and the unit second. Atto- was made from the Danish word for eighteen (atten) Its symbol is “as” .An attosecond is equal to 1000 zeptoseconds, or  1⁄1000 of a femtosecond. Because the next higher SI unit for time is the femtosecond (10−15 seconds), durations of 10−17 s and 10−16 s will typically be expressed as tens or hundreds of attoseconds: (Shorter time: zeptosecond)Times which can be expressed in attoseconds:
• 1 attosecond: the time it takes for light to travel the length of two hydrogen atoms
• 12 attoseconds: record for shortest time interval measured as of 12 May 2010[
• 24 attoseconds: the atomic unit of time
• 67 attoseconds: the shortest pulses of laser light yet created
• 100 attoseconds: fastest ever view of molecular motion
• 200 attoseconds (approximately): half-life of beryllium-8, maximum time available for the triple-alpha process for the synthesis of carbon and heavier elements in stars
• 320 attoseconds: estimated time it takes electrons to transfer between atoms.
• (Longer time: femtosecond).
4 B What does scriptures, Surya siddanthya and Vishnu purana say about measurments? [ hubble telescope finding is partial only]
A 10-7 is called Truti. Upward goes as रेणु, लव , लीक्षक , लिप्ता, विपल, पल, विघटि, विनाडी, घटि, नाडी, दण्ड, मुहूर्त.
B Paramāṇu is the base unit smaller than Truti ; Aṇu=2 Paramāṇu Trasareṇu = 3 Aṇu; Truṭi = 3 Trasareṇu. Where the parama anu is 10 -25.
C The Viṣṇu Purāṇa Time measurement section of the Viṣṇu Purāṇa Book I Chapter III explains the above as follows:
2 Ayanas (6-month periods, see above) = 1 human year or 1 day of the devas
4,000 + 400 + 400 = 4,800 divine years (= 1,728,000 human years) = 1 Satya Yuga
3,000 + 300 + 300 = 3,600 divine years (= 1,296,000 human years) = 1 Tretā Yuga
2,000 + 200 + 200 = 2,400 divine years (= 864,000 human years) = 1 Dvāpara Yuga
1,000 + 100 + 100 = 1,200 divine years (= 432,000 human years) = 1 Kali Yuga
12,000 divine year = 4 Yugas (= 4,320,000 human years) = 1 Mahā-Yuga (also is equaled to 12000 Daiva (divine) Yuga) [2*12,000 = 24,000 divine year = 12000 revolutions of sun around its dual]
• 4 1000 Mahā-Yugas = 1 Kalpa = 1 day (day only) of Brahma (2 Kalpas constitute a day and night of Brahma, 8.64 billion human years) *

F ### The time elapsed since the current Brahma has taken over the task of creation can be calculated as
432000 × 10 × 1000 × 2 = 8.64 billion years (2 Kalpa (day and night) )
8.64 × 109 × 30 × 12 = 3.1104 Trillion Years (1 year of Brahma)
3.1104 × 1012 × 50 = 155.52 trillion years (50 years of Brahma)
(6 × 71 × 4320000 ) + 7 × 1.728 × 10^6 = 1852416000 years elapsed in first six Manvataras, and Sandhi Kalas in the current Kalpa
27 × 4320000 = 116640000 years elapsed in first 27 Mahayugas of the current Manvantara
1.728 × 10^6 + 1.296 × 10^6 + 864000 = 3888000 years elapsed in current Mahayuga
3102 + 2016 = 5118 years elapsed in current Kaliyuga.
So the total time elapsed since current Brahma is
155520000000000 + 1852416000 + 116640000 + 3888000 + 5115 = 155,521,972,949,117 years (one hundred fifty-five trillion, five hundred twenty-one billion, nine hundred seventy-two million, nine hundred forty-nine thousand, one hundred seventeen years) as of 2016 AD
G The current Kali Yuga began at midnight 17 February / 18 February in 3102 BCE in the proleptic Julian calendar.[8] As per the information above about Yuga periods, only 5,118 years are passed out of 432,000 years of current Kali Yuga, and hence another 426,882 years are left to complete this 28th Kali Yuga of Vaivaswatha Manvantara.
5 age of ramayana: vide “ALL UNDEER THE SUN 27 K R IRS 17TH OCT 2016 . Time factor shall not be calculated on sand dunes etc since movements of land and water may have to be considered. The Map of Bharatha varsha its believed, could have been , different than what it appears to be. IUts predicted that Sri Lanka then in RTamayana could have been some where near to days Orissa; Bengal , Orissa language mix in Singala can be seen.

Anti fragile and Bhagavat gita
Wind extinguishes a candle and energizes fire.
Likewise with randomness, uncertainty, chaos: you want to use them, not hide from them. You want to be the fire and wish for the wind. …
The mission is how to domesticate, even dominate, even conquer, the unseen, the opaque, and the inexplicable. How?
Sthita Prajna
In the second chapter of the Bhagavad Gita Arjuna asks Krishna, what is the definition of one whose mind is steady and one-pointed? How ? Then Krishna tells him, just as a tortoise withdraws his limbs inside the shell and nothing hurts him, one who possesses sthita prajna (stabilized consciousness) withdraws all his senses and the thoughts don’t hurt him. He does get worries and anxiety, but he is not affected by them.
Krishna says, “Arjuna, allow yourself to be anxious, because you are a householder, you are moving in the world, but don’t get influenced by the anxiety. Perform your duty, but don’t get influenced by it.” If you need to fight, then fight; if you need to get a job, then get a job; if you have to look after your children, then do so; if you have to farm, then farm. Do everything, but do not get influenced by your actions.
Every action produces three kinds of results. One is positive, just as you wanted it. The second is negative, not as you wanted it. The third is mixed, a little bit of what you wanted and a little bit of what you did not want. You wanted a son and you got a son, but he turned out to be a wastrel. That is a mixed result. The Bhagavad Gita says (18:12): Anishtamishtam mishram cha trividham karmanah phalam. There are threefold fruits of action – good, bad and mixed. Ramana Maha Rishi said the same thing.
When there is suffering one experiences complexes. The chemicals in the body also produce complexes in the mind. We feel guilty, inferior or superior, there is fear, we think someone is out to harm us, we feel unloved, we experience the desire for self-adornment. All these feelings are complexes, which blunt the mind. So what is the way out of complexes? Complexes are within everyone, and they go in their own time. As the age advances, they reduce in number. Complexes change according to age. One’s character, thoughts and problems change. There are also many people who remain so busy that they do not get the opportunity to become aware of their complexes. It is like a deaf person who cannot hear a band playing right behind him. When the whole mind is engaged in something, one is not aware of anything else. You cannot afford to wander any more. So to keep the mind busy, one needs work. And how should this work be performed? The Bhagavad Gita (2:50) says, Karmasu kaushalam – “In the best possible manner.”
Chapter 2: Contents of the Gītā Summarized 54 to 61
sthita-prajnasya ka bhasa samadhi-sthasya kesava sthita-dhih kim prabhasetakim asita vrajeta kim
As there are symptoms for each and every man, in terms of his particular situation, similarly one who is conscious has his particular nature-talking, walking, thinking, feeling, etc. As a rich man has his symptoms by which he is known as a rich man, as a diseased man has his symptoms, by which he is known as diseased, or as a learned man has his symptoms, so a man in transcendental consciousness of has specific symptoms in various dealings.
prajahati yada kamansarvan partha mano-gatanatmany evatmana tustahsthita-prajnas tadocyate
The Bhāgavatam affirms that any person who is fully in devotional service of the Lord, has all the good qualities of the great sages, whereas a person who is not so transcendentally situated has no good qualifications, because he is sure to be taking refuge in his own mental concoctions. Consequently, it is rightly said herein that one has to give up all kinds of sense desire manufactured by mental concoction. Artificially, such sense desires cannot be stopped. Therefore, one has to engage himself in devotional service, which will instantly help one on to the platform of transcendental consciousness. rather, he remains always happy in his natural position of eternally serving the Supreme Lord.
duhkhesv anudvigna-manahsukhesu vigata-sprhahvita-raga-bhaya-krodhahsthita-dhir munir ucyate
The word muni means one who can agitate his mind in various ways for mental speculation without coming to a factual conclusion. It is said that every muni has a different angle of vision, and unless a muni differs from other munis, he cannot be called a muni in the strict sense of the term. Nāsau munir yasya mataṁ na binnam. But a sthita-dhī-muni as mentioned herein by the Lord, is different from an ordinary muni The sthita-dhī-muni is always called a muni fixed in mind. Such person is not at all disturbed by the onslaughts of the threefold miseries, for he accepts all miseries as the mercy of the Lord, thinking himself only worthy of more trouble due to his past misdeeds; and he sees that his miseries, by the grace of the Lord, are minimized to the lowest.
yah sarvatranabhisnehas tat tat prapya subhasubham nabhinandati na dvesti tasya prajna pratisthita
There is always some upheaval in the material world which may be good or evil. One who is not agitated by such material upheavals, who is unaffected by good and evil, is to be understood to be fixed in consciousness.
yada samharate cayam kurmo 'nganiva sarvasah indriyanindriyarthebhyas tasya prajna pratisthita
The test of a yogī, devotee, or self-realized soul is that he is able to control the senses according to his plan. Most people, however, are servants of the senses and are thus directed by the dictation of the senses. That is the answer to the question as to how the yogī is situated. The senses are compared to venomous serpents. They want to act very loosely and without restriction. The yogī, or the devotee, must be very strong to control the serpents-like a snake charmer. He never allows them to act independently. Keeping the senses always in the service of the Lord is the example set by the analogy of the tortoise, who keeps the senses within.
visaya vinivartante niraharasya dehinah rasa-varjam raso 'py asya
param drstva nivartate
Unless one is transcendentally situated, it is not possible to cease from sense enjoyment. The process of restriction from sense enjoyment by rules and regulations is something like restricting a diseased person from certain types of eatables. The patient, however, neither likes such restrictions, nor loses his taste for eatables. Similarly, sense restriction by some spiritual process like aṣṭāṅga-yoga, in the matter of yama, niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma, pratyāhāra, dharaṇā, dhyāna, etc., is recommended for less intelligent persons who have no better knowledge. Therefore, restrictions are there for the less intelligent neophytes in the spiritual advancement of life.
yatato hy api kaunteya purusasya vipascitah indriyani pramathini
haranti prasabham manah
There are many learned sages, philosophers and transcendentalists who try to conquer the senses, but in spite of their endeavors, even the greatest of them sometimes fall victim to material sense enjoyment due to the agitated mind. And, of course, there are so many similar instances in the history of the world. Therefore, it is very difficult to control the mind and the senses without being fully conscious. Consciousness is such a transcendentally nice thing that automatically material enjoyment becomes distasteful
tani sarvani samyamya yukta asita mat-parah vase hi yasyendriyani
tasya prajna pratisthita
. As cited above, the great sage Durvāsā Muni picked a quarrel with Mahārāja Ambarīṣa, and Durvāsā Muni unnecessarily became angry out of pride and therefore could not check his senses. On the other hand, the King, although not as powerful a yogī as the sage, but a devotee of the Lord, silently tolerated all the sage's injustices and thereby emerged victorious.
"King Ambarīṣa fixed his mind on the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa, engaged his words in describing the abode of the Lord, his hands in cleansing the temple of the Lord, his ears in hearing the pastimes of the Lord, his eyes in seeing the form of the Lord, his body in touching the body of the devotee, his nostrils in smelling the flavor of the flowers offered to the lotus feet of the Lord, his tongue in tasting the tulasī leaves offered to Him, his legs in traveling to the holy place where His temple is situated, his head in offering obeisances unto the Lord, and his desires in fulfilling the desires of the Lord ... and all these qualifications made him fit to become a mat-paraḥ devotee of the Lord." (Bhāg. 9.4.18-20)
The word mat-paraḥ (anti-fragile) is most significant in this connection. How one can become a mat-paraḥ is described in the life of Mahārāja Ambarīṣa. Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa, a great scholar and ācārya in the line of the mat-paraḥ, remarks: "mad-bhakti-prabhāvena sarvendriya-vijaya-pūrvikā svātma dṛṣṭiḥ sulabheti bhāvaḥ." " As the small flames within burn everything within the room, similarly Brahmam , situated in the heart of the yogī, burns up all kinds of impurities." The Yoga-sūtra also prescribes meditation on Brahmam , and not meditation on the void. The so-called yogīs who meditate on something which is not the Brahmam form simply waste their time in a vain search after some phantasmagoria.
Anti gragility is the sthitha Paragnan status to face the problem and does not escape with the yogic attitude.

Slow Light
About Light Speed Light travels fast. In a vacuum it moves about 3 x 108 meters (186,000 miles) each second, a distance so large it’s difficult to comprehend. Here are some roughly equivalent distances: Eight times around Earth’s equator Most of the way from Earth to the moon
Light moves with speed c in a vacuum. But light can move with a speed less than c, when it passes through some material. The table shows the speed of light when it goes through glass, water, and air. Note that in this table the speed of light in each material is given as a decimal times the speed of light in a vacuum. In certain exotic materials light can move much slower than c, and in some cases can even be brought entirely to a halt. Light has been slowed to one mile per hour (.0000000015c) in an unusual form of matter known as a Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC). And in 2001, physicists for the first time managed to stop light in a vapor of rubidium gas.

MAY BE understood or remember the light rays pending in water. In the arxiv copy of the experiment, studied as a light beam: The analytical form of this predicted delay (Eq. 1) suggests a simple geometrical model,where the delay arises from the additional length of the diagonal ray, propagating at an angle with respect to the optical axis. The individual photons that make up the beam retain this form, which has been measured as a difference in arrival at a detector of two entangled single photons. It is not single photons that have been measured to slow down, rather two photons traveling different distances enforced by the optical masking relative to each other.
Photon absorption-emission theory Some textbooks that I read explain it in a way kind of like this: In a material the photons are absorbed by atom and then re-emitted a short time later, then they travel a short distance to the next atom and get absorbed&emitted again and so on. How quickly the atoms in a material can absorb and re-emit the photon and how dense the atoms decides the apparent speed of light in that material. So the light appears slower because it has a smaller “drift speed { absorption and reemission by atoms , gives an appearance of delay. Light can be appeared to have slowed down to one mile per second also. What applies to Photon does apply to Sound energy also.

How to slow down light. Bigelow et al. generate ultraslow light via population pulsations (left). A pump field with frequency Ωpump causes a spectral hole in the absorption profile when probed by a probe field of frequency frequency Ωprobe. Other experiments are based on EIT in three-level systems (right).
The experiments can be understood as a two-step process. In the first step, an ensemble of atoms is illuminated by a weak, off-resonant light beam. This results in Raman scattering, which produces pairs of spin-flipped atoms and frequency-shifted photons (called Stokes photons). Energy and momentum conservation ensures that for each Stokes photon emitted in a particular direction, there exists exactly one flipped spin quantum in a well-defined many-particle spin-wave mode. In this sense, the two photons are strongly correlated. But whereas the Stokes photons rapidly leave the medium, the atomic spin coherence stores the correlations for a relatively long time (up to 1 μs). In the second step, the state of the spin wave is retrieved by coherent conversion of the atomic states into a different (anti-Stokes) photon beam. Thanks to EIT, the signal photons are not reabsorbed.
Such photon synthesis is seen in blue flower and other flora and fauna described in Ramayana & Mahabharatha as well as in sea and land research met accidentally.

A. A greater empiredom were being computed thro “QUORA” in these columns. The contradictions I felt were also well contributed by some one as under:
“Maurya Empire (322 BCE to 185 BCE) ; The Gupta Empire from 380 AD to 415 AD under Chandragupta Vikramditya. Bias in History writing - The Western viewpoint is dominant in the modern world and often history of other parts of the world like China, Persia, Egypt, India is written by Western scholars, who may have hyped up the exotic aspect while skipping some real achievements” (mark the red prints).
B The Chronology of the dynasties of the Kings of Kali according to the Kaliyuga Raja Vrittanta is also given below:
The beginning of the Kali Era B.C. 3102
The time of Mahabharata War
36 years before Kali B.C. 3138
From the Mahabharata War to the
Coronation of Mahapadma Nanda 1504 years
Mahapadma Nanda to the beginning
Of the Andhra dynasty of the
Empire of Magadha 801 years
The reigns of the kings of the
Andhra Satavahana dynasty 506 years
-Total 2811 years
The time of Alexander’s invasion
Of the Punjab 327 B.C.
K R IRS : The west started the history of India from here . Megasthanese and Alexander became the yard stick for Jones and Max Muller. Hence BUdda, Adi Sankara, Rig Vedam and so on were shrunk by 1200 years . roughly. Vikramaditya of ashoka and encriptions of Ashoka were also merged as one. So fundamentally the greatest kingdom question has no literal competency.
Gupta Chandragupta’s coronation 326 B.C.
The Gupta dynasty reigned for a
Period of 245 years
The coronation of Vikramaditya
Of the Panwar dynasty in Ujjain 82 B.C.
After the close of the Imperial Gupta dynasty Vikramaditya of Ujjain was crowned Emperor in 82 B.C. and his grandson Salivahana drove the Saka invaders out of the country and was crowned Emperor in A. D. 78.
These two emperors are historical personages and founders of the well-known eras named after them and commencing in 57 B.C. and 73 A.D. respectively. (Refer: Bharatiya Eras, The kings of Agni Vamsa, by the same author in Telugu and “Indian Eras” in English.)
Thus there are clear astronomical references in all the Puranas and astronomical books which corroborate the Chronological account of dynasties given in the Puranas. It is a pity that Jones had no opportunity to have a look at this strong astronomical evidence which cuts at the root of his theories. The ignorance of Jones might be excused but what about those who swear by him even to-day when there is such strong evidence to refute his chronology and to confirm the Puranic accounts of our ancient history?
It is more astounding to note the attempt of Jones to compress the history of 195 crore years from the time of Swayambhuva Manu into 6000 years which is the age of the world according to the Bible. He tries to identify Adam with the 1st Manu, Noah with the 2nd Manu and so on. This table of identification is a standing example of the arbitrary and whimsical way in which Jones dealt with our ancient history.
It is (1.9 Billion years) 195, 58, 85, 054 years since the birth of Swayambhuva Manu. It is absurd to identify him with Adam of 5957 years back, while as a matter of fact the Indian contemporary of Adam was the first Brihadradha the founder of Magadha kingdom. (867 years before Kali)
It cannot be said that Jones was ignorant of the Kali Era, for in the last para of the quotation given above, he says that the year 4891 Kali corresponds to 1790 of the Christian era. So, the mistakes he committed in Indian chronology are mainly due to his loyalty to the Biblical conception of the age of the world and his anxiety to compress crores of years into a small space of six thousand years.
Another grave And grievous they have perpetrated was that Maurya dynasty and Gupta dynasty ruled from Pataliputra as their capital. According to them both Girivraja and Pataliputra are the same. But Sri Kota Venkatachalam challenged the mistaken identitiy of these two capitals. He gave correct reigning periods of the kings of the Maurya dynasty. The Maurya kings reigned for 316 years at Girivraja as capital of their Magadha Kingdom from 1534 B.C. to 1218 B.C. [ note K R IRS See top 322BC is Mourya empire ; this 1200 years difference brings the vedic period below that of the Christianity for which the Jones and west strived hard but failed miserably]
Name of the king Years reigned Period
1. Chandra Gupta Maurya 34 1534 – 1500 B.C. 2. Bindusara 28 1500 – 1472 B.C.
3. Asoka 36 1472 – 1436 B.C.—[ where ashoka is where Jones bring about the History?]
4. Suparsa 8 1436 – 1428 B.C.
5. Dasaradha 8 1428 – 1420 B.C.
6. Indrapalitha 70 1420 – 1350 B.C.
7. Harsha Vardhana 8 1350 – 1342 B.C.
8. Sangata 9 1342 – 1333 B.C.
9. Salisuka 13 1333 – 1320 B.C.
10. Somasarma 7 1320 – 1313 B.C.
11. Sathadhanva 8 1313 – 1305 B.C.
12. Brihadradha 87 1305 – 1218 B.C.
Total 316 years
Kali 2775 – 3020 : 327 B.C. to 82 B.C.{K R IRS its Mourya and Gupta confusion and Gupta Ashoka nad Mourya Ashoka were mewrged as one by Jones}
S.No. Name of the Emperor years reigned Kali era B.C.
1. Chandragupta I 7 2775-2782 327-320
2 . Samudragupta 51 2782-2883 320-269
3. Chandra Gupta II 36 3883-2869 269-233
4. Kumara Gupta 42 2869-2911 233-191
5. Skanda Gupta 25 2911-2936 191-163
6. Narasimha Gupta 40 2936-2976 166-126
(being minor by guardian Stiraputa 5 years)
Narasimha Gupta himself after attaining majority 36 years)
7. Kumara Gupta II 41 2976-3020 126-82
K R IRS NB : and the best joke were that each era was computed as 20 years of life By the west which is ridiculous.
When it came to synchronisms, the only significant data that could be utilized by Sir William for a synchronism was the invasion of Alexander
The ten kings of the Sisunaga dynasty ruled for 360 years, beginning from 1994 B.C. and ending with 1634 B.C. At this time, an illegitimate son, Mahapadma-Nanda, of the last Sisunaga emperor, Mahanandi, ascended the throne of Magadha. The total regnal period of this Nanda dynasty was 100 years. After this, with the assistance of Arya Chanakya, Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne of Magadha, and that is in the year 1534 B.C. This date can be arrived and confirmed using many independent accounts. The Mauryas ruled for a total of 316 years, and were replaced by the Sungas. The Kanvas who succeeded the Sungas were themselves overthrown by the Andhra, who in turn ruled for a period of 506 years. Then followed the reign of the Sri Guptas for a period of 245 years, also referred to as the (last of the) Golden ages of Bharata. It was Samudragupta of the SriGupta dynasty, who was known as Asokaditya Priyadarshin. The inscriptions of Asoka belong to this Gupta emperor and not to the Asoka Maurya who came to power 218 years after the Buddha.
#### Narahari Achar of Memphis University has confirmed many of the dates including that of the Buddha, using Planetarium software, the algorithms in which are based on Celestial Mechanics, has established that the Puranic dates are correct based on the sky observations that were recorded by the ancients. This must be regarded as an independent verification since the principles of celestial mechanics were unknown to the ancient lndic.
The Hypotheses of Sir William Jones
He made the following inferences from the work of Megasthenes, which were in retrospect colossal errors:
1. That the puranic chronology was completely erroneous
2. That the Sandracottus mentioned in Megasthenes’ Indika was Chandragupta Maurya. He based this on two observations of Megasthenes
3. That Pataliputra11 was situated at the confluence of two rivers which he wrongly inferred to be the Sone and the Ganges. There are two wrong inferences in this statement.
Megasthenes never mentions Pataliputra, but he uses the term Palibothra as the capital. Further Megasthenes mentions the two rivers as the Ganga and the Erannoboas (which was the Greek word for Yamuna) the equivalent Sanskrit word is Hiranyabahu which was the name of Yamuna during antiquity. While Megasthenes mentions the Sane elsewhere in his work, he clearly does not associate it with Palibothra. But Sir William deliberately chose to associate the capital Palibothra with the confluence of the Sone and the Ganga.
Pataliputra is not mentioned in the Puranas and did not enter the picture until the reign of Asoka. The capital of the Magadha Kingdom was always Rajagriha also known in the Mahabharata as Girivraja
He claims the capital is Palimbothra or Palibothra, and that the city exists near the confluence of the Ganga and the Eranaboas (Hiranyabahu). But the Puranas are clear that all the 8 dynasties after the Mahabharata war had their capital at Girivraja (Rajagriha)14 located near the present day town of Rajgir. There is no mention of Pataliputra in the Puranas. So, the assumption made by Sir William that Palimbothra is Pataliputra has no baiss in fact and is not attested by any piece of evidence, If the Greeks could pronounce the first P in (Patali) ti could certainly have pronounced the second p in Putra, instead of bastardizing it as Palimbothra. Granted the Greeks were incapable of pronouncing any Indian names, but there is no reason why they should not be consistent in their phonetics.
The empire of Chandragupta was known as the Magadha Empire. It had a long history even at the time of Chandragupta Maurya. In Indian literature, this powerful empire is amply described by this name but it is absent in the Greek accounts. It is difficult to understand as to why Megasthenes did not use this name and instead used the word Prassi which has no equivalent or counterpart in Indian accounts.
Lifespan Gautama Buddha 1887-1807 BCE, puranicand astronomical evidence*******
Birth Mahaveera 1862 BCE
Dynasty Nanda Dynasty 1634-1534 BCE
(Mahapdmananda and his sons)
Coronation Chandragupta Maurya 1534 BCE-1500 BCE
Coronation Asoka Maurya 1472 BCE{ K R IRS: Note Ashoka}
Dynasty Maurya(12 kings, 316 years) 1534-1218 BCE
Dynasty Kushan Empire 1472 BCE
Coronation Ashoka Gonanda 1448 BCE
Coronation Kanishka 1298 BCE
Dynasty Sunga Dynasty 1218-918 BCE
( kings, 300 years)
Dynasty Kanva Dynasty 918-833 BCE
(4 kings, 85 years)---------------------------------------------------------------------
Era Andhra Satavahana 833 BCE-327 BCE
( kings, 506 years)
Birth Kumarda Bhatta (Mimamsa) 557 BCE [K R Q: Kumarilaa bhattar?]
Era Sakanripa Kala 550 BCE (era of Cyrus the great of Persia)
More evidences cannot be incorporated here since lots of books in India is available already to read. So question of 322 BC start line is erroneous. Budda and Adi Sankara had nothing to do with. May be the waning time of Budda and rising time Adi sankara in 500 BC were coincidental. Current Sringeri Mutt is not the original established and Koodali was the original. India is not worried about it for political reasons. Thank you K R IRS

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DNAs are different in body, Brain and heart(2013 to 2016)
Have a different view about the Mother gaining IQ of the child and never a father. Its so for partially done that , DNAs are 3 different things on e in brain, one in heart, and one all over the body. Only Neuron in Brain and mutilation is both positive and negative results and therefore the mutations in brain does not take place at all; heat contains no 23 elements as in body but different from Brain and body. Pl see under:
neurons in the brain don't divide, suggesting that these cells get mutated in a different way. Neurons' mutations seem to occur when the cells are making RNA and protein from its DNA. The heart does not contain brain cells. It contains neurons that comprise its own intrinsic system for regulating cardiac function. Further, neurons alone do not equal mind or consciousness. It takes the specialized organization of neurons in the brain to produce cognitive processes that we experience as the mind.. Each myocardial cell contains myofibrils, which are specialized organelles consisting of long chains of sarcomeres, the fundamental contractile units of muscle cells. Cardiomyocytes show striations similar to those on skeletal muscle cells, but unlike multinucleated skeletal cells, they contain only one nucleus.. Human sex cells do have 23 chromosomes, but not these 23. None, egg cells don't have chromosomes. No, sex cells do have chromosomes. Meiosis reduces chromosome number so that sex cells (eggs and sperm) have a half set of chromosomes–one homolog of each pair
An epigenome is what ensures a heart cell is different from a brain cell in spite of the fact they’re coded the same; it’s as flexible as it is complex. Leading science journal Nature (who is behind the video above) reported a much talked about change stems from DNA methylation. This occurs when a chemical is added to DNA and primes the gene to turn off.
The team found large deletions and duplications of DNA within both sources of neurons. In the human brain neurons up to 41% of the neurons had at least one large rearrangement. Each cell also had a unique pattern of rearrangement, which indicates the variations occurred sporadically and weren’t just inherited from a parent. Individual neurons made from skin cells also showed large rearrangements. The skin cells used to derive the iPSCs also had rearrangements, but these were consistently smaller in size than the DNA changes that showed up in the neurons. Also, deletions of DNA were only found in the iPSC neurons and not the skin cells.
Each time we learn something new, our brain cells break their DNA, creating damage that the neurons must immediately repair, according to Li-Huei Tsai, the Pioneer Professor of Neuroscience and director of the Pioneer Institute for Learning and Memory at MIT.

See the video:

This process is essential to learning and memory. “Cells physiologically break their DNA to allow certain important genes to be expressed,” Tsai says. “In the case of neurons, they need to break their DNA to enable the expression of early response genes, which ultimately pave the way for the transcriptional program that supports learning and memory, and many other behaviors.” (Slower DNA repair) However, as we age, our cells’ ability to repair this DNA damage weakens, leading to degeneration, Tsai says. “When we are young, our brains create DNA breaks as we learn new things, but our cells are absolutely on top of this and can quickly repair the damage to maintain the functionality of the system,” Tsai says. “But during aging, and particularly with some genetic conditions, the efficiency of the DNA repair system is compromised, leading to the accumulation of damage, and in our view this could be very detrimental.”

1 A young Indian Australian doctor, who works as a Chief Scientist at BCAL Diagnostics in Sydney, Dr Dharmica Mistry has discovered a simpler method to detect blood cancer. She realised that oils from the blood of breast cancer patients was being deposited in their hair and that a simple blood test could screen for the disease. Although the test is not yet on the market, preliminary results show a promising 90 per cent cancer detection rate. "The test would be as simple as having a blood test at the GP,” says Dr Mistry told The Feed. Getting a diagnosis right now is invasive and not easy – especially for young women and those living in regional areas. Dr Mistry hopes to change all that. "The current testing method I do is physical examination. "So its being vigilant, checking for changes and all those sorts of things. "So a blood test is revolutionary really, there isn't one on the market at the moment... the test would be as simple as having a blood test at the GP or with your health care professional,” she says.
2 A 16-year-old Indian-origin boy, Krtin Nithiyanandam from UK has found a way to turn so-called triple negative breast cancer into a kind which responds to drugs. According to a report published in The Telegraph, triple negative breast cancer is a type of disease which does not respond to today's most effective drugs. “Triple negative breast cancer does not have receptors and not much is known about what makes it grows,” said Breast Cancer Care’s Clinical Director Dr Emma Pennery. “Thus, it can be difficult to treat successfully. There are fewer treatment options available - hormone therapy, such as Tamoxifen, and most targeted therapy drugs, like Herceptin, are of no benefit,” Dr Pennery told The Telegraph. Krtin has tried to turn this ‘difficult to treat cancers’ into something that responds well to treatment. Most cancers have receptors on their surface which bind to drugs like Tamoxifen but triple negative don’t have receptors, so the drugs don’t work,” Krtin was quoted as saying by The Telegraph.
“The prognosis for women with undifferentiated cancer isn’t very good, so the goal is to turn the cancer back to a state where it can be treated. The ID4 protein actually stops undifferentiated stem cell cancers from differentiating, so you have to block ID4 to allow the cancer to differentiate,” he has said. “I have found a way to silence the genes that produce ID4 which turns cancer back into a less dangerous state,” Krtin added. Krtin has also discovered that upping the activity of a tumour suppressor gene called PTEN allows chemotherapy to work more effectively, so the dual treatment could prove far more effective than traditional drugs. The therapy idea saw him shortlisted for the final of the U.K.-based young scientists programme titled ‘The Big Bang Fair.’
VISWAMITA ACT IS SUPPOSED TO HAVE CREATED SOME MORE INTERESTING ASPECTS. Scientifically, The cataclysmic pole shift hypothesis suggests that there have been geologically rapid shifts in the relative positions of the modern-day geographic locations of the poles and the axis of rotation of the Earth, creating calamities such as floods and tectonic events. There is evidence of precession and changes in axial tilt, but this change is on much longer time-scales and does not involve relative motion of the spin axis with respect to the planet. However, in what is known as true polar wander, the solid Earth can rotate with respect to a fixed spin axis. Research shows that during the last 200 million years a total true polar wander of some 30° has occurred, but that no super-rapid shifts in the Earth's pole were found during this period A characteristic rate of true polar wander is 1° or less per million years. Between approximately 790 and 810 million years ago, when the supercontinent Rodinia existed, two geologically rapid phases of true polar wander may have occurred. In each of these, the magnetic poles of the Earth shifted by ~55°
4 Domesticated animals : I read some where on domesticated animals . How west distorted our civilisation is in another chapter. Here this writ up by the west would show what a fallacious statement is made around 4000 BC on domestication of animals, excluding India (India he means Red Indians of america). Horse came from Europe and there was no ploughing till 1000 BC are theories floated by the west. Wendy Doniger follows suit in her book also. Read under:
By around 4000 bc western Eurasia already had its ‘Big Five’ domestic
livestock that continue to dominate today: sheep, goats, pigs, cows, and
horses. Eastern Asians domesticated four other cattle species that locally
replace cows: yaks, water buffalo, gaur, and banteng. As already mentioned,
these animals provided food, power, and clothing, while the horse
was also of incalculable military value. Why did Indians mounted on tapirs,
and native Australians mounted on kangaroos, not invade and terrorize
The answer is that, even today, it has proved possible to domesticate
only a tiny fraction of the world’s wild mammal species. This becomes
clear when one considers all the attempts that failed. Innumerable
species reached the necessary fi rst step of being kept captive as tame
pets. In New Guinea villages I routinely fi nd tamed possums and kangaroos,
while I saw tamed monkeys and weasels in Amazonian Indian villages. Ancient Egyptians had tamed gazelles, antelopes, cranes, a even hyenas and possibly giraffes. Romans were terrorized by the tamed African elephants with which Hannibal crossed the Alps (not Asian elephants, the tame elephant species in circuses today).
But all these incipient efforts at domestication failed. Since the domestication
of horses around 4000 bc and reindeer a few thousand years later, no large European mammal has been added to our repertoire of successful domesticates. Thus, our few modern species of domestic mammals were quickly winnowed from hundreds of others that had been tried and abandoned.
Why have efforts at domesticating most animal species failed? It turns out that a wild animal must possess a whole suite of unusual characteristics for domestication to succeed. Firstly, in most cases it must be a social species living in herds. A herd’s subordinate individuals have instinctive submissive behaviours that they display towards dominant individuals, and that they can transfer towards humans. Asian moufl on
sheep (the ancestors of domestic sheep) have such behaviour but North American bighorn sheep do not—a crucial difference that prevented Indians from domesticating the latter. Except for cats and ferrets, solitary territorial species have not been domesticated.
Secondly, species such as gazelles and many deer and antelopes, which instantly take fl ight at signs of danger instead of standing their ground, prove too nervous to manage. Our failure to domesticate deer is especially striking, since there are few other wild animals with which humans have been so closely associated for tens of thousands of years. Although deer have always been intensively hunted and often tamed, reindeer
alone among the world’s forty-one deer species were successfully domesticated.
Territorial behaviour, fl ight refl exes, or both eliminated the other forty species as candidates. Only reindeer had the necessary tolerance of intruders and gregarious, non-territorial behaviour.
Finally, domestication requires being able to breed an animal in captivity. As zoos often discover to their dismay, captive animals that are docile and healthy may nevertheless refuse to breed in cages. You yourself would not want to carry out a lengthy courtship and copulate under the watchful eyes of others; many animals do not want to either. This problem has derailed persistent attempts to domesticate some
potentially very valuable animals. Collectively, these reasons help explain why urasians succeeded in domesticating the Big Five but not other closely related species, and
why American Indians did not domesticate bison, peccaries, tapirs, and mountain sheep or goats.
When domesticated horses reached the Middle East around 2300 bc, onagers were fi nally kicked onto the scrapheap of failed domesticates. Horses revolutionized warfare in a way that no other animal, not even
elephants or camels, ever rivalled. Soon after their domestication, they may have enabled herdsmen speaking the fi rst Indo-European languages to begin the expansion that would eventually stamp their languages on much of the world. A few millenia later, hitched to battle chariots, horses became the unstoppable Sherman tanks of ancient war.
As a result, domestic mammals made no contribution to the protein
needs of native Australians and Americans except in the Andes, where
their contribution was still much slighter than in the Old World. No native
American or Australian mammal ever pulled a plough, cart, or war
chariot, gave milk, or bore a rider. The civilizations of the New World
limped forward on human muscle power alone, while those of the Old
World ran on the power of animal muscle, wind, and water.
Scientists still debate whether the prehistoric extinctions of most
large American and Australian mammals were due to climatic factors or
were caused by the fi rst human settlers themselves. Whichever was the
case, the extinctions may have virtually ensured that the descendants of
those fi rst settlers would be conquered over 10,000 years later by people
from Eurasia and Africa, the continents that retained most of their large
mammal species.

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Neither historical events nor cross-cultural currents can explain the unique parallels in the myths and imagery of ancient Egypt and India. Walafrid Strabo (c. 809–849) German scholar has said: "The lotus flower, sacred to Buddha and to Osiris, has five petals which symbolizes the four limbs and the head; the five senses; the five digits; and like the pyramid, the four parts of the compass and the zenith. Other esoteric meanings abound: for myths are seldom simple, and never irresponsible." Sumer from India and so did cotton. In the Akkadian tongue, Indian cotton was expressed by ideographs meaning "vegetable cloth." Assurbanipal (668-626 B.C) cultivated Indian plants including the "wool-bearing trees" of India.
According to the Skandha Purana, Egypt (Africa) was known as Sancha-dvipa continent mentioned in Sir Willliams Jones' dissertation on Egypt. At Alexandria, in Egypt, Indian scholars were a common sight.
There are similarities between place names in Bengal and Egypt and recently an Egyptian scholar, El Mansouri, has pointed out that in both Egypt and India the worship of cow, sun, snake, and river are common.
Recently, more definitive evidence suggesting contact between India and Egypt has become available: THE PICTURES WOULD CONVINCE. LEFT GANGA MATA RIGHT EGYPTIAN NILE


Col. Henry Steel Olcott, a former president of the Theosophical Society, who explained in a March, 1881 edition of The Theosophist (page 123) that: ‘"We have a right to more than suspect that India, eight thousand years ago, sent a colony of emigrants who carried their arts and high civilization into what is now known to us as Egypt...This is what Bengsch Bey, the modern as well as the most trusted Egyptologer and antiquarian says on the origin of the old Egyptians. Regarding these as a branch of the Caucasian family having a close affinity with the Indo-Germanic races, he insists that they 'migrated from India before historic memory, and crossed that bridge of nations, the Isthus of Suez, to find a new fatherland on the banks of the Nile."
Edward Pococke (1604–1691) English Orientalist says: "At the mouths of the Indus dwell a seafaring people, active, ingenious, and enterprising as when, ages subsequent to this great movement.....these people coast along the shores of Mekran, traverse the mouth of the Persian Gulf, and again adhering to the sea-board of Oman, Hadramant, and Yeman (the Eastern Arabia), they sail up the Red Sea; and again ascending mighty stream that fertilizes a land of wonders, found the kingdom of Egypt, Nubia and Abyssinia. These are the same stock that, centuries subsequently to this colonization, spread the blessings of civilization over Hellas and her islands." (source: India in Greece - By Edward Pococke p. 42).
Louis Jacolliot has written: “Egypt received from India, by Manes or Manu, its social institutions and laws, which resulted in division of the people into four castes, and placing the priest in the first rank; in the second, kings; then traders and artisans; and last in the social scale, the proletaire – the menial almost a slave.” Manu – Manes – Minos – Moses A philosopher gives political and religious institutions to India and named Manu. The Egyptian legislator receives the name of Manes.
“ It traced the course of the river, the "Great Krishna," through Cusha-dvipa, from a great lake in Chandristhan, "Country of the Moon," which it gave the correct position in relation to the Zanzibar islands. The name was from the native Unya-muezi, having the same meaning; and the map correctly mentioned another native name, Amara, applied to the district bordering Lake Victoria Nyanza.” [source: Periplus of the Erythrean Sea - W.H. Schoff p. 229-230).]
John Hanning Speke (1827-1864) – commissioned in the British Indian Army in 1844 – made the discovery that Lake Victoria was the source of the River Nile in Africa. Speke wrote that to some Indian Pundits (Hindu scholars) the Nile was known as Nila, and also as Kaali. Nila means blue and Kaali means dark – both apt descriptions for the Nile near its source. These are mentioned in several Puranas including the Bhavishaya.
Hindu trade with the Hebrews also was considerable. Soloman (1015 B.C), King of Judaea, was a great internationalist. In order to promote the trade of his land he set up a port at the head of the right arm of the Red Sea. He made his race the medium of intercourse between Phoenicians and Hindus. The port of Ophir (in Southern India) is famous in Hebrew literature for its trade in gold under Soloman. The Books of Genesis, Kings and Ezekiel indicate the nature and amount of Hindu contact with Asia Minor. It is held by Biblical scholars that the stones in the breast plate of the high priest may have come from India. The Hindus supplied also the demand of Syria for ivory and ebony. The Hebrew word, tuki (peacock), is derived from Tamil (South Indian) tokei, and ahalin (aloe) from aghil.

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The River Nile is in Africa. It originates in Burundi, south of the equator, and flows northward through northeastern Africa, eventually flowing through Egypt and finally draining into the Mediterranean Sea. Ripon Falls may be the starting-point of the river, but the many streams that flow into Lake Victoria could claim to be the true source. Much of Lake Victoria is surrounded by mountains with streams tumbling down into the lake. The largest tributary of Lake Victoria is the Kagera river. The Kagera and its tributary the Ruvubu, with its headwaters in Burundi, is now considered to be the true source of the Nile. It is from here that the Nile is measured as the world's longest river.
River the longest is still nile only: Definition of length
There are many factors, such as the source, the identification or the definition of the mouth, and the scale of measurement[1] of the river length between source and mouth, that determine the precise meaning of "river length". As a result, the length measurements of many rivers are only approximations (see also coastline paradox). In particular, there has long been disagreement as to whether the Nile or the Amazon is the world's longest river. The Nile has traditionally been considered longer, but in recent years some Brazilian and Peruvian studies have suggested that the Amazon is longer by measuring the river plus the adjacent Pará estuary and the longest connecting tidal canal
The Amazon is the world largest river; of that there is no doubt. One-fifth of the world’s entire freshwater flow is contained within the Amazon Basin. By most accounts, however, it is not the longest. That honour belongs to the Nile, at a generally accepted length of 6 650 km (4 152 mi) as compared to the Amazon’s 6 400 km (4 000 mi). If that latter figure seems somewhat vague, that’s because it is; a fact that has mostly to do with the sheer volume of the Amazon.
Despite being approximately the same length, the Amazon has a discharge rate nearly 74 times that of the Nile, and also has a much flatter profile (even 3 000 km/1 860 mi upstream, the river is only 106 m/348 ft above sea level), which means it deposits an incredible amount of sediment at its mouth. Together with the neighbouring Tocantins River (itself with a discharge rate five times that of the Nile), the mouth of the Amazon forms part of an estuary 400 km (248 mi) long and 325 km (202 mi) wide, and the massive amounts of sediment have filled the estuary over the past 100 000 years with countless fluvial islands, primarily Marajó, the world’s largest estuarial island that is by itself barely smaller than all of Switzerland. The islands in the Amazon’s mouth have served to block about 10% of the river’s water and send it around the west and southern shores of Marajó via the Pará distributary into the mouth of the Tocantins. If one considers this to be part of the Amazon system, then this adds over 350 km (200 mi) to the Amazon’s length and puts it ahead of the Nile, which has no neighboring rivers that can contribute to its delta.
A 2007 expedition along the river by a team of Brazilian scientists using Nevado Mismi as a starting base measured the Amazon at 6 800 km (4 250 mi) using the river course from Mismi all the way down to the Amazon estuary, followed by the main south channel of the Amazon estuary, then the northernmost possible branch channel that diverts into the Pará, and then the full length of the Pará and its estuary. While the same group also measured the Nile in a similar manner and extended its length to 6 695 km (4 160 mi), this would still place the Amazon in first. These findings, however, have yet to receive widespread acceptance.
Area: 3.3 million km ² more than 81,500 km² are lakes and 70,000 km² are swamps. There are ten riparian countries: Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.
Total rainfall and flow: The mean annual rainfall over the entire basin is about 2,000 billion cubic meters. The average annual flow at Aswan is about 84 billion cubic meters. Irrigated agriculture: In Egypt and Sudan, irrigated agriculture is the dominating sector. Over 5.5 million ha are under irrigation, with plans to expand an area of over 4.9 million ha. The present irrigation in the upper White Nile riparian areas is very small and there are plans for a future expansion over an area of 387,000 ha in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya. In Ethiopia, the potential identified in the Blue Nile basin includes 100,000 ha of perennial irrigation and 165,000 ha of small-scale seasonal irrigation. The other riparian countries have no potential for irrigation in the basin and depend almost completely on rain-fed agriculture.
Population: The present 280 million is expected to grow to 591 million by 2025 at an average rate of 2.5-3.0%, with an average population density of 955/1,000 ha. Poverty indicators: GINI Index (> 50%); Half the population is below the international poverty line at $1 a day.
The History of the Nile River The Nile probably gets its name form "nahal" which means "river valley" in Semitic, later "neilos" in Greek and "nilus" in Latin. (129) It is the world's longest river, stretching 95 4,187 miles from its source in the mountains of Burundi. The source of the river is so far from the Mediterranean that it took man until the middle of the 20th century to find it. For centuries, the most accurate source of knowledge on the location of this source were the writings of Herodotus (Greek Historian, 460 BC), who wrote that the Nile's source was a deep spring between two tall mountains. When Nero ordered his centurions to follow the flow of the river in order to find its source, they got no further than the impenetrable valley of the Sudd. John Henning Speke thought that he had finally found the source when he reached Lake Victoria in 1862, only to be later proven wrong and forgotten by history. In 1937, the source was finally stumbled upon by the little known German explorer Bruckhart Waldekker (127).
The Nile is formed by three tributaries, the Blue Nile, the White Nile, and the Atbara. The White Nile rises from its source in Burundi, passes through Lake Victoria, and flows into southern Sudan. There, near the capital city of Khartoum, the White Nile meets up with the Blue Nile which has its source in the Ethiopian highlands, near Lake Tana. Over 53% of the Nile's waters come from the Blue Nile. The two flow together to just north of Khartoum, where they are joined by the waters of the Atbara, whose source is also located in the Ethiopian highlands.
The river then flows north through Lake Nasser, the second largest man-made lake in the world, and the Aswan Dam before splitting into two major distributaries just north of Cairo. The two distributaries are the Rosetta branch to the west and the Dameita to the east. In ancient times, the number of distributaries was much greater, but slow water flow, human interference, and the accumulation of silt had led to the disappearance of all the other major distributaries. This has effectively led to the desertification of large stretches of Egyptian land.

All under the sun 31 K R IRS
Why are Looking-glass Images Right-Left Reversed?
Richard Gregory from MIRRORS IN MIND
This most famous mirror puzzle has confused bright people for centur ies. So, why is everything in a looking-glass right-left reversed yet not reversed up-down? For example, why does writing appear as horizontally reversed though not upside down—as ‘mirror writing’? The reader may fi nd this simply obvious. Most people, however, go through their lives without ever considering it. Once considered, it can remain a puzzle for life.
To make sure that a plane mirror is indeed optically symmetrical (updown and right-left), we may rotate it around its centre. There is no change of the image: one’s face remains upright, and right-left reversed. Words continue to be upright in ‘mirror writing’. Why should this be so? One’s first thought is likely to be that the answer lies in a ray diagram. But this can’t be—for a diagram can be held any way round. So it can not show what is vertical or horizontal. . This is just the same for an optical ray diagram: a ray diagram can not explain why a mirror reverses right-left but not up-down because it can be held any way up.
Now let’s ask: do plane mirrors always switch right and left? Let’s try a little experiment—with a match and its box. Hold a match horizontal and parallel to a vertical mirror. What happens? When the head of the match is to the right, its image is also to the right. It is not right-left reversed.
Now take the match-box and view it in the mirror. Its writing is right-left reversed. So the match and its box behave differently! Why is the match not reversed though the match-box writing is reversed? Here is a related puzzle: hold a mug with writing on it to a mirror. What do you see in the mirror? The refl ection of the handle is unchanged— but the writing is right-left reversed. Can a mirror read?!
Let’s list what seems both true and relevant:
● Writing on a transparent sheet (such as an overhead transparency) does not show reversal when held before a mirror.
● When writing on a transparent sheet is turned around (so its front and back surfaces are switched over) the image is reversed.
● An opaque sheet of writing (or a book) must be turned around to face the mirror—then the image is reversed.
● When the transparent sheet is rotated around its horizontal axis, it is vertically and not horizontally reversed.
A mirror allows us to see the back of an opaque object though we are in front of it. But to see its front, in a mirror behind it, the object must be rotated. When, say, a book is rotated around its vertical axis to face the mirror, its left and right switch over. It is this that produces mirror reversal. It is really object reversal. What happens when a book is turned around its horizontal axis to face the mirror? It then appears upside down. Because it is upside down and not right-left reversed.
Object-rotation does not produce these effects without a mirror because the front of the object gets hidden, to be replaced by its back as the object is rotated. So the mirror is necessary, though it doesn’t cause the reversal. It is necessary because without it we can’t see the front of the rotated object. A mirror shows us ourselves right-left reversed (reversed from how others see us without the mirror) because we have to turn around to face it. Normally we turn round vertically, keeping our feet on the ground. But we can face the mirror by standing on our head—then, we are upside down in the mirror and not left-right reversed. So again the reversal is rotation of the object—oneself.
N B: K R Does it look perfect and right perspective?

How much gold and silver in a cell phone? There are 0.034 grams of gold in each cell phone, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. That's the equivalent of 0.001 troy ounces, worth about $1.82 at today's prices. There are also 16 grams of copper, worth about 12 cents, 0.35 grams of silver, worth 36 cents, and 0.00034 grams of platinum, valued at 2 cents.
Uses of Silver in Electronics The number one use of silver in industry is in electronics. Silver's unsurpassed thermal and electrical conductivity among metals means it cannot easily be replaced by less expensive materials.

For example, small quantities of silver are used as contacts in electrical switches: join the contacts, and the switch is on; separate them and the switch is off. Whether turning on a bedroom light using a conventional switch or turning on a microwave using a membrane switch, the result is the same: the current can pass through only when the contacts are joined. Automobiles are full of contacts that control electronic features, and so are consumer appliances. Industrial strength switches use silver, too.
Alloying gold with other metals changes the color of the finished products (see illustration). An alloy of 75% gold, 16% silver and 9% copper yields yellow gold. White gold is an alloy of 75% gold, 4% silver, 4% copper and 17% palladium. Other alloys yield pink, green, peach and even black-colored metals.
Uses of Gold in Electronics The most important industrial use of gold is in the manufacture of electronics. Solid state electronic devices use very low voltages and currents which are easily interrupted by corrosion or tarnish at the contact points. Gold is the highly efficient conductor that can carry these tiny currents and remain free of corrosion. Electronic components made with gold are highly reliable. Gold is used in connectors, switch and relay contacts, soldered joints, connecting wires and connection strips. A small amount of gold is used in almost every sophisticated electronic device. This includes cell phones, calculators, personal digital assistants, global positioning system (GPS) units, and other small electronic devices. Most large electronic appliances such as television sets also contain gold.
2 A study authored by an Indian biologist, Sohini Chakrabortee, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has discovered that even plants have memory cells. An analysis was done over 20,000 plants after which a special protein called prions was discovered that plays an essential role of neurons to form their environmental memories.
Under certain circumstances, these proteins known as prions fold and also make other proteins present around them to fold as well. The memories are then formed by the damage caused in this folding process.
Prions also play an important role in flowering of plants. They are very much capable of keeping information stored for a long duration of time. The present study in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences makes the role of prions in plants very clear.

3 which is better –Natural or organic? What's the difference between organic and natural? Isn't "natural food" just as safe and healthy as organic food? Unfortunately, natural does not mean organic and comes with no guarantees. "Natural foods" are often assumed to be foods that are minimally processed and do not contain any hormones, antibiotics or artificial flavors. In the United States, however, neither the FDA nor the USDA has rules or regulations for products labeled "natural." As a result, food manufacturers often place a "natural" label on foods containing heavily processed ingredients. What about organic? Organic is the most heavily regulated food system. Only organic guarantees no toxic synthetic pesticides, toxic synthetic herbicides, or chemical NPK fertilizers are used in production, and no antibiotics or growth hormones are given to animals. Organic producers and processors also are subject to rigorous announced - and unannounced - certification inspections by third-party inspectors to ensure that they are producing and processing organic products in a manner you and your family can trust.
Only the “100% Organic” label guarantees the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s definition of organic. That means meat, eggs and dairy products are free of antibiotics and growth hormones; produce is grown with fertilizers free of synthetic or sewage components; and no genetically modified organisms are part of the product. But the label doesn’t necessarily mean zero pesticides or herbicides. “There isn’t much difference between organic and conventional foods, if you’re an adult and making a decision based solely on your health,” But just because food is organic doesn’t mean its production and distribution are necessarily good for the environment. The inspection process for products labeled organic often is superficial, and it is fraught with inconsistencies and potential conflicts of interest. The official USDA certificates guaranteeing that a product is organic are relatively easy to forge.
In 1954, a young Princeton university doctoral candidate named Hugh Everett III came up with a radical idea: That there exist parallel universes, exactly like our universe. These universes are all related to ours; indeed, they branch off from ours, and our universe is branched off of others. Within these parallel universes, our wars have had diferent outcomes than the ones we know. Species that are extinct in our universe have evolved and adapted in others. In other universes, we humans may have become extinct.

, Everett was attempting to answer a rather sticky question related to quantum physics: why does quantum matter behave erratically? The quantum level is the smallest one science has detected so far. The study of quantum physics began in 1900, when the physicist Max Planck first introduced the concept to the scientific world. Planck's study of radiation yielded some unusual findings that contradicted classical physical laws. These findings suggested that there are other laws at work in the universe, operating on a deeper level than the one we know.
Following his famous Theory of Relativity, Einstein spent the rest of his life looking for the one final level that would answer all physical questions. Physicists refer to this phantom theory as the Theory of Everything. Quantum physicists believe that they are on the trail of finding that final theory. But another field of physics believes that the quantum level is not the smallest level, so it therefore could not provide the Theory of Everything. These physicists turn instead to a theoretical sub quantum level called string theory for the answers to all of life. His theory says that the essential building blocks of all matter as well as all of the physical forces in the universe -- like gravity -- exist on a sub quantum level. These building block resemble tiny rubber bands - or strings - that make up quarks - quantum particles -, and in turn electrons, and atoms, and cells and so on. Exactly what kind of matter is created by the strings and how that matter behaves depends on the vibration of these strings. It is in this manner that our entire universe is composed. And according to string theory, this composition takes place across 11 separate dimensions.

According to the theory, our own universe is like a bubble that exists alongside similar parallel universes. Unlike the Many Worlds theory, String theory supposes that these universes can come into contact with one another. Gravity can flow between these parallel universes. When these universes interact, a Big Bang like the one that created our universe occurs. Einstein didn't live long enough to see his quest for the Theory of Everything taken up by others. Then again, if Many Worlds is correct, Einstein is still alive in a parallel universe. Perhaps in that universe, physicists have already found the Theory of Everything.
1 Archeological research is though going on only in a moderate phase to unveil the material evidences of Mahabharata, there are some convincing evidences emerging out because of these efforts. In Kurukshetra, the scene of the great Mahabharata war, Iron arrows and spearheads have been excavated and dated by thermoluminence to 2,800 B.C.E., the approximate date of the war given/within//the//Mahabharata//itself.
7 Akshauhinis
153,090 chariots and chariot-riders
153,090 elephants and elephant-riders
459,270 horses and horse-riders
765,450 infantry
(total 1,530,900 soldiers) 11 Akshauhinis
240,570 chariots and chariot-riders
240,570 elephants and elephant-riders
721,710 horses and horse-riders
1,202,850 infantry
(total 2,405,700 soldiers)
Casualties and losses
Almost total (1,530,900 soldiers)
only 8 known survivors:
• the five Pandavas
• Krishna
• Satyaki
• Yuyutsu Almost total (2,405,700 soldiers)
only 4 known survivors:
• Ashwatthama
• Sage Kripa
• Kritavarma
• Vrishakethu (son of Karna).

Now the center of the battle was Kurushetra; however, who said the battle was done only on a piece of land 6 Km by one Km? Jarasandha was fought in Rajgir ; even south Indian kings participated with the army as per “sanga” poems. Certain battles were done near Hastina pura; Adhichura was a spot where the Arjuna was diverted ,hard to return back till evening, when Abimanyu was killed; 2 million soldiers and utilities and specie were not hard to come when 53 plus kings participated in a world war like hence named Mahabharatha. Number of evidences are there archaeologically for the war. So exaggeration seems to be like that William Jones facts ‼!.

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