Cold Fusion vs LENR
Wet Cell Palladium vs Dry Cell Nano Particle

What is held 'In Common'?

LENR NOW (filed August 25, 2015/published March 2, 2017)
"Method for inducing an exothermic reaction in a liquid solution"

United States Patent Application - 20170062079
Kind Code A1 - Roarty; Brian P.

http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PG01&s1=lenr&OS=lenr&RS=lenr

Abstract

By preparing, enclosing in a container, and stimulating a liquid solution (light and/or heavy water forming the solvent, a silicate with Group I ionic metal, and a organometallic molecule having a siliceous ring or cage to which the Group I ions may enter as a guest, as first and second solutes), and applying electrical and photonic stimuli between conductive electrodes immersed in the solution maintained at or near the solution's boiling point, desired exothermic reactions can be induced. Preferably the first solute is soluble polyhedral silsesquioxane (`POSS`) that serves as a host to lithium ions in the solution, thereby forming a lithium silicate, which is necessary to the reaction and, after the solution is heated to within 5.degree. C. of the solution's current boiling point, a pressure release may be affected.

COLD FUSION THEN (2010/2013)
“Material surface treatment method using concurrent electrical and photonic stimulation”
http://www.google.com/patents/US20130233718
US 20130233718 A1 - Assignee - Brian P. Roarty, Carol J. Walker
Publication date: Sep 12, 2013 - Priority date: Jan 15, 2010

ABSTRACT

A material surface treatment protocol (e.g., FIG. 13) uses concurrent electronic and photonic stimulation to generate an exothermic reaction and coat the surface (e.g., FIGS. 8 and 9) of a material, such as palladium. This protocol is performed at or near the boiling point of water within a sealed vessel that prevents the escape of steam and that is lined with silica or a similar glass to increase the silica available to the reaction. The great majority of the applied energy is heat used to elevate the temperature to near the boiling point, while concurrent stimulations provide only about 100 mW of additional energy for the surface treatment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The protocol typically requires at least two hours of treatment before bursts of heat are observed. It is suspected that something must be happening to either the solution or to the electrodes in that period to facilitate the observed reaction. Lithium salts, such as lithium sulfate (Li2SO4), are used as an electrolyte in the solution. Since the reaction does not occur immediately, it is possible that the silica and the lithium in our protocol are bonding in some way before the bursts of heat are observed. In particular, the lithium may be combining with the silica compound in the solution over the time frame of the treatment protocol to form a lithium silicate, possibly Li2SiO3 (lithium metasilicate). Alternatively, since silsesquioxanes were used in the anionic silica hydride in the solution for the experiments, perhaps the lithium is either bonding to resulting siliceous cage structures or entering the center of the silica cage when that compound is used as the source of the silica.

The energy density of the reaction shown in the data log is thus 234 Joules/41.5×10−12 m3 or 5.64×103 MJ/L.

Making the worst-case assumption that the active region of the reaction has the 12.0 g/cm3 density of fully dense palladium, that converts to 470 MJ/kg.

That energy density is several times greater than molecular energy densities, thus providing further evidence that the reaction is not a molecular chemical reaction.

At the present state of the research in LENRs, it is not known whether the lithium silicate is a reactant, in which case it would be consumed in the reaction, or a catalyst, in which case it would not be consumed.

gbgoblenote - some same/some different
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