**Enhanced Gisin's Theorem: Physicists demonstrate new violations in Local Realism in Quantum Mechanics for the first time!** **Is the first time that the theorem has been generalized from pure states to mixed ones, and includes the original Gisin's theorem as a special case**"(Phys.org)—Erwin Schrödinger once famously stated that quantum entanglement is "the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics" that distinguishes it from classical theories. Now in a new paper, physicists have demonstrated a new family of entangled states that violates the principle of "local realism"—an intuitive concept that is a standard feature of classical theories, but disturbingly at odds with quantum theory.

When two objects are entangled, a measurement on one object instantly affects the state of the other, even more quickly than light could travel between them. This instantaneous action goes against our intuition that an object should be affected only by its immediate surroundings, a concept known as locality.

For years, physicists struggled to definitively answer the question of whether or not entangled states truly violate local realism—that is, do they violate either locality or realism, where realism is simply the assumption that objects exist even when they're not being observed?

Although it was long suspected that at least some entangled states violate local realism due to how they seem to instantly influence each other, it wasn't until 1991 that physicist Nicolas Gisin at the University of Geneva quantitatively demonstrated that all pure entangled states must violate local realism. This result is now known as Gisin's theorem.

In quantum mechanics, a "pure" entangled state is one that is clearly defined. However, the vast majority of entangled states are "mixed" to some degree, meaning they consist of a combination of multiple types of pure states. Although Gisin's theorem holds only for pure states, over the years physicists have extended the theorem by showing that some other types of states can also violate local realism.

In a new paper to be published in Nature Scientific Reports, Jing-Ling Chen, et al., from institutions in China and Singapore, have demonstrated that all mixed states that obey a certain steering property must violate local realism. This new family of entangled mixed states that violate local realism may lead to a better fundamental understanding of quantum correlations, as well as simplify the implementation of some quantum information protocols.

"Our enhanced Gisin's theorem is the first time that the theorem has been generalized from pure states to mixed ones, and includes the original Gisin's theorem as a special case," Chen, a physicist at Nankai University in China and the National University of Singapore, told Phys.org."

Read more at:

http://phys.org/news/2015-06-physicists-violations-local-realism.html#jCpThe study: ing-Ling Chen, et al. "Beyond Gisin's Theorem and its Applications: Violation of Local Realism by Two-Party Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering." Sci. Rep. 5, 11624;

http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.2675Image: By extending Gisin’s theorem from pure states to mixed states that obey a certain property, the results of the new paper could have applications for quantum certificate authorization protocols, like the one shown here. Credit: Chen, et al. ©2015 Nature Scientific Reports