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Helena P. Schrader
Historian, Historical Novelist, Diplomat
Historian, Historical Novelist, Diplomat
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For the first time in recorded history, mutual, voluntary and exclusive love became the ideal of a military elite. Such love, furthermore, was the component part of an ethos that swept across Europe and dominated civil society for four hundred years -- yet is largely misunderstood today. Find out more about chivalry at: http://schradershistoricalfiction.blogspot.com

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What did loyalty, cleanliness, humility and courage have in common?
They were all components of chivalry. Find out more about the secular ethos that dominated Western Europe for four hundred years -- and the warrior code that raised women from objects to lords at: http://schradershistoricalfiction.blogspot.com

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Chivalry defied definition -- even in the age of chivalry. Yet modern discussions that focus on mere manner fall very short of the mark. Find out more about an ethos that dominated secular society for more than four hundred years and the first warrior code that raised women from objects to lords at: http://schradershistoricalfiction.blogspot.com

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Some Spartan "peers" were simply "a little more equal" than others -- despite the Spartan land reforms. Read and excerpt explaining the weaknesses of the reforms from "Are They Singing in Sparta?" at: http://spartareconsidered.blogspot.com

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The Spartans referred to themselves as "peers" or "equals" because they were all holders of equal estates granted by the state. Yet, as Orwell once said of Communism (which all relied upon the "equal" distribution of wealth) some Spartans were "a little more equal" than others....
A closer look at the Spartan land reform at: http://spartareconsidered.blogspot.com
Sparta Reconsidered
Sparta Reconsidered
spartareconsidered.blogspot.com

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We don't know exactly how the Spartan land reform was implemented -- only that within a few centuries some Spartans were so impoverished they were losing their citizenship while other were extremely wealthy. Here's a glimpse of one of the things that might have contributed to this -- see http://spartareconsidered.blogspot.com
Sparta Reconsidered
Sparta Reconsidered
spartareconsidered.blogspot.com

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The Spartan land reform was intended to ensure that every citizen had the means to support himself as a hoplite and dedicate his life to a profession at arms -- but even if every man has the same amount of land, they will not all be equal because not all land is equally productive. Learn more about what this would have looked like in an excerpt from "Are They Singing in Sparta" at: http://spartareconsidered.blogspot.com

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Two incidents, an action similar to Philip IV's arrest of the Templars and a massacre that had an effect similar to 9/11 in the United States, contributed to the atmospherics that made the attack on Constantinople in 1204 possible. Find out more about the backstory to the so-called Fourth Crusade at: http://defendingcrusaderkingdoms.blogspot.com

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The Fourth Crusade, in which a host originally raised to relieve the Holy Land was instead deployed to attack and sack the Christian city of Constantinople, is usually described as an act of perfidy, barbarity and Western arrogance. Even at the time, it was highly controversial, with many of the initial crusaders, (e.g. Simon de Montfort the Elder and his sons) refusing to take part. Find out more about the "back story" to this peculiar crusade at: http://defendingcrusaderkingdoms.blogspot.com

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Venice and Byzantium: The "Back-Story to the Fourth Crusade"
The Fourth
Crusade, in which a host originally raised to relieve the Holy Land was instead
deployed to attack and sack the Christian city of Constantinople, is usually
described as an act of perfidy, barbarity and Western arrogance. Even at the
time, it was...
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