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百野京趣
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Rainbow Falls  
California, US | by Dave Toussaint

(841 x 1200)

#BridalveilFalls  #surreal  #california
#landscapephotography  #Fall
#Water  #Nature  #color  #River
#Rainbow  #colorful  #amazing
#YosemiteNationalPark  #CA
#YosemiteValley  #Interesting    
#DaveToussaint  #flickr  #explore  

Location: Bridalveil Falls, Yosemite National Park in California

Uploaded on: October 14, 2011

Camera Data
Camera: Canon EOS 60D
Exposure: 1/320 s
Aperture: ƒ5.6
Focal Length: 85.0 mm
ISO Speed: 160
Flash: Off, did not fire

Dave Toussaint’s website: 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/35213698@N08/6259425642/

File: (9-240)

(Click on slideshow to see full resolution)
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NASA Selects New Science Teams for Astrobiology Research
This image is an artist concept of an early Earth.
October 6, 2014: NASA has awarded five-year grants totaling almost $50 million to seven research teams nationwide, including one from the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, to study the origins, evolution, distribution and future of life in the universe.

"With the Curiosity rover characterizing the potential habitability of Mars, the Kepler mission discovering new planets outside our solar system, and Mars 2020 on the horizon, these research teams will provide the critical interdisciplinary expertise to help interpret data from these missions and future astrobiology-focused missions," said Jim Green, director, Planetary Science Division, at NASA Headquarters, Washington.

Average funding for each team will be approximately $8 million. The interdisciplinary teams will become members of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), headquartered at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

The selected teams are:

• NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. Team lead is Isik Kanik. Research will conduct laboratory experiments and field research in environments on Earth, such as The Cedars in Northern California, to understand the habitability of extraterrestrial icy worlds such as Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus.

• NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland. Team lead is Michael Mumma. Research will investigate one theorized source of Earth's water and the organic molecules needed for life: comets and the other small bodies in our solar system. The results of this research will inform the search for habitable environments in our solar system and habitable planets around other stars.

• NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Team lead is Scott Sandford. Research will address the chemistry that occurred to create the organic molecules that may have been brought to the early Earth by comets and other small bodies.

• The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Mountain View, California. Team lead is Nathalie Cabrol. Research will produce guiding principles to better understand where to search for life, what to search for, and how to recognize finding evidence of past or current life. The goal of the proposed research is to best prepare for NASA's Mars 2020 rover.

• The University of Colorado at Boulder. Team lead is Alexis Templeton. Research will study what scientists call "Rock-Powered Life." Rocky planets store enormous amounts of chemical energy that, when released through the interaction of rocks with water, can power living systems on Earth, as well as on other planets such as Mars.

• The University of California, Riverside. Team lead is Timothy Lyons. Research will examine the history of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and ocean between 3.2 and 0.7 billion years ago. This is a time range in which the amount of oxygen present is thought to have increased from almost nothing to the amounts present today. This work will address the question of how Earth has remained persistently inhabited through most of its dynamic history and would provide NASA exploration scientists a template to investigate the presence of habitable conditions on Mars and other planetary bodies.

• The University of Montana in Missoula. Team lead is Frank Rosenzweig. Research will look to unlock the secrets of life's transitions from small "units" conducting simple chemical reactions to self-organizing, self-reproducing, energy-gathering systems that range in complexity from single cells to ecosystems.

"The intellectual scope of astrobiology is vast, from understanding how our planet went from lifeless to living, to understanding how life has adapted to Earth's harshest environments, to exploring other worlds with the most advanced technologies to search for signs of life," said Mary Voytek, director, astrobiology program, NASA Headquarters. "The new teams cover that breadth of astrobiology, and by coming together in the NAI, they will make the connections between disciplines and organizations that stimulate fundamental scientific advances."

The seven new teams join five continuing teams at the University of Washington in Seattle; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; the University of Wisconsin, Madison; the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; and University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

For more information about the new teams, NAI, and NASA's astrobiology program, visit:

http://astrobiology.nasa.gov

+NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
+NASA Ames Research Center 
+NASA Goddard 
+SETI Institute 
+University of Colorado Boulder 
+Univ. of California, Riverside 

Credit: NASA

#NASA   #Space   #Astronomy #Astrobiology #Science   #Mars #Exoplanets #SolarSystem #Moons #Chemistry #Habitability
#Research #Life   #Exploration   #Cosmos   #Universe #Artist
#Concept #JPL   #Ames #Goddard #SETI
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Wide-field view of the Lupus 3 dark cloud
This wide-field view shows a dark cloud where new stars are forming along with cluster of brilliant stars that have already burst out of their dusty stellar nursery. This cloud is known as Lupus 3 and it lies about 600 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (The Scorpion). It is likely that the Sun formed in a similar star formation region more than four billion years ago. This view was created from images forming part of the Digitized Sky Survey 2.*

Credit: ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2
Acknowledgement: Davide De Martin

+European Southern Observatory (ESO) 

#ESO #Space #Astronomy #Stars #Stellar #Nursery #Dark #Cloud
#Lupus3 #Scorpius #Chile #Atacama #Desert #Cosmos #Universe
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Around the massive star IRS2
Color composite image of the central part of the stellar cluster RCW 38, around the young, massive star IRS2, taken with the NACO adaptive optics instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope. Thanks to this image, astronomers were able to discover that IRS2 is in fact a twin system composed of two almost equally massive stars. The astronomers also found a handful of protostars—the faintly luminous precursors to fully realised stars—and dozens of other candidate stars that have eked out an existence here despite the powerful ultraviolet light radiated by IRS2.

The image is based on near-infrared data taken through three different filters (J, H and K). The field of view is about 1 arcminute across.

Credit: European Southern Observatory (ESO)

+European Southern Observatory (ESO) 

#ESO #Space #Astronomy #Stellar #Cluster #RCW38 #Star #IRS2 #VLT #Telescope #Chile #Cosmos #Universe
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Twisted Blob Detected on The Sun | NASA SDO
The Sun today erupted with a twisted blob of plasma that was part of a coronal mass ejection blasted into space (Sept. 26, 2014). This would not appear to be directed towards Earth. These kinds of eruptions are usually caused by a disruption of powerful magnetic forces. The material seen here is ionized Helium at 60,000 degrees C. with wonderful details courtesy of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory showing the Sun in a wavelength of extreme UV light.

Credit: NASA/SDO

+NASA Goddard 
+NASA Goddard Space Weather Research Center 
+SDO | Solar Dynamics Observatory 

#NASA #Space #Solar #Sun #Plasma #CME #Coronal #Mass #Ejection #Helium #Radiation #Ultraviolet #Earth #Satellite
#Observatory #SDO
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Star formation region NGC 3582: Close-up view
This picture of the star formation region NGC 3582 was taken using the Wide Field Imager at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. The image reveals giant loops of gas ejected by dying stars that bear a striking resemblance to solar prominences. 

Credit: ESO, Digitized Sky Survey 2 and Joe DePasquale 

+European Southern Observatory (ESO) 

#ESO #Space #Astronomy #Stellar #Nursery #NGC3582 #Stars
#Cosmos #Universe #Observatory #LaSilla #Chile
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ちょっと残念な風向きでした(*ノωノ)
鴻巣市花火! 今日は仕事から帰ってギリギリセーフ(^^ゞ
自宅裏の堤防より撮りました!

#NikonD5200 #鴻巣花火 #三尺玉 #残念な煙
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NASA’s NuSTAR Telescope Discovers Shockingly Bright Dead Star Pulsar at the center of the galaxy Messier 82
A rare and mighty pulsar (pink) can be seen at the center of the galaxy Messier 82 in this new multi-wavelength portrait. NASA's NuSTAR mission discovered the "pulse" of the pulsara type of dead star—using is high-energy X-ray vision.
October 8, 2014: Astronomers have found a pulsating, dead star beaming with the energy of about 10 million suns. This is the brightest pulsar—a dense stellar remnant left over from a supernova explosion—ever recorded. The discovery was made with NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR.

"You might think of this pulsar as the 'Mighty Mouse' of stellar remnants," said Fiona Harrison, the NuSTAR principal investigator at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. "It has all the power of a black hole, but with much less mass."

The discovery appears in a new report in the Thursday Oct. 9 issue of the journal Nature. The surprising find is helping astronomers better understand mysterious sources of blinding X-rays, called ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Until now, all ULXs were thought to be black holes. The new data from NuSTAR show at least one ULX, about 12 million light-years away in the galaxy Messier 82 (M82), is actually a pulsar.

"The pulsar appears to be eating the equivalent of a black hole diet," said Harrison. "This result will help us understand how black holes gorge and grow so quickly, which is an important event in the formation of galaxies and structures in the universe."

ULXs are generally thought to be black holes feeding off companion stars -- a process called accretion. They also are suspected to be the long-sought after "medium-size" black holes – missing links between smaller, stellar-size black holes and the gargantuan ones that dominate the hearts of most galaxies. But research into the true nature of ULXs continues toward more definitive answers.
NuSTAR did not initially set out to study the two ULXs in M82. Astronomers had been observing a recent supernova in the galaxy when they serendipitously noticed pulses of bright X-rays coming from the ULX known as M82 X-2. Black holes do not pulse, but pulsars do.

Pulsars belong to a class of stars called neutron stars. Like black holes, neutron stars are the burnt-out cores of exploded stars, but puny in mass by comparison. Pulsars send out beams of radiation ranging from radio waves to ultra-high-energy gamma rays. As the star spins, these beams intercept Earth like lighthouse beacons, producing a pulsed signal.

"We took it for granted that the powerful ULXs must be massive black holes," said lead study author Matteo Bachetti, of the University of Toulouse in France. "When we first saw the pulsations in the data, we thought they must be from another source."
NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and Swift satellite also have monitored M82 to study the same supernova, and confirmed the intense X-rays of M82 X-2 were coming from a pulsar.

"Having a diverse array of telescopes in space means that they can help each other out," said Paul Hertz, director of NASA's astrophysics division in Washington. "When one telescope makes a discovery, others with complementary capabilities can be called in to investigate it at different wavelengths."

The key to NuSTAR's discovery was its sensitivity to high-energy X-rays, as well as its ability to precisely measure the timing of the signals, which allowed astronomers to measure a pulse rate of 1.37 seconds. They also measured its energy output at the equivalent of 10 million suns, or 10 times more than that observed from other X-ray pulsars. This is a big punch for something about the mass of our sun and the size of Pasadena.

How is this puny, dead star radiating so fiercely? Astronomers are not sure, but they say it is likely due to a lavish feast of the cosmic kind. As is the case with black holes, the gravity of a neutron star can pull matter off companion stars. As the matter is dragged onto the neutron star, it heats up and glows with X-rays. If the pulsar is indeed feeding off surrounding matter, it is doing so at such an extreme rate to have theorists scratching their heads.

Astronomers are planning follow-up observations with NASA's NuSTAR, Swift and Chandra spacecraft to find an explanation for the pulsar’s bizarre behavior. The NuSTAR team also will look at more ULXs, meaning they could turn up more pulsars. At this point, it is not clear whether M82 X-2 is an oddball or if more ULXs beat with the pulse of dead stars. NuSTAR, a relatively small telescope, has thrown a big loop into the mystery of black holes.

“In the news recently, we have seen that another source of unusually bright X-rays in the M82 galaxy seems to be a medium-sized black hole," said astronomer Jeanette Gladstone of the University of Alberta, Canada, who is not affiliated with the study. "Now, we find that the second source of bright X-rays in M82 isn’t a black hole at all. This is going to challenge theorists and pave the way for a new understanding of the diversity of these fascinating objects."

More information about NuSTAR is online at:
www.nasa.gov/nustar

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

+NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory 

#NASA #Space #Astronomy #Pulsar #Star   #Neutron   #Galaxy #Cigar #Messier82 #M82 #Science #Xray #Ultraluminous #ULX #Cosmos #Universe   #NuSTAR #Telescope   #JPL
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Spiral Galaxy NGC 4945
This photograph shows a sky field around the spiral galaxy NGC 4945 . It is assembled from five 15-minute R(ed)-narrowband (shown in red), four 5-minute B(lue)-band (shown in green), and five 1000-second U(ltraviolet)-band (shown in blue) exposures, obtained in January 1999 during the Science Verification phase with the Wide-Field-Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at La Silla.

At the recession velocity of NGC 4945, the red filter, centred at 665 nm with an FWHM (full width at half maximum) of only 1.2 nm, does not include the H-alpha emission line of interstellar hydrogen in this galaxy. The original resolution of about 1 arcsec corresponds to roughly 62 light-years at the distance of NGC 4945 (13 million light-years).

In addition to NGC 4945 itself, some much more distant galaxies can be recognized as faint, slightly red light patches in the field. The vast majority of the point-like sources are stars in the Milky Way. However, a fair number of those near NGC 4945 are globular clusters belonging to this galaxy. Each frame records 8184 x 8196 = 67,076,064 pixels, and thus the total number of data points (pixels) of the 14 CCD frames used to make this photo is almost 10 9. Their collective information content corresponds to more than 70 x 10 9 photons (not counting those from the Earth's upper atmosphere that were recorded simultaneously). The field covers 32 x 32 arcmin 2. East is to the left and North to the top.

Credit: European Southern Observatory (ESO)

+European Southern Observatory (ESO) 

#ESO #Space #Astronomy #Galaxy #Spiral #NGC4945 #LaSilla
#Telescope #Observatory #Chile #Cosmos #Universe
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The Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds
This picture shows an impressive Milky Way, with the Carina Nebula glowing intensely red in the middle of it. Other prominent objects in the image are the Large Magellanic Cloud at the top right and the Small Magellanic Cloud at the right of the image.

Credit: ESO/H. Stockebrand

+European Southern Observatory (ESO) 

#ESO #Space #Astronomy #Stars #MilkyWay #Nebula #Carina #Large #Small #Magellanic #Cloud #LMC #SMC #Earth #Chile #Desert #Atacama #Cosmos #Universe
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Spiral Galaxy NGC 4945
This photograph shows a sky field around the spiral galaxy NGC 4945 . It is assembled from five 15-minute R(ed)-narrowband (shown in red), four 5-minute B(lue)-band (shown in green), and five 1000-second U(ltraviolet)-band (shown in blue) exposures, obtained in January 1999 during the Science Verification phase with the Wide-Field-Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at La Silla.

At the recession velocity of NGC 4945, the red filter, centred at 665 nm with an FWHM (full width at half maximum) of only 1.2 nm, does not include the H-alpha emission line of interstellar hydrogen in this galaxy. The original resolution of about 1 arcsec corresponds to roughly 62 light-years at the distance of NGC 4945 (13 million light-years).

In addition to NGC 4945 itself, some much more distant galaxies can be recognized as faint, slightly red light patches in the field. The vast majority of the point-like sources are stars in the Milky Way. However, a fair number of those near NGC 4945 are globular clusters belonging to this galaxy. Each frame records 8184 x 8196 = 67,076,064 pixels, and thus the total number of data points (pixels) of the 14 CCD frames used to make this photo is almost 10 9. Their collective information content corresponds to more than 70 x 10 9 photons (not counting those from the Earth's upper atmosphere that were recorded simultaneously). The field covers 32 x 32 arcmin 2. East is to the left and North to the top.

Credit: European Southern Observatory (ESO)

+European Southern Observatory (ESO) 

#ESO #Space #Astronomy #Galaxy #Spiral #NGC4945 #LaSilla
#Telescope #Observatory #Chile #Cosmos #Universe
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Have them in circles
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Junichi Kumakura's profile photo
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チャンネル新・御神楽's profile photo
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