I have absolutely no doubt that he is the biggest doper in history. The reason that he almost never tested positive (and he actually did, two or three times, and they were covered up), was because for much of his career there were no tests for what he was doing. There was no EPO test prior to 2000. After that was introduced, the dopers switched to storing and re-transfusing their own blood. There is still no direct test for that, just the blood passport process which was only introduced post-2005, after Lance retired. He failed a cortisone test in 1999, which is bypassed with a backdated prescription. His samples from 1999 were later re-tested and shown to contain EPO. That could not be used against him. In another situation his 'A' sample tested positive but due to a processing error there was no 'B' sample to confirm it, so he got off. And he also failed a test at the Tour of Switzerland which was covered up, and shortly afterwards he made a large financial donation to the lab. There is direct testimony from 26 people, legally binding documentation under oath, that he was seen doping. There is just no way that he is innocent of this.