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Helena Borgman
Attended Chalmers University of Technology
Lives in Gothenburg, Sweden
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Helena Borgman

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Becoming a tree doesnt sound too bad. No more emails to answer.
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This is kinda cool 
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I can rewatch this forever.
 
Cat communication



Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, chemical and gustatory.

The communication modalities used by domestic cats have been affected by domestication.


Vocalizations

Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.

Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).

Brown et al. categorised vocal responses of cats according to the behavioural context: (1) during separation of kittens from mother cats, (2) during food deprivation, (3) during pain, (4) prior to or during threat or attack behavior, as in disputes over territory or food, (5) during a painful or acutely stressful experience, as in routine prophylactic injections and (6) during kitten deprivation. Less commonly recorded calls from mature cats included purring, conspecific greeting calls or murmurs, extended vocal dialogues between cats in separate cages, “frustration” calls during training or extinction of conditioned responses.

Miller classified vocalisations into 5 categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/snarl/hiss.


Purr

The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic cat kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.

The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partly because cats do not have a unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the vocalization. One hypothesis, supported by electromyographic studies, is that cats produce the purring noise by using the vocal folds and/or the muscles of the larynx to alternately dilate and constrict the glottis rapidly, causing air vibrations during inhalation and exhalation. Combined with the steady inhalation and exhalation as the cat breathes, a purring noise is produced with strong harmonics. Purring is sometimes accompanied by other sounds, though this varies between individuals. Some may only purr, while other cats include low level outbursts sometimes described as "lurps" or "yowps".

Domestic cats purr at varying frequencies. One study reported that domestic cats purr at average frequencies of 21.98 Hz in the egressive phase and 23.24 Hz in the ingressive phase with an overall mean of 22.6 Hz. Further research on purring in four domestic cats found that the fundamental frequency varied between 20.94 and 27.21 Hz for the egressive phase and between 23.0 and 26.09 Hz for the ingressive phase. There was considerable variation between the four cats in the relative amplitude, duration and frequency between egressive and ingressive phases, although this variation generally occurred within the normal range.

One study on a single cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) showed it purred with an average frequency of 20.87 Hz (egressive phases) and 18.32 Hz (ingressive phases). A further study on four adult cheetahs found that mean frequencies were between 19.3 Hz and 20.5 Hz in ingressive phases, and between 21.9 Hz and 23.4 Hz in egressive phases. The egressive phases were longer than ingressive phases and moreover, the amplitude was greater in the egressive phases.

It was once believed that only the cats of the genus Felis could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tigers, lions, jaguars and leopards) also produce sounds similar to purring, but only when exhaling. The subdivision of the Felidae into ‘purring cats’ on the one hand and ‘roaring cats ’ (i.e. non-purring) on the other, originally goes back to Owen (1834/1835) and was definitely introduced by Pocock (1916), based on a difference in hyoid anatomy. The ‘roaring cats’ (lion, Panthera leo; tiger, P. tigris; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus) have an incompletely ossified hyoid, which according to this theory, enables them to roar but not to purr. On the other hand, the snow leopard (Uncia uncia), as the fifth felid species with an incompletely ossified hyoid, purrs (Hemmer, 1972). All remaining species of the family Felidae (‘purring cats’) have a completely ossified hyoid which enables them to purr but not to roar. However, Weissengruber et al. (2002) argued that the ability of a cat species to purr is not affected by the anatomy of its hyoid, i.e. whether it is fully ossified or has a ligamentous epihyoid, and that, based on a technical acoustic definition of roaring, the presence of this vocalization type depends on specific characteristics of the vocal folds and an elongated vocal tract, the latter rendered possible by an incompletely ossified hyoid.





Meow

The meow is one of the most widely known vocalizations of domestic kittens. It is a call apparently used to solicit attention from the mother.

Adult cats commonly vocalise with a "meow" (or "miaow") sound, which is onomatopoeic. The meow can be assertive, plaintive, friendly, bold, welcoming, attention soliciting, demanding, or complaining. It can even be silent, where the cat opens its mouth but does not vocalize. Adult cats do not usually meow to each other and so meowing to human beings is likely to be an extension of the use by kittens.








Language differences

Different languages have correspondingly different words for the "meow" sound, including miau (Belarusian, Croatian, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, Lithuanian, Malay, German, Polish, Russian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish and Ukrainian), mnau (Czech), meong (Indonesian), niau (Ukrainian), niaou (?????, Greek), miaou (French), nya (??, Japanese), miao (?, Mandarin Chinese, Italian), miav/miao or mjav/mjau (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian), mjá (Icelandic), ya-ong (??, Korean), ????? / Miya?un_ (Urdu) and meo-meo (Vietnamese). In some languages (such as Chinese ?, mao), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.

Read more : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_communication

#cats #animals #caturday #caturdayeveryday #caturday2014 #catsrule #catsallovertheworld #catholic #catlovers #animallovers #animalphotography #catphotography #catphotos #catpictures #catpics #lol #funny #funnypics #funnypictures #funnyphotos #funnystuff #ANNIMATEDGIFS   #trendingnow   #lolcats
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Helena Borgman

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Robots are taking over!!
 
Excellent effort. I think for the time being we needn't worry about the rise of the machines. 
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detsamma happ till mig när jag försöker sparka en fot boll 
Jag skrattade högt att titta på detta. många tack!  
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Important recommendations from the Mayo Clinic or The Onion strikes again!
ROCHESTER, MN—In an effort to help working individuals improve their fitness and well-being, experts at the Mayo Clinic issued a new set of health guidelines Thursday recommending that Americans stand up at their desk, leave their office, and never ...
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+Elisabeth Schabus I will do the same, I just need to find a way to get people to give me money! Any suggestions? ;)
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Proof that morality comes naturally, and not from God to his favorite people (apes).
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Niice. I wonder if the book is included... Everything else seem to be!
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Have her in circles
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The video is a reminder for us all how lucky we are to be on the other side of the wall.
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I would have done the same!
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It's a cruel world out there which don't agree that you can joke about anything. This is a reminder that you should think twice before you share publicly!
 
“I’m single; so it’s not like I can date, because we Google everyone we might date,” she said. “That’s been taken away from me too.”
As she made the long journey from New York to South Africa, to visit family during the holidays in 2013, Justine Sacco, 30 years old and the senior director of corporate communications at IAC, began tweeting acerbic little jokes about the indignities of travel. There was one about a fellow ...
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Yes you really start to wonder what sick instinct of bullying it is that is driving these people! Is the compassion for other human beings totally gone?
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I found this funny, dont ask me why.
 
Earth surface without seas and oceans. Looks like a potato.
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a potato ...  with a black spot  in the Indian ocean --  we should remove that part before  we boil it and mash it,  or bake it and butter it, or cut it up and FRY it!  .... but then where could we sit to eat it?!
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LOL Awesome 
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Yeeee haaaaw!
 
OOPS CLOSE CALL TANDEM TRUCK LOOSES CONTROL!
#CLOSECALL   #OOPS   #DRIVECAREFUL  
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Underwear needs replacing in 4..3..2..1
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Have her in circles
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Crazy cat lady
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Managed to find the two cutest cats in the world!
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  • Chalmers University of Technology
    Electrical Engineering, 2000 - 2006
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Helena Borgman's +1's are the things they like, agree with, or want to recommend.
Subway Surfers
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¡CORRE cuanto puedas! ¡ESQUIVA los trenes que van hacia ti!Ayuda a Jake, Tricky y Fresh a escapar del gruñón inspector y su perro.★ ¡Planta

”Böcker om självhjälp ska läsas kritiskt”
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O Google Play Music torna mais fácil descobrir, reproduzir e partilhar a sua música favorita no Android e na Web.Com o nosso novo serviço Pr

Quizkampen PREMIUM
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Q U I Z K A M P E N © 2 0 1 2 / 2 0 1 4Om du gillar quizspel så kommer du älska Quizkampen - ett färgsprakande spel med 35 000+ frågor och e

Musikhjälpen
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Din musik räddar liv

Maps
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Explore new places, discover local favorites, and navigate your world with Google Maps. Available on Android phones and tablets with a simpl

How to add value in your online influencer engagement - Little Bird
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Early information, summarized well, unique perspectives, distribution. I was fortunate this week to be a guest on CXO Talk, a video podcast

Knäckig hallonpaj
danielaback.nu

Här är receptet på en god paj som jag lagade igår. Super enkel och god. Ingredienser. ca 250 gram hallon (man kan förstås använda andra bär

5 Shockingly Advanced Ancient Buildings That Shouldn't Exist
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It turns out the engineers of times past were nothing to sneer at, and some of their accomplishments make ours seem slightly embarrassing.

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New neuroimaging research suggests there is no evidence to indicate right-brained or left-brained personality traits exist.

Candy Crush Saga
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Switch and match your way through more than 100 levels in this delicious and addictive puzzle adventure. Ain't it the sweetest game ever? Pl

IMDb Movies & TV
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Search the world's largest collection: · Over 2 million movie and TV titles · Over 4 million celebrities, actors, actresses, directors and o

Sticks and Twigs
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My pants represent pretty much the entirety of the Social Trappings (this is a key term here yall) that I have to wear in order to function

WhatsApp Messenger
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WhatsApp Messenger is a smartphone messenger available for Android and other smartphones. WhatsApp uses your 3G or WiFi (when available) to

Don't name your kid Siri - CNN.com
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Sea Shepherd
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Chris Martenson - Information on the global economy, environment, and ou...
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Information, analysis, and a community for discussing the convergence of global issues facing the economy, environment, and our energy needs

Republikanska Föreningen RepF+
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Vi verkar för införandet av republik på demokratisk väg.

Iron Sky Official Theatrical Trailer
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Watch the new Official Theatrical Trailer for Iron Sky!

Sea Shepherd :: A Not so Close Encounter with a Beach Foreman
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