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Donkey Ball
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Donkey Ball
Donkey Ball

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+Coach Kevin, Pease call me back after you speak with +Licking County Sheriff's Office and #bob   #gus   #officer78  Thank you. +Coach Z - Coach Z+ https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCJT9FX3ZTZCpaFhd_NZCBxQ/channels https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=brending

51 N 3rd Street Suite 610 
Newark, OH 43055-5539 
(740) 349-8454 or toll-free (800) 410-1219

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Diet is by far the most important factor to consider when looking at a chicken’s welfare. An improper diet can affect the bird’s resilience to diseases. Other effects of improper diet can involve: egg eating, feather peaking and cannibalism (David Bland, 1996)
In order to ensure the chicken receives the proper diet there are some considerations to be made. Firstly, the age of the bird and its purpose and whether the chicken is to be slaughtered for meat, used for egg production or kept as a pet.
Complete feeds can come in mash and pellet forms. When feeding chicks, the feed give is often a mash known as chick crumb this is higher in protein to enable good growth.  When hens are of laying age, a layers feed is advised as this contains all the nutritional factors needed for healthy egg production (Laurence Beeken, 2010).
Soft shelled eggs or eggs laid without shells can often be a sign of poor nutrition and a diet lacking in calcium. Though soft shelled eggs can be a sign of calcium deficiency unless a frequent occurrence it is normal. A chicken with calcium deficiency may show no other signs of illness other than eggs lacking shells.   It is advisable to feed crushed oyster shells to these hens to increase calcium within their diet. (Esther Verhoff Aad Rijs,2007) Though crushed oyster shell, this is also known as grit. Grit does not always contain oyster shell, this is an essential part of the diet to help grind food in the birds crop for digestion (Laurence Beeken, 2010).
Drink water as with all animals is of high importance 
Further information on dietary requirement can be obtained from: http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/17469/pnw477.pdf?sequence=1 

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Ectoparasites- These parasites live on the outside of the chicken. They can survive either on the skin, in the feathers or in the coop. Ectoparasites feed of, dry skin scales, scab tissue, feather parts and blood (Choosing and keeping chickens, Chris Graham, page194).
Red Mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)
What is a Red Mite: This parasite is an arachnoid therefore related to the spider. They are nocturnal. These parasites are visible to the eye and feed on the blood of the chicken. Red mites are very common and are far from harmless. The red mite can be responsible for the spread of disease to chickens. The red mite does not stay on the chicken and will live within the coop hiding in any crevices (The complete encyclopaedia of chickens, Esther Verhoff Aad Rijs, page75.
Symptoms: Red mite can cause anaemia, a halt in egg production and if unattended death. Illness spread by red mites includes: newcastle disease, fowl cholera and avian diphtheria (Keeping Pet Chickens, Johannes Paul and William Windham, page 56.
SF
Preventing Red mite: Firstly when introducing new chickens to the hen house it is important to check and treat the chickens for parasites. The hen house itself should be as smooth as possible with little gaps for red mites to hide. The chicken house should be kept clean, bedding and sand baths should be cleaned weekly to reduce chances of the red mite living within the coop. Diatomaceous earth can be used to deter red mites, diatomaceous earth damages the exoskeleton of parasites. Diatomaceous earth can be used both on the chicken and the coop.  (Choosing and keeping chickens, Chris Graham, page194)
Treatment: There are different chemicals and treatments that can be used to kill and deter the red mite. The only way to completely be sure a red mite infestation is extinguished is by thoroughly cleaning the coop insuring all the perches and crevices are cleaned using a strong poultry-safe disinfectant.  When treating a Red mite infestation the coop and birds should be treated every three days to keep up with their reproductive cycle.
More information on Red mite can be found in websites such as:   http://www.practicalpoultryvet.co.uk/Practical%20Poultry%20Health%20Guide%20RED%20MITE.pdf
Common fowl louse- Menopon gallinae
What are common fowl lice: These lice are a common parasite found on chickens, these can be seen by eye and cause a large amount of itching. There are more than six different types of louse that can live upon chickens, most live around the cloaca. (The complete encyclopaedia of chickens, Esther Verhoff Aad Rijs, page76)
Symptoms: A lice infestation can be noticed by chickens scratching and pecking themselves causing bare patches from loss of feathers.
Preventing and treating the common fowl lice: Treating the chickens and coop with mite and lice powered regularly will both prevent and treat an infestation of fowl lice. (Keeping Pet Chickens, Johannes Paul and William Windham, page 55)

Scaly-leg mite – cnemidocoptes mutans
What is the scaly leg mite? This parasite is not visible by eye, it lives between the scales of the chickens legs. 
Symptoms- Swollen itching legs as well as scales standing out from the legs as shown in picture. White crust is formed between the leg scales made up of mite excrement. The mites can cause bleeding and difficulty walking.
Prevention – As Scaly mite can only be transmitted by chickens and not people or animals it is essential to give the hen preventative treatment before hatching any eggs. As this mite thrives in damp conditions, keeping the coop dry and well ventilated is a preventative measure.
Treatment- To treat scaly-leg mite you firstly need to remove all the scabs and crusts on the legs. To do this you will need to soak the legs using soft soap or glycerine on the legs. This will need to be absorbed into the legs over a few days. Following this carefully using a small soft brush and lukewarm water clean the legs. Finely treat the bird with scabies medication that can be obtained from your veterinarians. To prevent recurrence the hen house needs to be treated with a parasitic treatment or a good disinfectant.
(The complete encyclopaedia of chickens, Esther Verhoff Aad Rijs, page80)
http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/8162.pdf 

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Round worm-Ascaridia galli 
What is Ascaridia galli: These worms live in the small intestine and are yellowish in colour. Once the worm egg is consumed it takes thirty days for the worms to reach maturity. Worms are spread from one bird to another by eggs being discarded in faeces. Further information can be found:  http://www.canadianpoultry.ca/cms_pdfs/WORMS%20IN%20POULTRY.pdf 
(Observations on the pathogenicity and pathology of Ascaridia galli, University of Edinburgh, abstract)
Symptoms include:  Diarrhoea, weight loss, reduced growth rate, reduction in egg production, anaemia and in extreme cases intestinal blockages (Observations on the pathogenicity and pathology of Ascaridia galli, University of Edinburgh, abstract) 
Prevention: As this is only spread by chicken, any chickens being introduced to the coop should be treated for worms to prevent infestation. Removing dirty bedding and disinfecting the coop between treatments will help prevent a reoccurrence however the helminth eggs may still survive.
Treatment: There are different worm treatments that can be obtained from the vet. As helminths reach maturity every 30 days, it is advisable to treat for worms every 28 days. This reduces the chance of eggs within the environment to re-infest the chicken.
(http://www.aviagen.com/assets/Tech_Center/AA_Technical_Articles/AAServiceBulletinIntestinalWorms.pdf
Tapeworm- cestodes
What is tapeworm: These worms are segmented ribbon like worms. They attach themselves by burying their heads into the lining of the intestine. The worm eggs can be passed by an intermediate host. The host animals include: darkling beetles, earthworms, grasshoppers, house fly, ants, stable fly, slugs and snails. (http://www.flytesofancy.co.uk/chickenhouses/Worming_Poultry.html
Symptoms: Slower growth as well as anorexia can be some of the symptoms of tapeworm. Death is rare but can take place with heavy infestations.
Prevention: Ensuring the chickens cannot consume the intermediate hosts. 
Treatment: Medication can be obtained from the vet.  Maintaining a clean coop and any grounds the hens have access to, will help to  limit the spread of worm eggs (http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/disparas.htm). 
Gapeworms- Syngamus trachea
What is gapeworm: This is a round red worm that attaches to the trachea (windpipe). Gapeworm can be caught by ingestion of an intermediate host or the consumption of the worm egg coughed up by other birds such as pheasants.
Symptoms: Shaking of the head and neck stretching are common signs of gapeworm. Gasping for breath and gurgling are also symptoms but can be mistaken for respiratory infection. Suffocation and death can be caused by heavy worm infestation.
Prevention: Removing the top layer of soil each year in the coop and any area chickens have access to can help prevent gapeworm.
Treatment: Gapeworm can be both treated and prevented by administering wormer at 15-30 day intervals(http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/disparas.htm). 
Cecal Worm- Heterakis gallinae
What is cecal worm: This worm survives within the ceca. The ceca is a part of the digestive tract that links to the cloaca and the large intestine. This ceca helps in the breakdown of undigested food. This parasite is transmitted by eggs when passed through faeces (Poultry care guide, author Nutrena).
Symptoms: There are no  known visible symptoms of cecal worm however it can cause blackhead disease (Histomoniasis). 
Prevention: Treating any new birds for cecal worms before introducing them to the coop. 
Treatment: The cecal worm can be effectively treated with fenbendazole. Treatment is advised between every 15-30 days (http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/disparas.htm). 
Capillaria (Thread Worms)- Capillaria contorta
What is Capillaria: There are many species of capillaria (also known as thread worm). These survive in the lower intestine. 
Symptoms: Swelling or thickening of mucus membranes are some of the symptoms. Death can occur from large infestations of thread worm.  Capillaria can cause reduction in growth, fertility and egg production. Capillaria can erode the intestines resulting in death. 
Prevention: Prevention is much easier than treatment. Feeding drugs at low levels in water or food will reduce the risk of infection. Additional Vitamin A canalso help prevent capillaria.
Treatment:  Types of wormers can be used to treat this however egg withdrawal will be necessary as the chemicals in the wormer can affect the eggs. (http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/disparas.htm

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+Coach Kevin, Pease call me back after you speak with +Licking County Sheriff's Office and #bob   #gus   #officer78  Thank you. +Coach Z - Coach Z+ https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCJT9FX3ZTZCpaFhd_NZCBxQ/channels https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=brending

51 N 3rd Street Suite 610 
Newark, OH 43055-5539 
(740) 349-8454 or toll-free (800) 410-1219

+Coach Kevin, Pease call me back after you speak with +Licking County Sheriff's Office and #bob   #gus   #officer78  Thank you. +Coach Z - Coach Z+ https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCJT9FX3ZTZCpaFhd_NZCBxQ/channels https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=brending

51 N 3rd Street Suite 610 
Newark, OH 43055-5539 
(740) 349-8454 or toll-free (800) 410-1219

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Matt, Are you back from vaction? I spoke with +Coach Kevin at the 911@911 call center in +GoogleLocalNewark, OH today. We are planning to arrange a appointment with #bob   #randy   #selfie  What is the phone number to your legal department? http://whatisthephonenumbertoyourlegaldepartment.WordPress.com #cc  #ma.tt/brendingsupportco.html +Checked Iterators +Coach Z +Cover Feed  +American Legion Story Contact John Zarlino +csig.info@gmail.com 
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