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Scientists once again taken by surprise:

Perhaps very-young super-massive black holes (SMBHs) are evidence for galaxy formation by condensation rather than accretion as assumed, in which case  (SMBHs) should  have been formed very shortly after the Big Bang.

Following Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) when 1/4 of the primordial hydrogen had burned to form helium, the stage was set for nearly-isothermal gravitational collapse promoted by endothermic helium fission, reversing BBN with the process ending in SMBHs in the centers of gravitationally-bound proto-galaxies.
Astronomers struggle to explain how a gigantic black hole could have appeared less than a billion years after the big bang.
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Science by nuance:

Fine-tune your parameters and add variables as necessary to rescue your theory from falsification by observational evidence to the contrary.  Failing that, tack on secondary ad hoc mechanisms.
 
Small-scale challenges to the cold dark matter model                                                                                                                                                                      A collaborative of researchers from several U.S. universities has published a new paper that explains the major contradictions presented by the prevailing cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model, and proposes approaches for reconciling cosmological observations with the CDM model's predictions. The paper, titled "Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales," was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in December.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-02-small-scale-cold-dark.html#jCp                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     https://plus.google.com/101905948676786607277/posts/aNFWunaDmQu
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"When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth."

Question: 
If galactic mergers between spiral galaxies form elliptical galaxies, as is widely believed, then what happened to the original dark matter?  

Answer: 
The dark matter must have converted to stars of course, drawing the only possible conclusion that dark matter is baryonic.

So if stars condense within gravitationally-bound Bok globules within giant molecular clouds (GMCs) then maybe Bok globules and GMCs possess an invisible counterpart in galactic halos, which we'll call, 'globule clusters'.

Now if the stellar metallicity in halo Bok globules ('the coldest objects in the natural universe' at ca. 10 Kelvins) 'snows out' into icy chondrules, then it's sequestered from detection, leaving only molecular hydrogen and helium which do not absorb photons below ultraviolet frequencies, rendering halo (Bok) globules, in their gravitationally-bound clusters, dark and thus invisible.

But the globule clusters on the shallowest halo orbits to the spiral plane must spend much more time in the vicinity of stars whose radiation sublimes the most volatile components of icy chondrules, rendering Bok globules opaque and thus visible (luminous).  And not only does gaseous stellar metallicity turn invisible globules opaque, it also raises the average molecular weight of the gravitationally-bound hydrostatic gas in Bok globules, lowering the 'speed of sound' which promotes Jeans instability.  "When the free-fall time is less than the sound-crossing time [speed of sound], gravity wins, and the region undergoes gravitational collapse."  (Jeans instability--Wikipedia)

If a few Bok globules collapse into OB supergiants, maybe popping off a supernova, the whole globule cluster may go 'nuclear', converting a formerly invisible globule cluster into a luminous GMC, with its ultimate fate as an (open) star cluster.
Based on galactic rotation curves, we think that spiral galaxies are embedded in massive dark matter halos. Is the same true for elliptical galaxies? Magain and Chantry use gravitational lensing to...
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H2-CO is the tracer molecule used as a proxy for all types of stellar metallicity, simply because its infrared absorption spectra conveniently penetrates deep into dark nebulosity.

Using a tracer molecule works as long as the tracer metallicity is gaseous, but as Bok globules leave the stellar radiation of the galactic plane and move back into the halo on disk crossing halo orbits, the (tracer) stellar metallicity may 'snow out' at the bitterly-cold temperatures of Bok globules (ca. 10 Kelvins), whereupon the metallicity may become sequestered in icy chondrules, invisible to the detection, leaving behind only molecular hydrogen and helium which do not absorb below ultraviolet.

Globule Cold-Dark-Matter (CDM) Assertions:

I) Globule clusters = cold-dark-matter reservoirs of galactic halos

II) Giant molecular clouds = Bok globule clusters on shallow inclinations to the galactic plane which are in the process of succumbing to star condensation on the way to becoming open star clusters (literally the nuclear option).  So (open) star clusters are suggested to be the ultimate fate of dark matter globule clusters of galactic halos.
One important interstellar molecule has puzzled scientists for years, but a return to the basics of quantum mechanics has allowed them to understand it at last.
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Quartzite cobbles and larger boulders (> 10 in.) from the East branch of the Susquehanna River are often more highly polished than smaller rocks, and uniformly so from Harrisburg and south into New York and north.  While size progression does tend to increase upstream, the surface polish is identical, but not from primary tumbling, but from secondary induration of the surface (pressure solution/dissolution, crust, rind, patina, coating, case hardening--call it what you will).  This induration process is an additive process, building up a coating or rind, not a subtractive abrasive one.  So whatever caused the induration was the end process, i.e., smaller cobbles didn't wear down from larger boulders.  Only upon breaking of the cobble or boulder is the characteristic roughness of the quartzite matrix evident.

https://hillscloud.wordpress.com/hydrothermal-quartzite-carbonate-rock-and-schist/
 
Geophysicist teams with mathematicians to describe how river rocks round | #Geology #GeologyPage

For centuries, geologists have recognized that the rocks that line riverbeds tend to be smaller and rounder further downstream. But these experts have not agreed on the reason these patterns exist. Abrasion causes rocks to grind down and become rounder as they are transported down the river. Does this grinding reduce the size of rocks significantly, or is it that smaller rocks are simply more easily transported downstream?

Read more : http://www.geologypage.com/2014/02/geophysicist-teams-with-mathematicians.html

Geology Page
www.geologypage.com
A new study by the University of Pennsylvania's Douglas Jerolmack, working with mathematicians at Budapest University of Technology and Economics, has found that rocks traveling down a riverbed follow a distinct pattern, firs...
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The terrestrial fractionation line on the oxygen-three-isotope plot has a slope of 1/2, indicating complete fractionation, whereas CAIs and chondrules have a slope of 1, representing complete mixing..

Were chondrules droplets from larger planetesimals or planets, as suggested by the MIT and Purdue study, they would have a slope of 1 like basaltic rock from Earth.
New study says that meteorites are planetary byproduct, not the other way around.
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Added Variables:

No surprise that adding variables allows for a closer approximation, but what's that got to do with the Sun and dark matter?
New model could help settle discrepancies between theory and observational solar data
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Yes ..if gravity exerts force on both..you would expect a massive normal matter object to adhere dark matter
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And now for something completely different--baryonic dark matter reservoirs the size of giant molecular clouds:

I.   The two states of primordial dark-matter Bok globules:
     A.   Normal state: Acquired stellar luminosity has 'snowed out' into a solid phase of icy chondrules, sequestering it from detection and leaving behind only gaseous H2 & He which doesn't absorb below UV frequencies, rendering globules dark in their normal state.
     B.   Excited state: Close encounters by giant stars sublime the most-volatile stellar metallicity from icy chondrules, rendering excited Bok globules opaque, and gaseous luminosity promotes Jeans instability by raising the average molecular weight of the gas which reduces the 'sound crossing time', so globules in their opaque excited state are subject to condensing stars.

II.   Globule clusters:  Bok globules are sticky, making them tend to clump into clusters unlike star clusters which tend to dissociate over time.  Globule-globule close encounters may sometimes result in a gravitationally-bound state since globules can internally absorb energy and angular momentum, making them stickier than stellar-stellar close encounters which are highly elastic by comparison.

III.   Giant molecular clouds are globule clusters on shallow-inclination orbits to the galactic disk plane that have 'decloaked' into the excited state due to excessive exposure to stellar radiation, and are on their way to becoming gravitationally-bound star clusters.  Globule clusters on steep-inclination halo orbits spend less time crossing the disk plane and thus are less at risk to 'going nuclear'.
Finding could shed light on nature of mysterious substance
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Giant molecular clouds (nebulae) as 'decloaking' dark matter:

1) 'Reionization' as the spontaneous condensation of the H2 & He continuum (in the early universe) into gravitationally-bound 'globules'

2) Gravitational aggregation of 'sticky' globules into gravitationally-bound 'globule clusters' on disk-crossing halo orbits

3) Globule cool to become the 'coldest objects in the natural universe' (Bok globule, Wiki) and 'snow out' their absorbed stellar luminosity into icy chondrules at bitterly cold temperatures of ca. 10 Kelvins, leaving only gaseous 'invisible' H2 & He which are 'dark' below the UV frequency range.  Globule (clusters) as the reservoirs of cold dark matter in the galactic halo

4) Globule clusters in the shallowest inclination to the disk plane are at greatest risk to 'going nuclear' and converting to star clusters since stellar radiation in the disk plane can trigger star formation in Bok globules.  Stellar radiation sublimes stellar metallicity in icy chondrules within Bok globules, rendering them opaque and lowering the 'speed of sound' by raising the average molecular weight of the gaseous composition.  Jeans instability--Wiki: "when the free-fall time is less than the sound-crossing time, gravity wins, and the region undergoes gravitational collapse".  So close encounters with stars can cause dark-matter globule clusters to 'decloak' and become luminous 'giant molecular clouds' which condense stars: dark-matter globule clusters >>> star clusters.

So giant molecular clouds (nebulae) are suggested to be the transitional phase for converting dark matter into luminous matter, explaining why elliptical galaxies (formed by the mergers of 2 or more similar-sized spiral galaxies) have low dark matter concentrations if their former dark matter has converted into stars in the process of merging.  The absence of dark matter in globular clusters and the low dark matter concentration in galactic cores (the cuspy halo problem) is also explained by dark matter converting to stars in regions of high stellar density.
 
M17
Like the fury of a raging sea, this anniversary image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows a bubbly ocean of glowing hydrogen, oxygen, and sulphur gas in the extremely massive and luminous molecular nebula Messier 17. This Hubble photograph captures a small region within Messier 17 (M17), a hotbed of star formation. M17, also known as the Omega or Swan Nebula, is located about 5500 light-years away in the Sagittarius constellation. The release of this image commemorates the thirteenth anniversary of Hubble's launch on 24 April 1990. The wave-like patterns of gas have been sculpted and illuminated by a torrent of ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars (which lie outside the picture to the upper left). The glow of these patterns highlights the 3D structure of the gases. The ultraviolet radiation is carving and heating the surfaces of cold hydrogen gas clouds. The warmed surfaces glow orange and red in this image. The intense heat and pressure cause some material to stream away from the surface, creating the glowing veil of even hotter green-coloured gas that masks background structures. The pressure on the tips of the waves may trigger new star formation within them. The image, roughly 3 light-years across, was taken on 29-30 May 1999, with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The colours in the image represent various gases. Red represents sulphur; green, hydrogen; and blue, oxygen.

Credit:

European Space Agency, NASA, and J. Hester (Arizona State University)
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A Bridge Too Far:

Your material lacks nickel due to its formation mechanism, which automatically precludes its consideration as extraterrestrial by conventional science,

The bad news:  
There're billions of tons of the stuff so by the law of scarcity, it has no monetary value.

The ideology:
I suggest your material arrived as the frosting on the North American Cordillera dwarf planet landed in the North Pacific 66 million years ago, causing the K-Pg extinction even that contributed the aqueously-differentiated land mass of Far East Russia and the North American Cordillera down to and including Baja California (with Chicxulub Crater as a secondary crater in the trailing strewn field) and with the Aleutian Islands as the perimeter of the impact crater.

So although some TNO-crust material has prototypical 'fusion crust' from atmospheric ablation in Earth's atmosphere, it has no corresponding impact crater other than the Aleutian Islands and Chicxulub Crater.

While bulk-rock date testing may confirm my suspicion of its 543 million year old age, it won't make a dent in overturning all of conventional geology and solar-system astrophysics.

Question:  What do you call a theory 30 years ahead of its time?
Answer: Pseudoscience

https://hillscloud.wordpress.com/trans-neptunian-object-crust-tno-crust-meteorwrongs-2/
 
Meteorite Suspects found last October by Toni Morgan
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Three alternative mechanisms for melting of basaltic slag with chemically-reduced metallic iron in TNO-crust:

1) Temperature-mediated volatile depletion of the debris disk dust and ice may have been  severe, resulting in a low oxygen fugacity due to its significant depletion in volatile oxygen.  The oxygen fugacity was apparently at least as low as iron-wustite (IW) in the accreted debits-disk coating accreted onto trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) (where Plutinos + KBOs + SDOs = TNOs) to have formed so much metallic iron.
2) Alternatively, a thermite reaction between aluminum spherules and iron oxides could explain the formation of metallic iron in TNO-crust without the necessity of an unduly elevated oxidation state, if aluminum spherules had formed by electrical discharge (lightning) in the brown-dwarf merger itself or subsequently in the debris disk.  Then perhaps a local galvanic cell between dissimilar metals (aluminum being one) could have thermally initiated a thermite reaction.  TNO-crust melting could have occurred in accretionary masses in the debris-disk itself or subsequently in the debris-disk coating on planetesimal surfaces.  
3) Finally, perhaps very-short-lived radionuclides from binary-brown-dwarf-merger nucleosynthesis caused the melting in sufficiently-large accretionary masses or later on planetesimal surfaces.
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(Dark Matter) Cometary Globule:

This is suggested to be a gravitationally-bound 'dark matter' (Bok) globule on a disk-crossing halo orbit that 'decloaked' in the galactic plane by the intense radiation from nearby OB supergiants which have sublimed the most volatile components of its icy chondrules, rendering it temporarily opaque and thus visible.  If it survives the disk crossing without condensing any new stars, the luminous metallicity will 'snow out' at bitterly cold temperatures of around 10 Kelvins, sequestering the stellar luminosity into icy chondrules, leaving behind molecular hydrogen and helium which is invisible below the ultraviolet range and thus dark.

But this cometary globule may not survive the disk crossing since volatilized stellar metallicity lowers the speed of sound, promoting Jeans instability within densified cores.  In this way, (super)giant stars can nucleate new star formation within dark-matter Bok globules.

'Reionization' of the universe may be fossil radiation from a major phase change of the universe which occurred inside gravitationally-bound proto-galaxies, 150 million years to 1 billion years after the Big Bang, condensing the vast majority of the hydrogen and helium continuum into gravitationally-bound (Bok) globules.  Endothermic ionization of hydrogen promoted nearly-isothermal gravitational collapse in an ALMOST EXACT analogy of the endothermic ionization of hydrogen which promotes gravitational collapse inside a protostar today to form its 'second hydrostatic core' (SHSC) (Larson 1969).   Thus primordial globules are suggested to be the ALMOST EXACT equivalent of protostars today, with greater mass offsetting higher ambient temperature in the early universe.

The largest globules (300+ solar masses?) in the early universe immediately collapsed into Population III stars, the first stars in the universe.  Surviving Bok globules have cooled to become the 'coldest objects in the natural universe' because they're the oldest objects in universe.

Finally, WIMPs, axions, sterile neutrinos et al. can not explain the 'cuspy halo problem' absence of dark matter in galactic bulges and globular clusters, but globule dark matter requires it, converting to stars and luminous gas in high density regions of galaxies, and sometimes such as this in the galactic plane.

Bok globules = cold dark matter reservoirs of galactic halos
A stunning new image of the cometary globule CG4 has been obtained by a group of astronomers using ESO’s Very Large Telescope.
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Re: Forming the Solar System

I can't speak to the past, but I feel like I can hardly catch my breath today for the stifling presence of the Nice Model and Grand Tact.

I've looked at enough sectioned images of (ordinary) chondrites to know there's a complete absence of evidence for pebble accretion.  Chondrites are 100% homogenous until you get down to the little hard things, i.e. there's zero evidence for their having formed by pebble accretion of marble sized masses forming golf ball sized masses and etc.  So the only verifiable statement you can make from chondrites is that pebble accretion works great up to the size of chondrules in the inner solar system!

Pebble accretion was problematical long before the finding of hot-Jupiters, since the duration of hydrogen in the protoplanetary disk is comparatively brief.  As soon as a host star begins to shine, poof!, the most volatile components of hydrogen and helium are outta there. 

Planet migration:

Planet migration is nothing more than a secondary ad hoc mechanism to prevent the falsification of pebble accretion with the discovery of hot-Jupiters and distant giant planets that couldn't have been tossed out there by still larger planets closer in, and conveniently, planet migration is non-falsifiable, since the supposed prime mover disappears after the fact.  And get this, inward and outward planet migration are EXACT OPPOSITES!  How very convenient: mutually contradictory secondary ad hoc mechanisms that are non-falsifiable by definition!  (I'll see to it that this is the poster child for 'secondary ad hoc tinkering' under Occam's razor in Wikipedia after the calliope crashes to the ground.)

But it gets even better.  Having gotten away with the Nice Model, they took it up a notch by layering outward planet migration on top of inward planet migration.  Yeah, believe it or not, Jupiter supposedly migrates out after it migrates in and they still can't explain hot and cold cubewano populations, the late timing of a late heavy bombardment, the Kuiper cliff, the scattered disc and the doughnut-shaped inner Oort cloud begriming 1000(s) of AU from everything else.

And looking under the hood, the wheels within wheels are revealed.  To sorta, kinda explain the Oort cloud and the late heavy bombardment, we have Neptune progressively evaporating comets inward to Uranus, then Uranus evaporating them in to Saturn and Saturn in to Jupiter before Jupiter catastrophically evaporates them into the Oort cloud!

So apparently has physics devolved into supercomputer models with sufficient starting conditions and mystery mechanisms to sorta, kinda create the desired result.  And everybody bows down and says, "how wonderful".
 
Astronomy Papers That Caught My Eye In Today's arXiv

There are 52 papers today (Wednesday), not counting replacements. 

Topics: Pluto Predictions, Star Formation Observation, Forming the Solar System

Pluto Predictions http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.02848 New Horizons will arrive at Pluto this summer. What will it see. This paper looks at Atmospheric circulation, and guesses about what will be seen, and how New Horizons will detect it.

Star Formation Observation http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.02960 In the future... Euclid and SKA are two future observatories. One is radio, and the other near infrared. Both will exceed anything operating today. This paper looks at what they will be able to tell us about the nature and history of star formation in the universe.

Forming the Solar System http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.03101 This is a much covered topic. This paper is a recent look at what we know and don't know about the events 4.56 billion years ago, based on current evidence.
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