Profile

Cover photo
David Carlson
247 followers
AboutPostsPhotosVideos

Stream

David Carlson

Shared publicly  - 
 
Brown dwarf formed by primary stellar fragmentaion, not by secondary core accretion:

Consider the possibility that the brown dwarf formed by 'fragmentation' during the formation of the 'first hydrostatic core' (FHSC).  

Fragmentation occurs when a collapsing protostar has too much angular momentum to collapse into a solitary protostar and thus strands the outer layers in Keplerian orbit as the core collapses isothermally out from under it by Jeans instability in the process of forming a FHSC.  Then if the outer proto-stellar layers clump into their own gravitationally-bound Roche sphere, the mass may undergo its own Jeans instability to form a proto brown dwarf or protostar.  (The secondary fragment may itself undergo fragmention during gravitational collapse in forming its own FHSC, and in this method, multiple hierarchical star systems form by cascade fragmentation of the smallest outer stellar component which has the highest specific angular momentum.)
 
Because! Well (you already know)..
This young gas planet —presumably similar to Jupiter—orbits the star designated 'HD 100546' ...
1 comment on original post
1
Add a comment...

David Carlson

Shared publicly  - 
 
So is it in grad school where candidates learn the scientific method of appending ad hoc secondary mechanisms onto theories that become falsified by new evidence?  I'm particularly thinking of the brazen rescue of core accretion as a planet formation mechanism when it was falsified by the discovery of hot Jupiter exoplanets by appending the ad hoc secondary mechanism of 'planet migration'.  (And they had the foresight to include Type III planet migration to sidestep falsification by distant exoplanets beyond the Goldilocks zone of core accretion.)
 
I wasn’t born a scientist. And you weren’t either.
There’s a photo which keeps cropping up in my facebook feed and it bothers me. It shows a white girl, maybe three years, kissing a black boy the same age. The caption says “No one is born racist.” It’s adorable. It’s inspirational. But the problem is, it’s ...
There’s a photo which keeps cropping up in my facebook feed and it bothers me. It shows a white girl, maybe three years, kissing a black boy the same age. The caption says “No one is born racist.” It’s adorable. It’s inspirat...
24 comments on original post
1
Add a comment...

David Carlson

Shared publicly  - 
 
The dynamic duo of planet formation:
- spiral arms for rocky planets, and
- planet migration for gas giants.

When your hypothesis (core accretion) has been falsified by calculations (gas drag on dust grains, pebbles and boulders) or by observations (hot Jupiters), you can always resort to fine tuning (spiral arms) or secondary mechanisms (planet migration) to prevent its falsification and rescue your reputation.

Isn't science fun?
How did rocky planets form in our solar system? Scientists may now have an answer.
1
Add a comment...

David Carlson

Shared publicly  - 
 
SPIRAL GALAXY FORMATION BY CONDENSATION:

This section suggests that spiral galaxies 'condensed' during the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), promoted by endothermic temperature clamping in early baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). 

Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBH):
"H2 molecule photo-dissociation enforces an isothermal collapse (Shang et al. 2010; Latif et al. 2013; Agarwal et al. 2013; Yue et al. 2014)*, finally leading to the formation of a DCBH of initial mass M• ' 10^4.5−5.5M  Begelman et al. 2006; Volonteri et al. 2008; Ferrara et al. 2014), eventually growing up to 10^6−7M by accretion of the halo leftover gas."
(Pallottini et al. 2015)
These authors suggest that endothermic H2 molecule photo-dissociation promotes isothermal collapse to form intermediate-mass black holes which grow by gradual accretion to become supermassive black holes (SMBHs), whereas we suggest a much earlier collapse, during the epoch of BBN in which endothermic photodisintegration of helium promotes nearly-isothermal collapse to forming SMBHs directly, while capturing galaxy-mass halos of gravitationally-bound hydrogen and helium, designated 'proto-galaxies'.

Early baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) condensation of proto-galaxies:
BAO at the epoch of recombination in ΛCDM imprinted its signature into the sea of photons which red shifted to become the cosmic microwave background (CMB) of today in the form of anisotropies;  however, BAO occurred as early as the formation of charged particles and photons, prior to the epoch of Big Bang nucleosynthesis.  During the epoch of nucleosynthesis (BBN), some 10 seconds to 20 minutes after the Big Bang, BAO compressions of the hydrogen-helium-neutron continuum are suggested to have condensed into gravitationally-bound proto-galaxies cored with supermassive DCBHs.  Local BAO compressions raised the density and temperature above ambient, driving BBN backwards, in which photodisintegration of helium (helium fission) outpaced hydrogen fusion, endothermically clamping the temperature which allowed gravitational collapse to get the upper hand over thermal rebound.  Where local compressions created event horizons, thermal rebound was impossible, and the first permanent structures of the universe came into being.  And these supermassive DCBHs apparently held on to vast halos of gravitationally-bound matter even through the subsequent 'BBN-rebound' of the photodisintegration products, forming proto-galaxies with specific angular momentum.

Stars above 250 solar masses do not explode in supernovae, but instead collapse directly into black holes, bypassing exothermic helium fission to the still-hotter realm of endothermic photodisintegration, in which extremely energetic gamma rays are absorbed by atomic nuclei, causing them to emit a proton, neutron or alpha particle.  Endothermic photodisintegration sufficiently clamps the temperature to cause runaway gravitational collapse to the point of surrounding the core with an event horizon, sequestering the matter in a black hole.  (Photodisintegration is also responsible for p-process nucleosynthesis in supernovae.)  Stars that exist in the vacuum of interstellar space require as little as 250 solar masses to achieve photodisintegration-mediated gravitational collapse, whereas early BAO compressions existed in the thick soup of the Big Bang continuum in which the super-super-high-density inward gravitational pressure of the local BAO compression was largely negated by the super-high-pressure of the BAO rarefaction beyond, requiring vastly-greater initial masse which created vastly-larger black holes.  Thus the formation of SMBHs in the early universe are suggested to be an almost exact analogy to the death throes of stars above 250 solar masses today, with vastly-greater collapsing mass compensating for the vastly-greater background density of the early universe.

And the curvature of the BAO mediated condensation of proto-galaxies is suggested to be imprinted in the form of their specific angular momentum.  So the typical specific angular momentum of spiral galaxies is evidence that the SMBHs retained galaxy-mass gravitationally-bound halos from the initial collapse.  Much of the spherically distributed dark matter halos of spiral galaxies along with their associated dwarf galaxies (often aligned on a different axis than the spiral arms), however, may well have been gradually accreted after the initial condensation phase.  So the SMBHs of the early universe were not naked, so to speak, but surrounded gravitationally-bound masses of hydrogen and helium, whose angular momentum may have protected the SMBHs from drawing in indefinitely-larger masses of net-zero-angular-momentum hydrogen and helium from the intergalactic continuum.  The earliest proto-galaxies may have condensed the largest spiral proto-galaxies, with smaller proto-galaxies formed with ever diminishing ambient pressure from ever-increasing BAO curvature, such that later smaller condensed galaxies should also have lower specific angular momentum to the point that small irregular galaxies formed by condensation late in the epoch of BBN may simply have insufficient specific angular momentum to exhibit a spiral structure.

And thus, condensed proto-galaxies sequestered hydrogen and helium from the Big Bang continuum, substantially depleting the number of unbound baryons available to participate in BAO at the epoch of recombination when the BAO signature became frozen into the CMB in the form of BAO anisotropies.  Thus if the ratio of baryonic matter sequestered into gravitationally-bound spiral-proto-galaxies at the epoch of recombination is sufficiently close to the ratio of dark matter to total matter in today's universe, then BAO anisotropies would not preclude baryonic dark matter, and the apparent big coincidence of the ratios may be far less stringent than it appears due to the 'missing baryon problem' of ΛCDM, wherein as much as half of the baryon density of the universe can not be found.  Thus if a significant portion of the missing baryons are sequestered in dark matter globule clusters, then the apparent big coincidence may in reality be a small coincidence.

Pallottini, A.; Ferrara, A.; Pacucci, F.; Gallerani, S.; Salvadori, S.; Schneider, R.; Schaerer, D.; Sobral, D.; Matthee, J., 2015, The Brightest Lyα Emitter: Pop III or Black Hole?, MNRAS 000, 1–6 (2015).
2
Add a comment...

David Carlson

Shared publicly  - 
 
Why is Titan so different from the other moons of the solar system?  Maybe because it followed a different evolutionary path:

Jupiter and Saturn are suggested to have formed as hot Jupiters around the two components of our former binary Sun.  When the 'first hydrostatic core' of a protostar reaches about 2000 K, the molecular hydrogen begins to dissociate, which promoting runaway gravitational collapse due to the temperature-clamping (isothermal) endothermic (energy absorbing) nature of hydrogen dissociation.  Runaway collapse of the core (forming a second hydrostatic core) isolates the outer layers of the protostar which excess angular momentum, giving them a chance to coalesce into a gravitationally bound mass (within its own Roche sphere) which may undergo GI to become a proto-hot-Jupiter.  Our former binary Sun spiraled in to merge at 4,568 Ma, leaving behind their former hot Jupiters with their original (formational) angular momentum as Jupiter and Saturn.

Proto-hot-Jupiters, like protostars, may fragment (bifurcate) due to excess angular momentum, forming binary proto-planets.  If the smallest fragment itself fragments during the formation of a first hydrostatic core, it may form a ternary (triple) proto-planet.  Then secular perturbation will cause the larger two binary components to spiral in, raising the orbit of the smallest ternary component.  The former binary components of binary Saturn may have spiraled in to merge around 4,562.5 Ma, condensing CB chondrites (from polar jets from the metallic-iron core) with the large centimeter-scale chondrule size commensurate with the distance of Saturn from the Sun compared to millimeter-scale chondrules formed much closer the Sun.

Gravitationally-bound gaseous objects (within their own Roche spheres) in a warm setting will outgas (diffuse away) their most volatile components, continuously raising their 'metallicity' (all elements heavier than hydrogen and helium), which raises the speed of sound through the gravitationally-bound mass.  If the volatile diffusion causes the 'sound crossing time' to exceed the 'free-fall time', 'Jeans instability' (gravitational collapse) is the result.

Our own Earth-Moon system is suggested to have evolved identically to Saturn-Titan (with polar jets from the binary spiral-in merger of former binary Earth condensing to form enstatite chondrites which lie on the terrestrial fractionation line).  However, prior to its former ternary proto-phase Earth (and Venus) did not form as a former hot Jupiter like Saturn and Jupiter, but rather was magnetically repulsed (along with proto-Venus) inside the common envelope phase of our former binary-Sun when the binary bar-mode instability (of the merging binary cores) underwent magnetic reconnection, giving the cores something to magnetically kick backwards against, allowing them to rid themselves of sufficient remaining angular momentum to merge in a luminous red nova (LRN) at 4,568 Ma, creating a secondary debris disk from which asteroids, chondrites and Kuiper belt objects condensed.  And this magnetic repulsion kicked the gravitationally-bound masses of proto-Venus and proto-Earth out to circa 1 AU.  And the red-giant phase of the Sun immediately following its spiral-in merger accelerated the outgassing of the twin proto-planets, resulting in the severe volatile depletion of Venus, Earth and Moon.

So our Moon became severely volatile depleted although it is suggested to have formed in a very similar fashion to Titan.
 
Getting to the bottom of a Saturn moon mystery. What makes lakes on Titan? http://go.nasa.gov/1GWRBDO

Data courtesy +NASA's #Cassini  mission. #NASABeyond  
5 comments on original post
1
Add a comment...

David Carlson

Shared publicly  - 
 
Is this predictive ideology purchased at too great a coincidental cost?

Imagine globular clusters as gravitationally-bound dark matter 'GLOBULE clusters' of the early universe that went nuclear and converted to gravitationally-bound star systems.  While the largest globule clusters of our galaxy are ancient history, smaller ones still occasionally 'decloak' to become luminous 'giant molecular clouds', which in turn 'go nuclear' and condense stars to form 'star clusters'.

Dark-matter globule clusters on steeply-inclined halo orbits are normally invisible when their acquired stellar metallicity is condensed into the solid state (sequestered) of centimeter-scale 'icy chondrules.  Globule clusters on shallow inclinations to the disk plane, however, receive higher doses of stellar radiation which can cause them to 'decloak' if the stellar radiation sublimes the icy chondrules, rendering the resulting GASEOUS stellar metallicity visible.  Comets are an exact analogy of dark matter in regard to the manor in which invisible Oort cloud objects become visible comets when some of their ices are sublimed by solar radiation inside the orbit of Jupiter, causing them to sprout luminous gaseous tails. 

Thus 'giant molecular clouds' composed of gravitationally-bound clusters of gravitationally-bound Bok globules come in two versions, 
1) an invisible 'normal state' (also called 'globule clusters', and 
2) a visible 'excited state'.

And dark matter converts to stars in regions of high stellar concentrations, establishing the first PREDICTIVE ideology of dark matter.  Thus, baryonic dark matter ideology correctly predicts low dark matter concentrations in galactic cores (eliminating the 'cuspy halo problem'), globular clusters and spiral-galaxy-merger giant elliptical galaxies, whereas, non-baryonic dark matter theories require either fine tuning or secondary mechanisms to prevent their falsification.

However, baryonic dark matter requires the vast majority of the hydrogen and helium continuum to have condensed into gravitationally-bound proto-spiral-galaxies prior to the 'epoch of recombination', sequestering it from baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) which can be measured in 'CMB anisotropies'.  Thus baryonic dark matter coincidentally requires the percentage of the hydrogen and helium continuum condensed into proto-galaxies at recombination is roughly equal to the percentage of baryonic dark matter in today's universe.
 
Globular cluster Messier 10 observation using a Canon 6D and 400mm lens.
#space   #astronomy   #astrophotography  
Globular clusters have always amazed me. I'll never forget viewing Messier 13, the Hercule Cluster through my first telescope. I'll have to check my log book from the 1970's to see if it was the fi...
2 comments on original post
1
Add a comment...
In their circles
89 people
Have them in circles
247 people
Comet Jockey Dave's profile photo
ISPECTRUM MAGAZINE's profile photo
John Bluck's profile photo
Igor Harnes's profile photo
Richie Vallance's profile photo
Greg Baumgartner's profile photo
Vivax Solutions's profile photo
Clara Habel's profile photo
espen forsmo's profile photo

David Carlson

Shared publicly  - 
 
A predictive theory would guide the search for dark matter, whereas the special recipe model merely tweaks the properties or appends secondary mechanisms to sidestep another round of falsification.  Thirty plus years and we're no closer to the Colonel's secret sauce.
 
Could the Sun be trapping asymmetric dark matter? - New model could help settle discrepancies between theory and observational solar data http://ow.ly/2V3MSb
New model could help settle discrepancies between theory and observational solar data
2 comments on original post
1
David Carlson's profile photo
 
Is it possible to make an illogical leap by a zillion baby steps?
Add a comment...

David Carlson

Shared publicly  - 
 
There's noting new under the Sun:

So I'm not the first to suggest endothermic facilitated gravitational collapse can form enormous black holes independent of stars, and the process even has a name: Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBH).  (This suggests endothermic chemical-facilitated gravitational collapse, creating intermediate-mass black holes, whereas I'm suggesting earlier parasitic/endothermic pair-production/photodisintegration mechanisms for the formation of super-massive black holes, but now I see have to credit the earlier authors for the concept.)

http://xxx.tau.ac.il/pdf/1506.07173.pdf
The Brightest Lyα Emitter: Pop III or Black Hole?

"4 ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATION
Given the extreme conditions required to explain the observed properties of CR7 in terms of Pop III stars and a set of assumptions, it is worth exploring alternative interpretations.  The most appealing one involves Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBH), which is briefly discussed in S15. Highz pristine, atomic halos (Mh>∼ 10^8M) primarily cool via Lyα line emission. In the presence of an intense LymanWerner (LW, Eγ = 11.2 − 13.6 eV) irradiation, H2 molecule photo-dissociation enforces an isothermal collapse (Shang et al. 2010; Latif et al. 2013; Agarwal et al. 2013; Yue et al. 2014)*, finally leading to the formation of a DCBH of initial mass M• ' 10^4.5−5.5M  Begelman et al. 2006; Volonteri et al. 2008; Ferrara et al. 2014), eventually growing up to 10^6−7M by accretion of the halo leftover gas."
1
Add a comment...

David Carlson

Shared publicly  - 
 
The article is not explicit about the mechanism that makes Saturn appear younger than Jupiter.

Are they suggesting a relatively-recent spontaneous chemical reaction converted hydrogen to its metallic state, causing helium to 'rain out' in the mantle(?) and release its potential energy, thus warming the planet and making it appear younger?
 
Sandia’s Z machine helps solve Saturn’s 2-billion-year age gap

Planets tend to cool as they get older, but Saturn is hotter than astrophysicists say it should be without some additional energy source. Experiments at Sandia’s Z machine may help solve that problem when they verified an 80-year-old untested proposition that molecular hydrogen, normally an insulator, becomes metallic if squeezed by enough pressure.

Full story here:
https://share.sandia.gov/news/resources/news_releases/z_saturn/

More on the Z machine (Z Pulsed Power Facility):
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z_Pulsed_Power_Facility
http://www.sandia.gov/z-machine/

Image credit:  Saturn's north polar vortex and hexagon along with its expansive rings. NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute http://1.usa.gov/1LAaEXB

#science   #saturn   #hydrogen   #space   #solarsystem   #zmachine   #physics  
16 comments on original post
1
Igor Harnes's profile photoDavid Carlson's profile photo
2 comments
 
This plays into an idea of a 542 Ma Precambrian-Cambrian-transition event that conceivably might have pushed Saturn across a hydrogen-phase-transition threshold if it had been precariously balanced there for 4 billion years--that of the suggested asymmetrical spiral-in merger of a former binary-brown-dwarf (Companion to the Sun), and the asymmetrical nature of the merger gave the newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun.  Even so, it's doubtful that Saturn could have hoovered up enough mass from a young debris disk to have pushed it across any phase-transition threshold, so it's more likely that the orbital shock of Saturn falling into a lower orbit following the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun's former orbit around the former solar system barycenter (SSB) did the trick, with thermodynamic hysteresis preventing a phase-transition rebound to its former non-metallic state.

There are a number of disparate solar system phenomena which could conceivably be unified under the umbrella of a former Companion to the Sun, and its loss at 542 Ma:
- Venus' retrograde rotation and its volcanic resurfacing 400 - 500 Ma.  If Venus had been in a former synchronous orbit around the Sun prior to the loss of the centrifugal force of the Sun around the SSB, then Venus (and all the other planets and planetesimals) would have dropped lower heliocentric orbits of slightly-shorter orbital periods, causing a conserved rotational period to become greater than the orbital period, resulting in slight retrograde rotation.
- The Great Unconformity and the Cambrian Explosion on Earth.  Earth was apparently buffeted by an extreme climate for an extended duration which eroded as much as a billion year's of rock at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary worldwide, known as the Great Unconformity.  And if one of the binary-Companion pair had been a room-temperature Ys brown dwarf or smaller super-Jupiter, then the Cambrian Explosion might represent the dispersal of brown-dwarf/gas-giant lifeforms from a free-swimming supercritical-fluid environment.
- Detached objects with similar argument of perihelion. The relative major-axis alignment of detached objects like Sedna and 2012 VP113 might be explained by a relic of the former centrifugal force of the Sun around the SSB, whereas the former alignment of scattered disc objects with shorter orbital periods has dissipated by now.
- Late heavy bombardment (LHB).  If the former binary-Companion spiraled out from the Sun (by secular stellar perturbation), with an exponentially increasing period fueled by the potential energy of the binary-Companion component orbits, then by Galilean relativity, the SSB are suggested to have spiraled out through the Kuiper belt and scattered disc over a period of 4 billion years.  When the SSB crossed the semi major axis of planetesimals, the centrifugal force became greater than the gravitational attraction to the Companion, perturbing planetesimals to flip-flop, from pointing toward the Companion to pointing away from it.  The SSB crossed the 2:3 resonance (Plutinos)with Neptune (39.4 AU) at 4.22 Ga, causing a bright line initial pulse of a bimodal LHB, and then plowed through the broader Kuiper belt (cubewanos) from 4.1 to 3.8 Ga during the Hadean Eon.  The SSB reached the 1:2 resonance at 3,800 Ma, leaving the Kuiper belt and ushering in the quiescent Archean Eon.  The SSB reached the 3:1 resonance with Neptune at 2,500 Ma (which is suggested as the formal beginning of the scattered disc), where it aqueously differentiated authigenic surficial supracrustal rock, ushering in the Phanerozoic Eon noted for its supracrustal rock.
Add a comment...

David Carlson

Shared publicly  - 
 
I suggest that the Kepler 35 is a good example of how hot Jupiters (gas-giant planets) apparently migrate out from low hot orbits around their host stars.  Instead, what if the star system evolves out from under hot Jupiters?

When your goose is cooked you have two choices, either jump ship (look for alternatives) or evoke secondary mechanisms to prevent the falsification of your cherished theory, and 'planet migration' is the wheel within a wheel tacked on to 'core accretion' to keep core accretion afloat after the finding of hot Jupiters in low hot orbits falsified the theory.

Alternatively, all gas-giant planets form as hot Jupiters during the formation of the second hydrostatic core (SHSC).  When the core temperature of a protostar reaches about 2000 K, the molecular hydrogen begins to endothermically (in an energy absorbing reaction) dissociate into atomic hydrogen , clamping the temperature and promoting isothermal runaway gravitational collapse to form a SHSC.  (Larson 1969)  And if the high angular momentum outer layers of the protostar coalesce into a gravitationally-bound mass within its own Roche sphere in a Keplerian orbit around the protostar, the mass may go on to collapse and form a hot Jupiter gas-giant planet.

So the gas giant planet Kepler 35b is suggested to have formed around one of the two binary protostars followed by secular perturbation of the binary star system which tends to evaporate the lightest components outward at the expense of the orbital energy and angular momentum of the larger components in a process known as stellar core collapse.  Tidal perturbation causes the massive stellar binary pair to spiral in and transfer their orbital energy and angular momentum to lifting the orbit of the smallest component, in this case the gas giant planet Kepler 35b.  Then in the distant future when the binary stars have spiraled in and merged to form a solitary star, Kepler 35b will be orbiting at a much greater distance, perhaps 10s of AU from its host star.
 
Twin Sun Planet Kepler 35b.
7 comments on original post
2
Add a comment...

David Carlson

Shared publicly  - 
 
The ball and wooden bat warm up due to compression heating, like the solid equivalent of Charles's Law.  Heating is adiabatic and occurs (rapidly) at the rate of compression.  Decompression (rebound) reverses most of the instantaneous heating except for the inherent thermodynamic inefficiency of converting from one form of energy to another, and it's this residual inefficiency that shows up in the image.

When Lucy uses Charlie Brown's bat to hit rocks, the rocks don't similarly warm up due to the relative incomprehensibility of silicates, but the bat heats up to a much greater extent due to the lack of rebound after compression (rocks permanently dent the bat).

I suggest that a similar thing happens in icy-body meteorite impacts, where the lion's share of the incoming kinetic energy is converted to heating relatively compressible ices, which have the effect of clamping the impact shock-wave pressure below the melting point of silicates,.  And I suggest that this lack of melt rock in icy-body impacts largely masks them from detection as such: example, Nastapoka arc of lower Hudson Bay.
https://hillscloud.wordpress.com/supracrustal-rock-as-a-differentiated-debris-disk-coating-on-scattered-disc-objects/
 
The Physics of Baseball in Super Slow Motion

The Law of Conservation of Energy

This law requires the energy just before the collision of the ball and bat to be equal to the total energy afterward. Since the smashing of the ball during the collision reduces the energy available to propel the ball, it must show up somewhere. Some of the energy is converted to heat.

The infrared camera used in the video is designed to detect heat. You can see the bare skin of the batter is giving off more heat than is emitted through his clothing because the clothing appears darker. The heat created in the collision manifests as the white spots on both the bat and the ball.
http://www.hardballtimes.com/the-physics-of-baseball-in-super-slow-motion/
1 comment on original post
1
Add a comment...
People
In their circles
89 people
Have them in circles
247 people
Comet Jockey Dave's profile photo
ISPECTRUM MAGAZINE's profile photo
John Bluck's profile photo
Igor Harnes's profile photo
Richie Vallance's profile photo
Greg Baumgartner's profile photo
Vivax Solutions's profile photo
Clara Habel's profile photo
espen forsmo's profile photo
Links
Story
Tagline
Orthodoxy means not thinking.