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Todd Nickle
Professor of Biology, Mount Royal University
Professor of Biology, Mount Royal University

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Draw and number a pentose
Here's an important skill:  you should be able to draw and number a pentose sugar.  The bases are a bit harder to draw - they have all kinds of functional groups and there are two fairly different structures (purines and pyrimidines). You should for sure re...

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Hi everyone. Here's a worksheet to practice your skills with gene regulation in prokaryotes using the lac operon. You can download the worksheet as a Word document online . Here are the solutions!  You can make them larger by going right to YouTube (click i...

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The "Find the Intron" Game!
Here's a chance for you to try your hand at gene expression.  In this exercise, you're given a piece of DNA and you're told that it encodes an mRNA that has a single intron.  You need to transcribe and translate it, and you also need to use protein informat...

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Operon example from Sanders book
Prokaryotes often cluster the information for proteins involved in the same biochemical pathway all together.  Each protein is encoded by what we call and "ORF" each of which has its own start and stop codon.  The old term for an ORF was a "cistron", and fo...

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A Fusion Operon Question
What's a fusion operon?  Ask Dr. David Bird, an evil scientist who likes to test the understanding of his students regarding gene regulation by creating unholy and absurd mixtures of operons.  Well, that's overstating it, but it's a neat puzzle that is crea...

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How cool is that structure?
Today in class we were to go over the structure of DNA.  The structure is intimately linked to its function, so the base-pairing aspect is HUGE.  The fact that a string of bases on one DNA molecule can dictate the order of nucleotides on the partner molecul...

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Transcription of Genes
I'm going to try something a bit new:  I'll make the videos that usually accompany my genetics class with copyright-free images and provide the theory and context of genetics in a way that I can post online outside of our course management system. So here's...

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Translation of Genes
Now that we've got transcription under our belts, we can now look at translation.  Translation is where the information that was stored in genes (DNA) is used to create a protein.  Note that the DNA information had to be copied ( transcribed ) into a new mo...

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Operons! Elegant ... beautiful ... obvious.
This is a tricky section for a lot of reasons.  First, it's critical that students understand the functions of all the parts of genes.  The promoter is, of course, where RNA polymerase binds (see previous lectures).  The polymerase makes RNA.  In the case o...

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Bidirectional Replication
Here's a quick video (~12 min) regarding the replication fork and DNA synthesis.   It is done by Dr. Bird.
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