Despite progress in recent years, #girls continue to suffer severe disadvantage and #exclusion in #education systems throughout their lives. An estimated 31 million girls of primary school age and 34 million girls of lower secondary school age were not enrolled in school in 2011.
Sub-Saharan #Africa has the lowest proportion of countries with gender parity: only 2 out of 35 countries. Furthermore, many countries will still not have reached gender parity. On current trends, it is projected that 70 per cent of countries will have achieved parity in primary education, and 56 per cent of countries will have achieved parity in lower secondary education.
Find out more at http://buff.ly/1FPNolJ
#womenrights #equality #makeithappen
Not from Theists EVER
STEM is for girls/women too
Today we commemorate the birthday of Amalie Emmy Noether. Emmy Noether was born to a Jewish family in the Bavarian town of Erlangen; her father was mathematician Max Noether. Emmy originally planned to teach French and English after passing the required examinations, but instead studied mathematics at the University of Erlangen, where her father lectured. She is renowned for her groundbreaking contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics. She revolutionized the theories of rings, fields, and algebras, and top notch pioneers in their fields such as Pavel Alexandrov, Albert Einstein, Jean Dieudonné, Hermann Weyl, et al. described her as the most important woman in the history of mathematics.
In my opinion, in physics the most important discovery of her's is the one-to-one correspondence between continuous symmetries on one side and conserved quantities on the other side -- Noether's theorem. It is a deep physical insight whose origin and meaning became clear later in quantum mechanics, where conserved quantities generate the symmetry transformations. Now, you may have thought many a times as to what is "Energy". The answer lies in Noether's theorem. The time evolution in quantum mechanics is governed by the Hamiltonian trough the time evolution operator U= exp (iHt). Noether's theorem again show us that there is a relationship between Energy (Through the Hamiltonian) and system's time evolution. Or in other words, Noether's theorem guarantees that there's a number that's conserved whenever there's time translational symmetry, or in other words the quantity whose conservation law can be derived from the time-translation symmetry is referred to as energy. From spatial translations, one obtains the momentum; from spatial rotations, one can derive the components of the angular momentum; Galilean or Lorentz symmetries are linked to the constant velocity of the center of mass, so on and so forth. Here's a note I wrote on Noether's theorem.
Around 1915 when David Hilbert and Felix Klein wanted her to be a Privatdozent in Göttingen, there was some opposition. A female teacher would be viewed as a humiliating experience for the chauvinistic society! However, she spent four years lecturing under Hilbert's name. Her habilitation was approved in 1919, allowing her to obtain the rank of Privatdozent. Noether was an excellent teacher and never claimed credit for work she wouldn't deserve. Unfortunately one of her students, Werner Weber, later helped Adolf Hitler to get rid of her in 1933. She moved to Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania. Even there she had to face the "prevalent" male chauvinism.
Contributions and Publications by Emmy Noether: http://bit.ly/cR6pIm
A very good article on Emmy Noether from Wikipedia (This happens to be today's featured article in Wikipedia): http://bit.ly/12bhAy Noether's application for admission to the University of Erlangen and three curricula vitae. The first of these is in Emmy Noether's own handwriting (In German): http://bit.ly/9L80ip
Some memories of Noether: http://bit.ly/1eBc6UA Here's an important paper showing the importance of Noether's work: http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/9807044v2.pdf
And, here's translation of Noether's Theorems in English: http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0503066
Sadly, male chauvinism still exists in many parts of the world, because of which many potential "could be" Noether are denied education. And its a matter of shame that Noether was also a victim of sexism, like many others. In spite of that, against all odds, she made remarkable contributions in the "magnanimous" world of Mathematics, and Theoretical Physics.
Image Courtesy: Pioneering Women Of Physics http://www.perimeterinstitute.ca/news/pioneering-women-physics
#EmmyNoether #mathematics #physics #happybirthday
- Retired, presentAnd Loving It
I will challenge you with facts & figures and reasoned argument.
I will expect you to defend your position similarly.
If you do we may well just agree to differ
If you do not defend your position, or do so without facts and/or irrationality you will get the respect you have earned (i.e. none)
If you get offensive I will respond in kind with both barrels.
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