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Margaret Koyal
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The Koyal Group Info Mag on Unusual square ice discovered

The surprising discovery of "square ice" which forms at room temperature was made by an international team of researchers last week.

The study was published in Nature by a team of scientists from UK and Germany led by Andre Geim of University of Manchester and G. Algara-Siller of University of Ulm. The accompanying review article was done by Alan Soper of Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in UK.

"We didn't expect to find square ice ... We found there is something strange in terms of water going through [nanochannels]. It's going too fast. And you can't explain that by just imagining a very thin layer of liquid. Liquids do not behave in that way. The important thing to realize is that it is ice in the sense of a crystallized structure, it's not ice in the familiar sense in that it's something cold and from which you have to protect yourself," said Professor Irina Grigorieva, one of the researchers.

To study the molecular structure of water inside a transparent nanoscale capillary, the team used electron microscopy. This enabled them to view individual water molecules, especially because the nano-capillary was created from graphene which was one atom thick and would not impair the electron imaging. Graphene was also chosen because it has unusual properties like conducting electricity and extreme strength. It's a 2D form of carbon that once rolled up in cylinders will form a carbon nanotube, a material, which according to The Koyal Group Info Mag, is a subject of further study because of its unusual strength.

The scientists themselves were admittedly surprised at finding out that small square-shaped ice crystals formed at room temperature where the graphene capillaries are narrow (3 atomic layers of water at most). The water molecules formed into square lattices arranged in neat rows -- an arrangement that is uncharacteristic for the element that is known for forming consistent triangular structures inside regular ice. This discovery ( http://koyalgroupinfomag.com/blog/ ) may just be the first example of water behavior in nanostructure.

The Koyal Group Info Mag ( http://koyalgroupinfomag.com/ ) reports that scientists have been trying to understand for decades how water structure is affected when it is confined in narrow channels. It is only now that this becomes possible through computer simulations, but even with those, the results they get do not agree with each other.

The team is also trying to determine how common this square ice actually is by using computer simulations. And from what they've learned, if the water layer is thin enough, it could create a square ice regardless of the chemical properties of the nanopore's walls where it is confined. Since there is water practically everywhere -- in microscopic pores and monolayers on surfaces -- it is likely that square ice is actually very common in nature.

Aside from its more practical applications in water distillation, desalination and filtration, their finding also allows for a better understanding of how water behave at a molecular scale which is important in nanotechnology work.

#TheKoyalGroupInfoMag 

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The Koyal Group Info Mag on Unusual square ice discovered
The surprising
discovery of "square ice" which forms at room temperature was made by
an international team of researchers last week. The study was
published in Nature by a team of scientists from UK and Germany led by Andre
Geim of University of Manchester ...

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The Koyal Group Info Mag Review: Researchers May Have Solved Origin-Of-Life Conundrum
The crash of meteors on early Earth likely
generated hydrogen cyanide ,
which could have kick-started the production of biomolecules needed to make the
first cells. The origin
of life on Earth is a set of paradoxes. In order for life to have gotten
started,...

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The Koyal Group Info Mag Review: Yeti's a Bear, Say Scientists, But What Kind?
In
legend, Yeti is a huge and furry human-resembling creature also referred to as
the Abominable
Snowman , but in science, Yeti is just a bear. Now
the question is: what kind of bear? A new study, published in the journal
ZooKeys, concludes that hair sample...

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The Koyal Group Info Mag: Higgs Boson Discovered In Superconductors
 
A team of physicists from India, Israel, Germany and US reportedly detected the Higgs boson, which is believed to be the thing responsible for every mass in the universe, for the first time in superconductors. What's more, these newly-detected Higgs boson using superconductors is more stable and way cheaper to achieve. Scientists will now have an easier way to observe the Higgs boson even in ordinary laboratories.

The so-called 'God particle' was detected 3 years ago in Switzerland using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). The USD 10 billion LHC is the world's biggest single machine and the most powerful particle collider. It was primarily built for the purpose of finding the Higgs boson.

The lead researcher Professor Aviad Frydman of Bar-Ilan University said, "Just as the CERN experiments revealed the existence of the Higgs boson in a high-energy accelerator environment, we have now revealed a Higgs boson analogue in superconductors.

Proving the presence of Higgs boson is a difficult feat because it can't directly be detected and it is short-lived. Plus, a particle accelerator needs huge amounts of energy.

The energy scale used, The Koyal Group Info Mag reported, was only a thousandth of an electron volt. This is a huge contrast to the giga electron volts needed in accelerators like LHC.

However, only a particular amount of energy is required in superconductors to awake the "Higgs mode" -- too much and it will break the electron pairs that serve as the superconductor's basic charge.

To solve this, Frydman and his team used ultra-thin and disordered "superconducting films of Indium Oxide and Niobium Nitrite near the superconductor-insulator critical point". In theory, once that point is reached, the rapid decay of Higgs will not occur anymore; hence researchers can awake the Higgs mode with only low energies.

"The parallel phenomenon in superconductors occurs on a different energy scale entirely -- just one-thousandth of a single electronvolt. What's exciting is to see how, even in these highly disparate systems, the same fundamental physics is at work," said Frydman.

A superconductor is a special type of metal which allows electrons to move from one atom to another without hindrance when cooled to extremely low temperatures. That's why once it reached the so-called 'critical temperature' and becomes 'superconductive', it does not release sound, heat or any form of energy. Surprisingly, The Koyal Group Info Mag discovered that it was this property of a superconductor which inspired the concept of the Higgs boson five decades ago.

Read more articles:

http://koyalgroupinfomag.com/blog/

http://koyalgroupinfomag.com/

Post has attachment
The Koyal Group Info Mag: Higgs Boson Discovered In Superconductors
A team of physicists from India,
Israel, Germany and US reportedly detected the Higgs boson, which is believed
to be the thing responsible for every mass in the universe, for the first time
in superconductors . What's
more, these newly-detected Higgs boson ...

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The Koyal Group Info Mag Review: 48 of The The Most Important Scientific Discoveries Of 2014
It
may be 2015 already, but in 2014 we saw some truly amazing scientific discoveries . We
landed a probe on a comet, discovered new particles that further our knowledge
of the physics of the universe ,
and learned more about the properties of the wonder-mat...

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The Koyal Group Info Mag Review: Theory about the life of Professor Stephen Hawking
The
theory about everything review: Film depicting the life of Professor Stephen
Hawking IT is going to be a battle of the
boffins at the Oscars next year. Benedict Cumberbatch is a frontrunner for
playing Alan Turing in The Imitation Game and Eddie Redmayn...

Post has attachment
The Koyal Group Info Mag Review: Theory about the life of Professor Stephen Hawking
The
theory about everything review: Film depicting the life of Professor Stephen
Hawking IT is going to be a battle of the
boffins at the Oscars next year. Benedict Cumberbatch is a frontrunner for
playing Alan Turing in The Imitation Game and Eddie Redmayn...

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The Koyal Group Info Mag Review 11 Mind-Blowing Physics Discoveries Made In 2014
With the help of highly
sensitive particle detectors, some of the world’s most powerful lasers, and
good-old-fashioned quantum mechanics, physicists from around the world made
important discoveries this year. From detecting elusive
particles forged in the c...
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