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deepak gautam
Worked at vnit nagpur
Attended amravati uni
Lives in ACHALPUR DIST AMARAVATI 444806
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deepak gautam

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Bizarre fourth state of water discovered
You already know that water can have three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas. But scientists at the Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) have discovered that when it's put under extreme pressure in small spaces, the life-giving liquid can exhibit a strange fourth state known as tunneling.

The water under question was found in super-small six-sided channels in the mineral beryl, which forms the basis for the gems aquamarine and emerald. The channels measure only about five atoms across and function basically as cages that can each trap one water molecule. What the researchers found was that in this incredibly tight space, the water molecule exhibited a characteristic usually only seen at the much smaller quantum level, called tunneling.

Basically, quantum tunneling means that a particle, or in this case a molecule, can overcome a barrier and be on both sides of it at once – or anywhere between. Think of rolling a ball down one side of a hill and up another. The second hill is the barrier and the ball would only have enough energy to climb it to the height from which it was originally dropped. If the second hill was taller, the ball wouldn't be able to roll over it. That's classical physics. Quantum physics and the concept of tunneling means the ball could jump to the other side of the hill with ease or even be found inside the hill – or on both sides of the hill at once.

"In classical physics the atom cannot jump over a barrier if it does not have enough energy for this," ORNL instrument scientist Alexander Kolesnikov tells Gizmag – Kolesnikov is lead author on a paper detailing the discovery published in the April 22 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. But in the case of the beryl-trapped water his team studied, the water molecules acted according to quantum – not classical – laws of physics.

"This means that the oxygen and hydrogen atoms of the water molecule are 'delocalized' and therefore simultaneously present in all six symmetrically equivalent positions in the channel at the same time," says Kolesnikov. "It's one of those phenomena that only occur in quantum mechanics and has no parallel in our everyday experience."

By using neutron-scattering experiments, the researchers were able to see that the water molecules spread themselves into two corrugated rings, one inside the other. At the center of the ring, the hydrogen atom, which is one third of the water molecule, took on six different orientations at one time. "Tunneling among these orientations means the hydrogen atom is not located at one position, but smeared out in a ring shape," says a report in the online news journal Physics.

"This discovery represents a new fundamental understanding of the behavior of water and the way water utilizes energy," says ORNL co-author Lawrence Anovitz. "It's also interesting to think that those water molecules in your aquamarine or emerald ring – blue and green varieties of
beryl – are undergoing the same quantum tunneling we've seen in our experiments."
Because the ORNL team discovered this new property of water but not exactly why and how it works, Anovitz also says that the finding is sure to get scientists working to uncover the mechanism that leads to the phenomenon.

Kolesnikov adds that the discovery could have implications wherever water is found in extremely tight spaces such as in cell membranes or inside carbon nanotubes. The following video from ORNL provides more details on the discovery.
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deepak gautam

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Check out WhatsApp Messenger for your smartphone. Download it today from https://whatsapp.com/dl/
WhatsApp Messenger :: cross-platform mobile messaging app for iPhone, BlackBerry, Android, Windows Phone and Nokia. Send text, video, images, audio for free.
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deepak gautam

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very interesting
 
Guianan cock of the rock
These birds are found in tropical rainforests, near its preferred habitat of rocky outcrops. The males plumage is bright orange and the males have a prominent half-moon crest. The females are brownish in color, and are generally much duller colored than the males. 

During the height of the mating season, males engage in competitive displays in lek, which is a complex courting behavior that is done to attract females. Males and females live separately except when the females choose a mate. The mating success varies based on multiple factors, ranging from the plumage exhibited by a male to the composition of the lek itself. The females choose a male by flying down to the ground and pecking the male on his rump. The male then turns around and the mating takes place almost immediately

Watch:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jEuZ8aIGaHI

Know more:
http://www.oiseaux-birds.com/card-guianan-cock-of-the-rock.html

Photo via:
http://focusingonwildlife.com/news/ornithologists-map-family-tree-of-mysterious-cotinga-birds/

#biodiversity   #amazingbirds  
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The study appears in the July 17 online version of the journal Current Biology.

When an adult female mosquito needs a blood meal to feed her young, she searches for a host — often a human. Many insects, mosquitoes included, are attracted by the odor of the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas that humans and other animals naturally exhale. However, mosquitoes can also pick up other cues that signal a human is nearby. They use their vision to spot a host and thermal sensory information to detect body heat.
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I got 2646 points while escaping from a Giant Demon Monkey. Beat that! http://bit.ly/TempleRun2Android
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Air is shot at this sphere of water in Zero Gravity, showing the behavior of its surface tension.

#fluidynamics   #physics   #zerogravity  
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Hello Pluto
Earlier, the space agency released the most detailed picture yet as it hurtled towards the dwarf planet on Tuesday.
The probe was set to grab more pictures and other science data on the object, as it passed 12,500km from the surface.

Controllers got a last health status report, before the robotic craft turned its antenna away from the Earth to concentrate on its target.
Only when New Horizons has its trove of images safely in its onboard memory will it call home again.

This is not expected to happen until just after midnight (GMT) into Wednesday.

Article:
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-33524589
Reference:
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/

#nasa   #pluto   #space   #newhorizons  
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    chemistry, 1994
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