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Mertya Pujiati Rahayu
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Tarian dr Sangihe Talaud
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West Sulawesi (Mamuju) North Sulawesi (Manado) Central Sulawesi (Palu) South Sulawesi (Makassar) South East Sulawesi (Kendari) Gorontalo (Gorontalo) Largest city Makassar Demographics Population 16 million (as of 2005) Density 92 /km 2 (238 /sq mi) Ethnic groups Makassarese, Buginese, Mandar, Minahasa, Gorontalo, Toraja, Bajau, Mongondow Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes /ˈsɛlɨbiːz/ or /sɨ ˈliːbiːz/ ) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and the world's eleventh-largest island . It is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. In Indonesia, only Sumatra, Borneo, and Papua are larger in territory, and only Java and Sumatra have larger
Indonesian populations. Sulawesi has a distinctive
shape, dominated by four
large narrow peninsulas: the
north Semenanjung Minahassa; the East Peninsula; the South Peninsula; and the South-east Peninsula. Three gulfs separate these
peninsulas: Gulf of Tomini between northern Minahassa
peninsula and East Peninsula;
Tolo Gulf between East and
Southeast Peninsula; and Bone Gulf between while South and Southeast Peninsula. The Strait of Makassar runs along the western side of the island and
separates the island from
Borneo. Etymology The Portuguese were the first to refer to Sulawesi as
'Celebes'. The name 'Sulawesi'
possibly comes from the
words sula ('island') and besi
('iron') and may refer to the
historical export of iron from the rich Lake Matano iron deposits.[1] Geology According to plate reconstructions, the island is believed to have been formed
by the collision of terranes from the Asian Plate (forming the west and southwest),
from the Australian Plate (forming the southeast and Banggai), and from island arcs previously in the Pacific
(forming the north and east peninsulas).[2] Because of its tectonic origin, several faults scar the land; as a result, the
island is prone to earthquakes . The contour of the island
presents a sharp contrast,
from deep seas surrounding
the island to a mountainous
interior forming a backbone
along the narrow peninsulas. The central part of Sulawesi is
a high mountaineous area, but
mostly non-volcanic. Active
volcanoes are found in the
northern Minahassa Peninsula, continuously stretching to the
north to the Sangihe Islands. The northern peninsula
contains active volcanoes such
as Mount Lokon , Mount Awu , Soputan, and Karangetang . Prehistory See also: Prehistoric Indonesia The settlement of South
Sulawesi by modern humans
is dated to c. 30,000 BC on the
basis of radiocarbon dates
obtained from rock shelters in Maros.[3] No earlier evidence of human occupation has been
found, but the island almost
certainly formed part of the
land bridge used for the
settlement of Australia and
New Guinea by at least 40,000 BC[4] There is no evidence of Homo erectus having reached
Sulawesi; crude stone tools
first discovered in 1947 on the
right bank of the Walennae
river at Berru, which were
thought to date to the Pleistocene on the basis of
their association with vertebrate fossils, [5] are now thought to date to perhaps 50,000 BC[6] Following Bellwood's model
of a southward migration of
Austronesian-speaking farmers (AN), [7] radiocarbon dates from caves in Maros
suggest a date in the mid-
second millennium BC for the
arrival of an AN group from
east Borneo speaking a Proto-
South Sulawesi language (PSS) . Initial settlement was
probably around the mouth
of the Sa'dan river, on the
northwest coast of the
peninsula, although the south
coast has also been suggested. [8] Subsequent migrations across the mountainous
landscape resulted in the
geographical isolation of PSS
speakers and the evolution of
their languages into the eight
families of the South Sulawesi language group.[9] If each group can be said to have a
homeland, that of the Bugis – today the most numerous
group – was around lakes
Témpé and Sidénréng in the
Walennaé depression. Here for
some 2,000 years lived the
linguistic group that would become the modern Bugis; the
archaic name of this group
(which is preserved in other
local languages) was Ugiq.
Despite the fact that today
they are closely linked with the Makasar, the closest
linguistic neighbors of the
Bugis are the Toraja. Pre-1200 CE Bugis society was
organized into petty
chiefdoms, which would have
warred and, in times of peace,
exchanged women with each
other. Personal security would have been negligible, and
head-hunting an established
cultural practice. The political
economy would have been a
mixture of hunting and
gathering and swidden or shifting agriculture.
Speculative planting of wet
rice may have taken place
along the margins of the lakes
and rivers. Megalithic stone in Central Sulawesi In Central Sulawesi there are
over 400 granite megaliths, which various archaeological
studies have dated to be from
3000 BC to 1300 AD. They vary
in size from a few centimetres
to ca.4.5 metres (15 ft). The
original purpose of the megaliths is unknown. About
30 of the megaliths represent
human forms. Other megaliths
are in form of large pots
(Kalamba) and stone plates (Tutu'na).[10][11] History 'Padjogé' dancers in Maros, Sulawesi, in the 1870s. Starting in the 13th century,
access to prestige trade goods
and to sources of iron started
to alter long-standing cultural
patterns, and to permit
ambitious individuals to build larger political units. It is not
known why these two
ingredients appeared
together; one was perhaps the
product of the other. By 1400,
a number of nascent agricultural principalities had
arisen in the western Cenrana
valley, as well as on the south
coast and on the east coast near modern Parepare.[12] The first Europeans to visit the
island (which they believed to
be an archipelago due to its
contorted shape) were
Portuguese sailors in 1525, sent
from the Moluccas in search of gold, which the islands had
the reputation of producing. [13] The Dutch arrived in 1605 and were quickly followed by
the English, who established a factory in Makassar. [14] From 1660, the Dutch were at war
with Gowa , the major Makasar west coast power. In
1669, Admiral Speelman
forced the ruler, Sultan
Hasanuddin, to sign the Treaty of Bongaya , which handed control of trade to the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch were aided in their conquest
by the Bugis warlord Arung
Palakka, ruler of the Bugis
kingdom of Bone. The Dutch
built a fort at Ujung Pandang,
while Arung Palakka became the regional overlord and
Bone the dominant kingdom.
Political and cultural
development seems to have
slowed as a result of the
status quo. In 1905 the entire island became part of the
Dutch state colony of the Netherlands East Indies until Japanese occupation in World War II. During the Indonesian National Revolution , the Dutch Captain 'Turk' Westerling murdered at least 4,000 people during the South Sulawesi Campaign .[15] Following the transfer of
sovereignty in December 1949,
Sulawesi became part of the federal United States of
Indonesia, which in 1950 became absorbed into the unitary Republic of Indonesia . [16] Central Sulawesi The Portuguese were
rumoured to have a fort in
Parigi in 1555 (Balinese of
Parigi, Central Sulawesi (Davis
1976), however she gives no
source). The Kaili were an important group based in the
Palu valley and related to the Toraja. Scholars relate[citation needed] that their control swayed under Ternate and
Makassar but this in reality
seems to be a decision by the
Dutch to give their vassals a
chance to govern a difficult
group. Padbruge commented that in the 1700 Kaili numbers
were significant and a highly
militant society. In the 1850s a
war erupted between the
Kaili groups including the
Banawa in which the Dutch decide to intervene. A
complex conflict also
involving the Sulu island
pirates and probably
Wyndham (a British merchant
who commented on being involved in arms dealing to
the area in this period and
causing a row). In the late 19th century the
Sarasins journeyed through
the Palu valley as part of a
major initiative to bring the
Kaili under Dutch rule. Some
very surprising and interesting photographs were
taken of shamen called
Tadulako. Further Christian
religious missions entered the
area to make one of the most
detailed ethnographic studies in the early 20th century
(Kruyt & Adriani). A Swede
by the name of Walter
Kaudern later studied much of
the literature and produced a
synthesis. Erskine Downs in the 1950s produced a
summary of Kruyts and
Andrianis work: The religion
of the Bare'e-speaking Toradja
of Central Celebes which is
invaluable for English speaking researchers. One of
the most recent publications is
When the bones are left: a
study of the material culture
of central Sulawesi Eija-Maija
Kotilainen – History – 1992. This too offers some excellent
analysis. Also worthy of
study is the brilliant works of
Monnig Atkinson on the Wana
shamen who live in the Mori
area. Religious conflict Sulawesi has been plagued by
Muslim-Christian violence in
recent years. The most serious
violence occurred between
1999 and 2001 on the once
peaceful island, with heavy involvement of Islamist militias such as Laskar Jihad. Over 1,000 people were killed
in violence, riots, and ethnic
cleansing that ripped through Central Sulawesi. [17] The Malino II Accord was made in 2001. However, this did not
eradicate the violence. In the
following years, tension and
systematic attacks persisted. [18] In 2003, 13 Christian villagers were killed in the Poso District by unknown masked gunmen. And in 2005 three Christian schoolgirls
were beheaded in Poso by Islamic militants. A
message next to one of the
heads allegedly read: "A life
for a life. A head for a head". [19] Riots erupted again in
September 2006 in Christian
dominated areas of Central
Sulawesi, as well as other part
of Indonesia, after the execution by firing squad of Fabianus Tibo, Dominggus da Silva and Marinus Riwu, three
Catholics convicted of leading
Christian militants during the
violence of the early first
decade of the 21st century.
Their supporters claimed that Muslims who participated in
the violence received very
light sentences and that none
were sentenced to death, and
that the government used a double standard.[20] The riots appeared to be aimed at
government authorities, not Muslims.[20] Geography Sulawesi is the world's eleventh-largest island , covering an area of 174,600 km2 (67,413 sq mi). The island is surrounded by Borneo to the west, by the Philippines to the north, by Maluku to the east, and by Flores and Timor to the south. It has a
distinctive shape, dominated
by four large peninsulas: the Semenanjung Minahassa; the East Peninsula; the South Peninsula; and the South-east Peninsula. The central part of the island is ruggedly
mountainous, such that the
island's peninsulas have
traditionally been remote
from each other, with better
connections by sea than by road. Three bays dominate the
island: Gulf of Tomini, Tolo Gulf, and Bone Gulf, while the Strait of Makassar runs the western side of the island. Minor islands Selayar Islands make up a peninsula stretching
southwards from Southwest
Sulawesi into the Flores Sea are administratively part of
Sulawesi. The Sangihe Islands and Talaud Islands stretch northward from the
northeastern tip, while Buton Island justs southeast, Togian Islands are in the Gulf of Tomini, and Peleng Island and Banggai Islands form a cluster between Sulawesi and Maluku. All the above mentioned islands are
administratively part of
Sulawesi. Administration The island is subdivided into
six provinces: Gorontalo, West Sulawesi , South Sulawesi , Central Sulawesi , Southeast Sulawesi , and North Sulawesi . West Sulawesi is a new
province, created in 2004 from
part of South Sulawesi. The
largest cities on the island are Makassar, Manado, Palu, Kendari. Provin ce Area in Popula tion (2010 Census ) Densit y per South Sulawes i 46,717. 48 8,032, 551 171.9
West Sulawes i 16,787. 18 1,158, 336 69.0 Central Sulawes i 61,841. 29 2,633, 420 42.6 Southea st Sulawes i 38,067. 70 2,230, 569 58.6 Goronta lo 12,215. 44 1,038, 585 85.0 North Sulawes i 13,851. 64 2,265, 937 163.6 Sulawe si 189,480. 73 17,359, 398 91.6 City Provin ce contai ning city Popula tion (2010 Census ) Makassa r South Sulawes i 1,339, 374 Manado North Sulawes i 408,354 Palu Central Sulawes i 335,297 Kendari Southea st Sulawes i 289,468 Goronta lo Goronta lo 179,991 Flora and fauna Nomorhamphus liemi female in an aquarium; there are at least 19 species of Nomorhamphus, most of which are only found on Sulawesi. Sulawesi is part of Wallacea, meaning that it has a mix of
both Asian and Australasian
species. There are 8 national parks on the island, of which 4 are mostly marine. The parks with the largest terrestrial
area are Bogani Nani Wartabone with 2,871 km² and Lore Lindu National Park with 2,290 km². Bunaken National Park which protects a rich coral ecosystem has been
proposed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. There are 127 known
mammalian species in
Sulawesi. A large percentage
of these mammals, 62% (79
species) are endemic, meaning that they are found nowhere
else in Indonesia or the world.
The largest native mammals in
Sulawesi are the two species
of anoa or dwarf buffalo. Other mammalian species
inhabiting Sulawesi are the babirusas, which are aberrant pigs, the Sulawesi palm civet , and primates including a
number of tarsiers (the spectral, Dian's, Lariang and pygmy species) and several species of macaque, including the crested black macaque , the moor macaque and the booted macaque. Although virtually all Sulawesi's mammals are placental, and generally have close relatives in Asia, several
species of cuscus, marsupials of Australasian origin, also
occur. By contrast, because many
birds can fly between islands,
Sulawesian bird species tend
to be found on other nearby
islands as well, such as Borneo; 34% of Sulawesi's birds are
found nowhere else. One
endemic bird is the largely
ground-dwelling, chicken-
sized Maleo, a megapode which uses hot sand close to
the island's volcanic vents to
incubate its eggs. There are
around 400 known bird
species in Sulawesi. An
international partnership of conservationists, donors, and
local people have formed the
Alliance for Tompotika Conservation, [21] in an effort to raise awareness and protect
the nesting grounds of these
birds on the central-eastern
arm of the island. The Ornate Lorikeet is endemic to Sulawesi. Sulawesi also has several
endemic species of freshwater fish, such as those in the genus Nomorhamphus, a species flock of livebearing freshwater halfbeaks containing at least 19 distinct
species, most of which are only found on Sulawesi. [22] [23] There are also many species of
freshwater shrimp that are
endemic to Sulawesi. Several
of these species have become
very popular in the aquarium
hobby. Several of these shrimp species are found only
in specific lakes in Sulawesi,
making them even more rare. [24] Orange Delight Shrimp from Sulawesi. Some freshwater snails are also endemic to Sulawesi. [25] Due to the small habitat and
unique environment it is
critical that all freshwater
species from Sulawesi be
conserved properly. An
expedition was conducted by Mimbon Aquarium to the
island of Sulawesi to
document and collect some of
the species of fish, shrimp and
snails mentioned. There are
several photos of the landscape, underwater habitat
and some of the collected
specimens from the expedition journal. [26] The island was recently the
subject of an Ecoregional
Conservation Assessment,
coordinated by The Nature Conservancy . Detailed reports about the vegetation of the island are available. [27] The assessment produced a
detailed and annotated list of
'conservation portfolio' sites.
This information was widely
distributed to local
government agencies and nongovernmental
organizations. Detailed
conservation priorities have
also been outlined in a recent publication.[28] The lowland forests on the
island have mostly been removed. [29] Because of the relative geological youth of
the island and its dramatic and
sharp topography, the
lowland areas are naturally
limited in their extent. The
past decade has seen dramatic conversion of this rare and
endangered habitat. The island
also possesses one of the
largest outcrops of serpentine soil in the world, which support an unusual and large
community of specialized
plant species. Overall, the flora
and fauna of this unique
center of global biodiversity is
very poorly documented and understood and remains
critically threatened. Environment The largest environmental
issue in Sulawesi is
deforestation. In 2007,
scientists found that 80
percent of Sulawesi's forest
had been lost or degraded, especially centered in the
lowlands and the mangroves. [30] Forests have been felled for logging and large
agricultural projects. Loss of
forest has resulted in many of
Sulawesi's endemic species
becoming endangered. In
addition 99 percent of Sulawesi's wetlands have
been lost or damaged. Other environmental threats
included bushmeat hunting and mining.[31] Parks The island of Sulawesi has six
national parks and nineteen
nature reserves. In addition,
Sulawesi has three marine
protected areas. Many of
Sulawesi's parks are threatened by logging,
mining, and deforestation for agriculture.[31] Population The 2000 census population of
the provinces of Sulawesi was
14,946,488, about 7.25% of
Indonesia's total population. [32] By the 2010 Census the total had reached 17,359,416.
The largest city is Makassar. Religion Circumcision ceremony, Gorontalo, North Sulawesi. Islam is the majority religion in Sulawesi. The conversion of
the lowlands of the south
western peninsula (South
Sulawesi) to Islam occurred in
the early 17th century. The
kingdom of Luwu in the Gulf of Bone was the first to accept
Islam in February 1605; the
Makassar kingdom of Goa-
Talloq, centered on the
modern-day city of Makassar, followed suit in September. [33] However, the Gorontalo and the Mongondow peoples
of the northern peninsula
largely converted to Islam
only in the 19th century. Most
Muslims are Sunnis. Christians form a substantial minority on the island.
According to the demographer Toby Alice Volkman, 17% of Sulawesi's
population is Protestant and less than 2% is Roman Catholic. Christians are concentrated on
the tip of the northern
peninsula around the city of Manado, which is inhabited by the Minahasa, a predominantly Protestant people, and the
northernmost Sangir and Talaud Islands. The famous Toraja people of Tana Toraja in Central Sulawesi have largely
converted to Christianity since
Indonesia's independence.
There are also substantial
numbers of Christians around Lake Poso in Central Sulawesi, among the Pamona speaking peoples of Central Sulawesi,
and near Mamasa. There has
also been growth in the
Christian population of the Banggai Islands and the Eastern Peninsula in Central
Sulawesi, traditionally
thought of as Muslim areas. Though most people identify
themselves as Muslims or
Christians, they often
subscribe to local beliefs and
deities as well. It is not
uncommon for Christians to make offerings to local gods,
goddesses, and spirits. Smaller communities of Buddhists and Hindus are also found on Sulawesi, usually
among the Chinese, Balinese and Indian communities.
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Salam kenal buat teman semua
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